Life science grade 12


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Life science grade 12

  2. 2.  Every organism, including humans, has agenome that contains all of the biologicalinformation needed to build and maintain aliving example of that organism. The biologicalinformation contained in a genome is encodedin its deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and isdivided into discrete units called genes. Genescode for proteins that attach to the genome atthe appropriate positions and switch on aseries of reactions called gene expression.
  3. 3.  What are Genome ,DNA,RNA ,in this activitylearners are required to define and comparethis terms according to their understandingand compare to the one in the notes
  4. 4. Name:________________________________________Due Date________Genetics Project - Design a SpeciesObjective: Genetics follows certain rules, as illustrated by punnet squares, principles of dominance and recessiveness, and rulesrelated to the location of alleles on the chromosomes.You are going to design your own imaginary species, and create traits for the species that follow genetic rules that you havealready studied.The creature should have at least 5 genetic traits from the following list. You are free to create whatever traits you like (such ashair color, size, shape, or other features)• 2 Single-allele traits• 1 Codominant trait• 1 Multiple allele trait• 1 Sex linked traitYour final project should have the following elements:1. Describe or sketch each of the traits from the list, listing genotypes and phenotypes for each.2. Sketch two examples of your creature – one male and one female. The two examples must have different genotypes. Eachsketch should have the genotype listed for all traits.3. Pick one of your single allele traits and create a sample pedigree for your creature. The pedigree should include at least 4generations.4. Show a dihybrid cross using your 2 single allele traits—ex: AaBb x AaBb). List the phenotypic ratios.5. Create 5 practice problems, using any of the traits. These should be word problems. Do not just write Aa x Aa.
  5. 5. AlleleLength of DNA on a chromosome normally encoding for a polypeptideGeneThe genetic composition of an organismGenotypeCondition in which the alleles of a particular gene are differentHeterozygousA group of genetically identical organisms formed from a single parent as a result of asexual reproduction or artificial meansCloneThe number of times an allele occurs within the gene poolAllele FrequencyA term applied to cells in which the nucleus contains two sets of chromosomesDiploid (2n)Total number of alleles in a particular population at a specific timeGene poolCondition in which the alleles of a particular gene are identicalHomozygousTerm used to describe a gene that has more than two possible allelesMultiple AllelesA term applied to an allele that is always expressed in the phenotype of an organismDominant AlleleThe characteristics of an organism, often visible, resulting from both its genotype and the effects of its environmentPhenotypeA homozygous organism with two dominant allelesHomozygous DominantA change to a phenotype not inherited by future generationsModificationThe abbreviation for deoxyribose nucleic acidDNAReproductive (sex) cell that fuses with another of the same type of cell during fertilisationGameteA homozygous organism with two recessive allelesHomozygous RecessiveThe condition in which the effect of an allele is apparent in the phenotype of a diploid organism only in the presence of another identical alleleRecessive AlleleA change in the sequence of bases in DNAMutationTerm referring to cells that contain only a single copy of each chromosomeHaploidCondition in which both alleles for one gene in a heterozygous organism contribute to the phenotypeCo-dominanceOne form of a gene
  6. 6.  Genetic crosses. For each cross below: • Work out the chances of having a child with blue eyes • Work out the chances of having a child with brown eyes • Explain how you know. Use the terms heterozygous/homozygous in your answer. Cross 1 Father Mother Phenotype blue eyes blue eyes Genotype bb bb Cross 2 Father Mother Phenotype brown eyes brown eyes Genotype BB BB Cross 3 Father Mother Phenotype brown eyes brown eyes Genotype Bb BB Cross 4 Father Mother Phenotype brown eyes brown eyes Genotype Bb Bb Cross 5 Father Mother Phenotype blue eyes brown eyes Genotype bb Bb Cross 6 Father Mother Phenotype blue eyes brown eyes Genotype bb BB
  7. 7.  Name: _______________________________________ Q1. This is the Campbell family. The parents both haveblack hair (Bb). Some of their children have red hair (bb) butmost have black hair (Bb/BB) . Explain how variation has occurred, referring to the genes for haircolour. How do the Campbells come to have children with aselection of hair colours. Q2. How could genes lead to variation within a species?> Q3. What would happen if we were all clones of our mother andfather rather than a genetic combination of an egg and a sperm cell?
  8. 8.  , Ill-defined ,learner where asked to define,genome ,RNA, and DNA in their own words andrelate to the notes given in class. complex, sustained tasks.leaner to be in theirgroup of five to help each ather with the projectdesigned to them Multiple perspective, learner to much the colmn Real world relevence ,learner to do this exaple tosee if they can compare it to the real world bydoing this example provided to them Authentic assessed , learner where tested onwriting a pannet squere to test if they can tell howmany in the family do they have black hair