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Explain how quality management can be measured
In this file, you can ref useful information about explain how quality mana...
common cause variation could be the water used (water from the bar spigot vs. water from the
kitchen faucet). A special ca...
shareholder's point of view. This perspective asks questions such as what is the bottom-line
revenue? The customer perspec...
 Who filled out the check sheet
 What was collected (what each check represents,
an identifying batch or lot number)
 W...
this requires consideration.
3. Pareto chart
A Pareto chart, named after Vilfredo Pareto, is a type
of chart that contains...
A scatter plot, scatterplot, or scattergraph is a type of
mathematical diagram using Cartesian coordinates to
display valu...
exactly.
5.Ishikawa diagram
Ishikawa diagrams (also called fishbone diagrams,
herringbone diagrams, cause-and-effect diagr...
A histogram is a graphical representation of the
distribution of data. It is an estimate of the probability
distribution o...
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Explain how quality management can be measured

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Explain how quality management can be measured

  1. 1. Explain how quality management can be measured In this file, you can ref useful information about explain how quality management can be measured such as explain how quality management can be measuredforms, tools for explain how quality management can be measured, explain how quality management can be measuredstrategies … If you need more assistant for explain how quality management can be measured, please leave your comment at the end of file. Other useful material for explain how quality management can be measured: • qualitymanagement123.com/23-free-ebooks-for-quality-management • qualitymanagement123.com/185-free-quality-management-forms • qualitymanagement123.com/free-98-ISO-9001-templates-and-forms • qualitymanagement123.com/top-84-quality-management-KPIs • qualitymanagement123.com/top-18-quality-management-job-descriptions • qualitymanagement123.com/86-quality-management-interview-questions-and-answers I. Contents of explain how quality management can be measured ================== Quality is something customers crave and businesses pursue. The true challenge is defining what quality means to the organization. Once quality is defined, managers must work to identify those processes that need to be improved, improve them and then monitor the progress. There are several tools managers use to measure quality. Statistical Process Control Charts  Statistical process control (SPC) charts are a tool used in Six Sigma. Six Sigma is a quality program that seeks to minimize defects in a product or process. Sigma is a unit of standard deviation from the mean (average). Six Sigma is six standard deviations from the average. That is to say, Six Sigma means there is 99.996 percent out of 100 percent accuracy. This type of quality does not just occur; it is the result of measuring, analyzing, improving and controlling the process. An SPC chart is just one of the tools used in Six Sigma. The control charts are a representation of the upper and lower control limits of a process. Each observance is plotted on the chart. Therefore, if process observances occur outside of the control limits, the process is adjusted accordingly. Process control charts allow for variations within a process. Use the charts to discover the causes of variations in a process. The reasons for variations in a process are common cause and special causes. For example, when making tea, a
  2. 2. common cause variation could be the water used (water from the bar spigot vs. water from the kitchen faucet). A special cause variation could be whether the water filter was in place. Use this tool to understand how often the variations occur. Then, use process flow charts to understand where the special cause occurs in the process. Flowcharts  Flowcharts are the visual representations of a process. The shapes represent steps, outputs or decisions to be made during the execution of a process. Use a flowchart to document the process. Keep the steps succinct and use subject-matter experts to create the flowchart. Have associates who are not as familiar with the process use the flowchart to execute the process. This will help validate the flowchart. Look for loops in the process. A loop is a series of steps that could be performed repetitively and cause a delay in completing the process. Also, check for bottlenecks in the process. A bottleneck is a part in the process in which the outputs are significantly slower than the inputs. Use flowcharts to isolate problems in a process, then work with stakeholders to remove the problems. Pareto Charts  Pareto charts are used to show the most common reasons for a problem. The Pareto principle is basically the 80/20 rule. It states that 80 percent of a problem is created by 20 percent of the causes. For example, 80 percent of car accidents are caused by 20 percent of the drivers, or 80 percent of crime is caused by 20 percent of the people. A Pareto chart is a bar graph that displays variances in descending order according to the number of frequencies. Managers use a Pareto chart to isolate that 20 percent that is causing 80 percent of the problems. For example, restaurant customers return their soup order to the kitchen; this is 80 percent of food returns to the kitchen. The reasons the soup is cold are varied: heating it too soon, using the microwave instead of the oven, served in cold dishes, not heated to the proper temperature and equipment malfunctions. Using this example, the managers can begin correcting the reason the soup is being heated too soon. Balanced Scorecard  A balanced scorecard is a tool that provides a view of the organization from a financial, customer, business process and learning and growth perspective. The financial perspective is a
