Computer advancement and History


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Computer advancement and History

  1. 1. Mechanical Approach & Humanistic Approach  Hardware, in the computer world, refers to the physical components that make up a computer system. Like body of computers, designs, working capabilities, etc.  Robotics design, is the branch of technology that deals with the construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture and application of robots and computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing.
  2. 2. Mechanical & Automation Development History  Chinese Introduced Abacus Calculator.[2600 BC]  Aristotle’s Idea, The Greek philosopher Aristotle imagines the great utility of robots, writing, "If every tool, when ordered, or even of its own accord, could do the work that befits it … then there would be no need either of apprentices for the master workers or of slaves for the lords.“[ 322 BC ]  The Lie Zi first time described “Automation” . [250 BC]
  3. 3. Mechanical & Automation Development History  Greek mathematician “Hero of Alexandria” described a machine to automatically pour wine for party guests . [AD 50 ]  Leonardo da Vinci designs a clockwork knight “Da Vinci's Knight” that will sit up, wave its arms and move its head and jaw. It's not certain whether the robot was ever built, but the design may constitute the first humanoid robot.[AD1495]
  4. 4. Mechanical & Automation Development History  John Napier introduced a system called "Napier's Bones," made from horn, bone or ivory the device allowed the capability of multiplying by adding numbers and dividing by subtracting.[AD 1617]  Blaise add, Pascal invents a machine, called the Pascaline, that can subtract, and carry between digits.[AD 1642]
  5. 5. Mechanical & Automation Development History  Gottfried Leibniz demonstrates binary arithmetic, a discovery that shows every number can be represented by 0 and 1 only. This was the root of the programming languages.[AD 1679 ]  Joseph Marie Jacquard invents an automated loom that is controlled by punch cards. Afterward, These Punch cards became popular in computer programming.[AD 1804]
  6. 6. Mechanical & Automation Development History  The Difference Engine is a mechanical calculator first purposed and developed by Charles Babbage(The father of mechanical Computer) that was capable of computing several sets of numbers and making a hard copies of the results. [AD 1822]  The Analytical Engine contained an Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), basic flow control, punch cards, and integrated memory and is the first general-purpose computer concept. He first time introduced ALU, MU and CU.[AD 1837]
  7. 7. Mechanical & Automation Development History  A lady August Ada Byron( Italian Mathematician) , who was the first programmer in the history of computer. She helped Babbage in his Analytical Engine. Her first program was to calculate Bernoulli numbers. [AD 1837]  George Boole was a mathematician and logician, who invented first time Boolean Algebra. He is regarded in hindsight as a founder of the field of Computer Science.[AD 1854]
  8. 8. Mechanical & Automation Development History  Italian author Carlo Collodi writes Pinocchio, a children's book about a marionette who turns into a real boy. The literary theme of mechanical men who come to life will flourish along with the technological evolution of robots--most recently, in movies like Steven Spielberg's A.I. and in TV characters like Data from Star Trek: The Next Generation. [AD 1881]  Herman Hollerith developed a method for machines to record and store information onto punch cards to be used for the US census. He later formed the company we know as IBM today.[AD 1896]
  9. 9. Mechanical & Automation Development History  L. Frank Baum invents one of the literary world's most beloved robots in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz: the Tin Woodsman, a mechanical man in search of a heart. The character is seen as a symbol for the soullessness of mechanized industry.[AD 1900]  Czech playwright Karl Capek popularizes the term "robot" in a play called "R.U.R. (Rossums Universal Robot)." The word comes from the Czech robota, which means drudgery or forced work. The play ends with robots taking over the earth and destroying their makers.[AD 1921]
  10. 10. Mechanical & Automation Development History  Film director Fritz Lang releases Metropolis, a silent film set in a futuristic urban dystopia. It features a female robot--the first to appear on the silver screen--who takes the shape of a human woman in order to destroy a labor movement.[AD 1926]
  11. 11. Computer Development History of Generations  Initially discovered by Thomas Edison, the vacuum tube formed the building block for the entire electronics industry.[AD 1883]  Vacuum century tubes were later used as electron valves in the 20th to build the first electronic computers.[AD 1906]
  12. 12. Computer Development History First Generation[1942-1959]  ENIAC was built at University of Pennsylvania.[AD 1943]  Dr. Howard Aiken designed Mark-1 or ASCC. This computer was the first design in which binary language was used. After it, he designed further Mark series successfully.[AD 1944 – 1959]  EDSAC was the first designed computer in which stored program concept was used.[AD 1949]
  13. 13. Computer Development History First Generation[1942-1959]  Magnetic Drums for memory  only solve one problem at a time  Main Memory 100 bytes to 2 kilobytes  Use Vacuum tubes  Using a great deal of electricity  displayed on printouts.  Special rooms to house them with air conditioning  Specially trained technicians to run & maintain  A first-generation programming language is a machine-level programming language.
