Quality management assignment
In this file, you can ref useful information about quality management assignment such as quality
management assignmentforms, tools for quality management assignment, quality management
assignmentstrategies … If you need more assistant for quality management assignment, please
leave your comment at the end of file.
Other useful material for quality management assignment:
I. Contents of quality management assignment
Benchmarking: Benchmarking is a process of comparing operations and performance
with other successful organizations or high performance. It involves identifying other
high performance organizations, groups or individuals and then systematically comparing
them to ones own ways of doing things.
Business process reengineering: Reengineering is a systematic and complete analysis of
work processes and the design of better ones for ones own organization. Reengineering
is concerned with redesigning processes and focusing the entire system on meeting
customer needs and expectations.
Continuous quality improvement: ‘Good is not good enough; there is always a scope
to be better’ – keeping this adage in mind, TQM entails continuous quality improvement.
Anything can be improved, always. TQM is not a not-shot activity; it is continuous,
it keeps on going, it never stops – it is an unending process. With a long –term focus,
quality improvement becomes an everyday activity. In order to strengthen competitive
advantage in the market, organizations must endeavor to continuously improve quality
of products and services which results in cost-savings and an increase in market share
because of a reputation for having a quality product or service.
Cost of quality: It refers to the total cost in achieving quality of product and service.
They are the direct costs and invisible costs unnecessarily incurred by an organization.
Customer satisfaction: Customer satisfaction, a business term, is a measure of how
products and services supplied by a company meet or surpass customer expectation. It is
seen as a key performance indicator within business and is part of the four perspectives
of a Scorecard. In a competitive marketplace where businesses compete for customers,
customer satisfaction is seen as a key differentiator and increasingly has become a key
element of business strategy. There is a substantial body of empirical literature that
establishes the benefits of customer satisfaction for firms.
Employee empowerment: It means placing the authority to make critical decisions with
those closest to the problem, for example, those in the work area directly affected.
Employee involvement: The degree to which employees share information, knowledge,
rewards and power throughout the organization active in decisions previously outside
their control, power to influence decisions, knowledge sharing
Globalization: Globalization in its literal sense is the process of transformation of local
or regional phenomena into global ones. It can be described as a process by which the
people of the world are unified into a single society and function together. This process is
a combination of economic, technological, sociocultural and political forces.
Just-in-time: It’s an important part of TQM system. In a TQM organization it
concentrates on cost and time and provides a management philosophy that stresses adding
value and reducing waste while continuously improving.
Management philosophy: Philosophy refers to the most general beliefs, concepts and
attitudes of an individual group. TQM is often viewed as a philosophy of management or
a guiding set of principles that allows someone to manage better. So a sharp difference
exists between traditional management philosophy and TQM philosophy.
Monitoring process variation: It’s an important element of TQM. It is a series of
actions that leads to a particular result, occurs when there is a deviation from standards,
which invariably affects reliability and quality of products or services.
Organizational restructuring: Organizations are human systems and their system
structure includes the worldview, beliefs, and mental models of their leaders and
members. Changing organizational behavior requires changing the belief system of
its personnel. This process of changing beliefs is called learning. Effective learning
requires clear, open communications throughout the organization. Organizational
performance ultimately rests on human behavior and improving performance requires
changing behavior. Therefore organizational restructuring should have as a fundamental
goal the facilitation of clear, open communication that can enable organizational learning
and clarify accountability for results.
Paradigm shift: It is a change in a model or pattern that has been nearly universally
accepted. For example, a change in consumer buying habits from buying airline tickets
through travel agents to buying them over the Internet would be a paradigm shift.
Participative management: An open form of management where employees have a
strong decision-making role. Participative management is developed by managers who
actively seek a strong cooperative relationship with their employees. The advantages of
participative management include increased productivity, improved quality, and reduced
PDCA cycle: The Shewart cycle, used for problem solving or continuous process
improvement, is shown as PDCA cycle. In PDCA cycle, P stands for Plan, D for Do, C
for Check and A for act. It provides managers with a scientific method for learning how
to make improvements.
Preventive maintenance: It means keeping property and equipment in a good state of
repair so as to minimize the need for more costly major repair work or replacement. The
life of a system can be prolonged through continual preventive maintenance.
Quality: Quality is traditionally considered as the conformance of a product or service to
its specifications, features and performance. In other wards quality is what customer says.
Quality culture: Organizations have to be free from cultural impediments or so to say
organizational inertia. It means that TQM demands quality culture which should consists
of values, tradition, procedures, and expectations that promote quality.
III. Quality management tools
1. Check sheet
The check sheet is a form (document) used to collect data
in real time at the location where the data is generated.
The data it captures can be quantitative or qualitative.
When the information is quantitative, the check sheet is
sometimes called a tally sheet.
The defining characteristic of a check sheet is that data
are recorded by making marks ("checks") on it. A typical
check sheet is divided into regions, and marks made in
different regions have different significance. Data are
read by observing the location and number of marks on
Check sheets typically employ a heading that answers the
Who filled out the check sheet
What was collected (what each check represents,
an identifying batch or lot number)
Where the collection took place (facility, room,
When the collection took place (hour, shift, day
of the week)
Why the data were collected
2. Control chart
Control charts, also known as Shewhart charts
(after Walter A. Shewhart) or process-behavior
charts, in statistical process control are tools used
to determine if a manufacturing or business
process is in a state of statistical control.
If analysis of the control chart indicates that the
process is currently under control (i.e., is stable,
with variation only coming from sources common
to the process), then no corrections or changes to
process control parameters are needed or desired.