  3. 3. shareholder's point of view. This perspective asks questions such as what is the bottom-line revenue? The customer perspective asks if the customers are satisfied. Business processes ask how effective processes are at meeting customer and shareholder requirements. Learning and growth examines how the organization manages change and improvement, not only for the products and services, but also for the employees. A major benefit of the balanced scorecard is that it is a consolidation of quality and business measures in one place. Use the balanced scorecard to get a "bird's eye view" of the business and the quality of the business. Employees  Managers also use their employees to manage quality. Those employees who are on the front lines and speak with customers directly know the quality issues of a product or service. They hear each day how the product breaks or how the service technician is frequently late to repair an appliance. When the front-line employees attempt to correct the problem, they also know the internal processes that cause delays in fixing the customer's problem. Ask employees what they perceive as ongoing problems. Assemble a project team of front-line employees and analysts to begin working on the solution to process issues. ================== III. Quality management tools 1. Check sheet The check sheet is a form (document) used to collect data in real time at the location where the data is generated. The data it captures can be quantitative or qualitative. When the information is quantitative, the check sheet is sometimes called a tally sheet. The defining characteristic of a check sheet is that data are recorded by making marks ("checks") on it. A typical check sheet is divided into regions, and marks made in different regions have different significance. Data are read by observing the location and number of marks on the sheet. Check sheets typically employ a heading that answers the Five Ws:
  4. 4.  Who filled out the check sheet  What was collected (what each check represents, an identifying batch or lot number)  Where the collection took place (facility, room, apparatus)  When the collection took place (hour, shift, day of the week)  Why the data were collected 2. Control chart Control charts, also known as Shewhart charts (after Walter A. Shewhart) or process-behavior charts, in statistical process control are tools used to determine if a manufacturing or business process is in a state of statistical control. If analysis of the control chart indicates that the process is currently under control (i.e., is stable, with variation only coming from sources common to the process), then no corrections or changes to process control parameters are needed or desired. In addition, data from the process can be used to predict the future performance of the process. If the chart indicates that the monitored process is not in control, analysis of the chart can help determine the sources of variation, as this will result in degraded process performance.[1] A process that is stable but operating outside of desired (specification) limits (e.g., scrap rates may be in statistical control but above desired limits) needs to be improved through a deliberate effort to understand the causes of current performance and fundamentally improve the process. The control chart is one of the seven basic tools of quality control.[3] Typically control charts are used for time-series data, though they can be used for data that have logical comparability (i.e. you want to compare samples that were taken all at the same time, or the performance of different individuals), however the type of chart used to do
  5. 5. this requires consideration. 3. Pareto chart A Pareto chart, named after Vilfredo Pareto, is a type of chart that contains both bars and a line graph, where individual values are represented in descending order by bars, and the cumulative total is represented by the line. The left vertical axis is the frequency of occurrence, but it can alternatively represent cost or another important unit of measure. The right vertical axis is the cumulative percentage of the total number of occurrences, total cost, or total of the particular unit of measure. Because the reasons are in decreasing order, the cumulative function is a concave function. To take the example above, in order to lower the amount of late arrivals by 78%, it is sufficient to solve the first three issues. The purpose of the Pareto chart is to highlight the most important among a (typically large) set of factors. In quality control, it often represents the most common sources of defects, the highest occurring type of defect, or the most frequent reasons for customer complaints, and so on. Wilkinson (2006) devised an algorithm for producing statistically based acceptance limits (similar to confidence intervals) for each bar in the Pareto chart. 4. Scatter plot Method