  14. 14. Robotic Development History [1942-1959]  American science fiction author Isaac Asimov publishes a short story, "Runaround," that introduces the "Three Laws of Robotics"-rules that every robot is programmed to obey: A robot may not harm a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. A robot must obey the orders given to it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law. A robot must protect its own existence, as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.[AD 1942]
  15. 15. Robotic Development History [1942-1959]  Industrial robotics pioneer George Devol files a patent (pictured) for the first programmable robot and coins the term “Universal Automaton.“[AD 1954]  George Devol and Joseph Engel Berger (pictured) form the world's first robotics company, Unimation. It is purchased by Condec, which later is bought, in part, by industrial manufacturing giant Eaton.[AD 1956]
  16. 16. Computer Development History Second Generation[1959-1965]  The name transistor comes from the word 'trans' of transmitter and the word 'sistor' of resistor.  The first transistor was invented at Bell Laboratories by William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain.[AD 1947]
  17. 17. Computer Development History Second Generation[1959-1965]  UNIVAC 1107, UNIVAC III  RCA 501  Philco Transact S-2000  NCR 300 series  IBM 7070, 7080, 7090, 1400 series, 1600 series  Honeywell 800, 400 series  General Electric GE 635, 645, GE 200  Control Data Corp. CDC 1604, 3600, 160A  LARC  Burroughs B5000, 200 series
  18. 18. Computer Development History Second Generation[1959-1965]  Second-generation programming language is a generational way to categorize Assembly Languages.  Transistors replaced vacuum tubes  Allowing computers to become smaller,  Smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient  Magnetic drum to magnetic core technology.  Atomic energy industry, business
  19. 19. Robotic Development History [1959-1965]  Unimate, the world's first industrial robot, goes to work on a General Motors assembly line.[AD 1961]  Rosie the robot appears on The Jetsons, an animated TV program about a family from the future. The iconic house maid becomes one of the best-known robot characters in recent history.[AD 1962]
  20. 20. Computer Development History Third Generation[1965-1971]  The IC Integrated circuits [AD 1965]  The IC revolutionized the entire electronic technology. Ex: The Pentium Processor contains 3.1 Million Transistors in 1.5 inch square!
  21. 21. Computer Development History Third Generation[1965-1971]  integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers  silicon chips, called semiconductors  drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers.  keyboard and monitors and interfaced with an operating system  they were smaller and cheaper  Pascal, C, Fortran, C++, Java, C#
  22. 22. Robotic Development History [1965-1971]  The AICSRC begins development of Shakey, the first mobile robot. It is endowed with a limited ability to see and model its environment and is controlled by a computer that fills an entire room.[AD 1966]  HAL 9000 (Heuristically programmed Algorithmic computer) appears in the Stanley Kubrick film 2001: A Space Odyssey, written by Arthur C. Clarke. The artificially intelligent computer runs the spaceship Discovery--and eventually goes berserk. The character reflects concern about the increasing power of intelligent machines over man.[AD 1968]
  23. 23. Computer Development History Fourth Generation[1971-1990]  Intel publicly introduced the world's first single chip microprocessor, the Intel 4004 (U.S. Patent #3,821,715), invented by Intel engineers Federico Faggin, Ted Hoff, and Stanley Mazor. It revolutionized computer design.[AD 1971]
  24. 24. Computer Development History Fourth Generation[1971-1990]  Microprocessor, Hard disk, Ram  SQL (for database access) and TeX (for text formatting)  Integrated circuits  Operating system  IBM introduced its first computer for the home user,  GUI technology  More fastest, cheaper, less power conception  Introduction of mouse  MS DOS 1, 2, 3, 4[AD 1981-1988]
  25. 25. Robotic Development History [1971-1990]  R2-D2 and C-3PO appear in George Lucas' Star Wars films. The plucky androids are arguably the best-known robots in modern culture.[AD 1977]  The Terminator Movie, in which a robotic assassin from a post- apocalyptic future travels back in time to eliminate a waitress, whose son will grow up and lead humanity in a war against machines.[AD 1984]
  26. 26. Computer Development History Fifth Generation[1990-Present]  Artificial Intelligence came in this generation.  Massively Parallel computing/processing  voice recognition  nanotechnology  Touch screen  Finger print recognition  MS DOS 5 & 6[AD 1991-1994]  Windows 95, 98, 2000, ME, XP VISTA, 7, 8  Windows 8.1 [AD Oct 18, 2013]
  27. 27. Computer Development History Fifth Generation[1990-Present]  Tianhe-2 or TH-2 (Chinese: literally "Skyriver-2") is a 33.86 petaflop(20,000 second), trillion supercomputer calculations located per in Guangzhou, China.[AD 2013]  It is currently the world's fastest supercomputer.  Tianhe-2 runs a total of 3,120,000 processor cores divided among 16,000 nodes.  The system is configured with a total of 1.404 petabytes of memory and a parallel storage system with 12.4 petabytes of space.