In addition, data from the process can be used to
predict the future performance of the process. If
the chart indicates that the monitored process is
not in control, analysis of the chart can help
determine the sources of variation, as this will
result in degraded process performance. A
process that is stable but operating outside of
desired (specification) limits (e.g., scrap rates
may be in statistical control but above desired
limits) needs to be improved through a deliberate
effort to understand the causes of current
performance and fundamentally improve the
The control chart is one of the seven basic tools of
quality control. Typically control charts are
used for time-series data, though they can be used
for data that have logical comparability (i.e. you
want to compare samples that were taken all at
the same time, or the performance of different
individuals), however the type of chart used to do
this requires consideration.
3. Pareto chart
A Pareto chart, named after Vilfredo Pareto, is a type
of chart that contains both bars and a line graph, where
individual values are represented in descending order
by bars, and the cumulative total is represented by the
The left vertical axis is the frequency of occurrence,
but it can alternatively represent cost or another
important unit of measure. The right vertical axis is
the cumulative percentage of the total number of
occurrences, total cost, or total of the particular unit of
measure. Because the reasons are in decreasing order,
the cumulative function is a concave function. To take
the example above, in order to lower the amount of
late arrivals by 78%, it is sufficient to solve the first
The purpose of the Pareto chart is to highlight the
most important among a (typically large) set of
factors. In quality control, it often represents the most
common sources of defects, the highest occurring type
of defect, or the most frequent reasons for customer
complaints, and so on. Wilkinson (2006) devised an
algorithm for producing statistically based acceptance
limits (similar to confidence intervals) for each bar in
the Pareto chart.
4. Scatter plot Method
A scatter plot, scatterplot, or scattergraph is a type of
mathematical diagram using Cartesian coordinates to
display values for two variables for a set of data.
The data is displayed as a collection of points, each
having the value of one variable determining the position
on the horizontal axis and the value of the other variable
determining the position on the vertical axis. This kind
of plot is also called a scatter chart, scattergram, scatter
diagram, or scatter graph.
A scatter plot is used when a variable exists that is under
the control of the experimenter. If a parameter exists that
is systematically incremented and/or decremented by the
other, it is called the control parameter or independent
variable and is customarily plotted along the horizontal
axis. The measured or dependent variable is customarily
plotted along the vertical axis. If no dependent variable
exists, either type of variable can be plotted on either axis
and a scatter plot will illustrate only the degree of
correlation (not causation) between two variables.
A scatter plot can suggest various kinds of correlations
between variables with a certain confidence interval. For
example, weight and height, weight would be on x axis
and height would be on the y axis. Correlations may be
positive (rising), negative (falling), or null (uncorrelated).
If the pattern of dots slopes from lower left to upper right,
it suggests a positive correlation between the variables
being studied. If the pattern of dots slopes from upper left
to lower right, it suggests a negative correlation. A line of
best fit (alternatively called 'trendline') can be drawn in
order to study the correlation between the variables. An
equation for the correlation between the variables can be
determined by established best-fit procedures. For a linear
correlation, the best-fit procedure is known as linear
regression and is guaranteed to generate a correct solution
in a finite time. No universal best-fit procedure is
guaranteed to generate a correct solution for arbitrary
relationships. A scatter plot is also very useful when we
wish to see how two comparable data sets agree with each
other. In this case, an identity line, i.e., a y=x line, or an
1:1 line, is often drawn as a reference. The more the two
data sets agree, the more the scatters tend to concentrate in
the vicinity of the identity line; if the two data sets are
numerically identical, the scatters fall on the identity line
Ishikawa diagrams (also called fishbone diagrams,
herringbone diagrams, cause-and-effect diagrams, or
Fishikawa) are causal diagrams created by Kaoru
Ishikawa (1968) that show the causes of a specific
event. Common uses of the Ishikawa diagram are
product design and quality defect prevention, to identify
potential factors causing an overall effect. Each cause or
reason for imperfection is a source of variation. Causes
are usually grouped into major categories to identify these
sources of variation. The categories typically include
People: Anyone involved with the process
Methods: How the process is performed and the
specific requirements for doing it, such as policies,
procedures, rules, regulations and laws
Machines: Any equipment, computers, tools, etc.
required to accomplish the job
Materials: Raw materials, parts, pens, paper, etc.
used to produce the final product
Measurements: Data generated from the process
that are used to evaluate its quality
Environment: The conditions, such as location,
time, temperature, and culture in which the process
6. Histogram method
A histogram is a graphical representation of the
distribution of data. It is an estimate of the probability
distribution of a continuous variable (quantitative
variable) and was first introduced by Karl Pearson. To
construct a histogram, the first step is to "bin" the range of
values -- that is, divide the entire range of values into a
series of small intervals -- and then count how many
values fall into each interval. A rectangle is drawn with
height proportional to the count and width equal to the bin
size, so that rectangles abut each other. A histogram may
also be normalized displaying relative frequencies. It then
shows the proportion of cases that fall into each of several
categories, with the sum of the heights equaling 1. The
bins are usually specified as consecutive, non-overlapping
intervals of a variable. The bins (intervals) must be
adjacent, and usually equal size. The rectangles of a
histogram are drawn so that they touch each other to
indicate that the original variable is continuous.
III. Other topics related to Quality management assignment (pdf download)
quality management systems
quality management courses
quality management tools
iso 9001 quality management system
quality management process
quality management system example
quality system management
quality management techniques
quality management standards
quality management policy
quality management strategy
quality management books