  6. 6. A scatter plot, scatterplot, or scattergraph is a type of mathematical diagram using Cartesian coordinates to display values for two variables for a set of data. The data is displayed as a collection of points, each having the value of one variable determining the position on the horizontal axis and the value of the other variable determining the position on the vertical axis.[2] This kind of plot is also called a scatter chart, scattergram, scatter diagram,[3] or scatter graph. A scatter plot is used when a variable exists that is under the control of the experimenter. If a parameter exists that is systematically incremented and/or decremented by the other, it is called the control parameter or independent variable and is customarily plotted along the horizontal axis. The measured or dependent variable is customarily plotted along the vertical axis. If no dependent variable exists, either type of variable can be plotted on either axis and a scatter plot will illustrate only the degree of correlation (not causation) between two variables. A scatter plot can suggest various kinds of correlations between variables with a certain confidence interval. For example, weight and height, weight would be on x axis and height would be on the y axis. Correlations may be positive (rising), negative (falling), or null (uncorrelated). If the pattern of dots slopes from lower left to upper right, it suggests a positive correlation between the variables being studied. If the pattern of dots slopes from upper left to lower right, it suggests a negative correlation. A line of best fit (alternatively called 'trendline') can be drawn in order to study the correlation between the variables. An equation for the correlation between the variables can be determined by established best-fit procedures. For a linear correlation, the best-fit procedure is known as linear regression and is guaranteed to generate a correct solution in a finite time. No universal best-fit procedure is guaranteed to generate a correct solution for arbitrary relationships. A scatter plot is also very useful when we wish to see how two comparable data sets agree with each other. In this case, an identity line, i.e., a y=x line, or an 1:1 line, is often drawn as a reference. The more the two data sets agree, the more the scatters tend to concentrate in the vicinity of the identity line; if the two data sets are numerically identical, the scatters fall on the identity line
  7. 7. exactly. 5.Ishikawa diagram Ishikawa diagrams (also called fishbone diagrams, herringbone diagrams, cause-and-effect diagrams, or Fishikawa) are causal diagrams created by Kaoru Ishikawa (1968) that show the causes of a specific event.[1][2] Common uses of the Ishikawa diagram are product design and quality defect prevention, to identify potential factors causing an overall effect. Each cause or reason for imperfection is a source of variation. Causes are usually grouped into major categories to identify these sources of variation. The categories typically include  People: Anyone involved with the process  Methods: How the process is performed and the specific requirements for doing it, such as policies, procedures, rules, regulations and laws  Machines: Any equipment, computers, tools, etc. required to accomplish the job  Materials: Raw materials, parts, pens, paper, etc. used to produce the final product  Measurements: Data generated from the process that are used to evaluate its quality  Environment: The conditions, such as location, time, temperature, and culture in which the process operates 6. Histogram method
  8. 8. A histogram is a graphical representation of the distribution of data. It is an estimate of the probability distribution of a continuous variable (quantitative variable) and was first introduced by Karl Pearson.[1] To construct a histogram, the first step is to "bin" the range of values -- that is, divide the entire range of values into a series of small intervals -- and then count how many values fall into each interval. A rectangle is drawn with height proportional to the count and width equal to the bin size, so that rectangles abut each other. A histogram may also be normalized displaying relative frequencies. It then shows the proportion of cases that fall into each of several categories, with the sum of the heights equaling 1. The bins are usually specified as consecutive, non-overlapping intervals of a variable. The bins (intervals) must be adjacent, and usually equal size.[2] The rectangles of a histogram are drawn so that they touch each other to indicate that the original variable is continuous.[3] III. Other topics related to Explain how quality management can be measured (pdf download) quality management systems quality management courses quality management tools iso 9001 quality management system quality management process quality management system example quality system management quality management techniques quality management standards quality management policy quality management strategy quality management books

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