  28. 28. Robotic Development History [1990-Present]  Sony developed Aibo robots like dog, which had abilities to navigate around itself and respond to a set of limited commands.[AD 1999]  Honda's humanoid robot ASIMO steps onto the stage. Standing 1.3 meters tall, it can walk and run with a near-human gait.[AD 2000]
  29. 29. Robotic Development History [Present/Beyond]  The robotics business hits the big time, becoming a $1.06 billion business in North America. Pictured is the humanoid robot Speecys SPC-003.[AD 2004 - Present]  Self-Assembling Robot Furniture, Developed by Swiss BioRobotics Laboratory, this fantastic set of roving robots rolls into position and assembles into whatever piece of furniture you need at that moment.
  30. 30. Robotic Development [Present/Beyond]  The human consciousness robot BINA48 is like human and stores memories of the human in the head. The somewhat-creepy project is the work of the Terasem Movement, an organization that seeks to prevent the finality of death by allowing humans to store their consciousness in technology, where it will live on forever.  Losing weight is never easy. That’s why Autom, this adorable bigeyed robot, wants to know all about you. She asks questions about your food intake and activity levels every day, then gives you tips on getting and staying healthy.
  31. 31. Robotic Development [Present/Beyond]  Some South Korean students are learning English from outsourced teachers who happen to be based in the Philippines – but the teachers have a constant classroom presence in the form of egg-shaped robot Engkey. The schools are happy because the robot teachers are cheaper than human teachers, and the students are happy because many of them find a robot less intimidating than a human teacher.
  32. 32. Robotic Development [Present/Beyond]  Researchers are developing itty-bitty solar-powered robots that could move in swarm formations to gather data from targets and it wouldn’t matter much if some were lost or destroyed in the process because they would be so cheap to produce.  Japanese researchers are developing a homeworking robot which helps in home maintenance and settle the things at the right place where home user want. It can cook and serve in front of you.
  33. 33. Robotic Development [Present/Beyond]  Da Vinci Surgical Robot is popular among prostate and heart surgeries. During surgery the unit is remotely controlled by a surgeon who moves the robot arms while watching through an endoscopic camera. This robot has become popular because it can perform complex operations invasive. Patients while have being less reported less pain, blood, and a faster healing during recovery than normal surgeries.
  34. 34. Computer Development [Present/Beyond]  In now-a-days Windows 8 and 8.1 are working or may be in the future:
  35. 35. Disadvantages of Computer  Potentially destroy your social life and interactions with humans.  It may effect to the destruction of your eye sight due to radiation.  It may cause pimples and wrinkles.  It may damage your studies and life.  Too much time in front of monitor may make you fat.  Distract towards unproductive activities.  Cause violation of privacy, impact on labor force, health risks, impact on environment, distraction from work, and possible antisocial influences.
  36. 36. Disadvantages of Robot  Robot works on human instructions, who can track the robots in wrong direction.  Robots can’t help like human in emergency because robots still need serious development.  Robots can’t work more than installed instructions, limited thinking.