Introduction to Livestock Industries 2

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Part 2 of the overview of the livestock industries.

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  • Chicken, major part of remarks Broiler producers originally byproduct of egg production. “Cull” egg layers. Seedstock producers within each category of production. “Company” breeds
  • Precocious young: no maternal rearing required Hatcheries: temp and humidity controlled environment Broilers harvest weight: ~5 lbs. Harvest age VERY genetics dependent!
  • No checkoff programs. Industry sponsors advertisements, promotion, etc.
  • Litter size is unique to traits that we selected for in other species. Why? Domesticated originally for meat, but now use as biological models and as pets (Vietnamese Potbelly)
  • Yorkshire sow conformation vs. Meishan sow conformation Both Sus scrofa . Different breeds. Yorkshire used in breeding in US. Good mothers, prolific, etc. Meishan VERY prolific—imported to US from China in 1989 via cooperative venture: USDA, Iowa State University, University of IL.
  • Grain dependent due to confinement and due to pigs being omnivorous animals. No cellulose utilization, to speak of. IA, NC, MN—top 3 for farrowings and total #. WHY? Increasing vertical integration
  • “Company” lines, not breeds PIC380 is a Pig Improvement Corporation boars. Developed boars from 17 “lines” not breeds of pig populations worldwide. Marker Assisted Selection to develop various lines . . . Select for genetic markers.
  • Sell to finishers Is it more efficient to finish your own pigs or to sell feeder pigs?
  • Segregated early weaning: no other animals in facility except animals that age. Decrease disease pressure when early wean. *Do not breed gilts on first estrus; low #eggs ovulated, compared to ensuing estruses. Gilts farrow by the time they are 1 yr. of age
  • Horizontal integration: pass products from one company to another to produce final product. More than one entity controls inputs from conception to consumption. National Pork Board: Umbrella organization for state producer groups. Voice for pork producers in Washington, provides consumers info, etc. Administers check off funds program. Pork: the Other White Meat ad campaign. McRib sandwiches. Bacon cheeseburgers—Hardee’s several years ago. Pork check-off: per-head assessment to promote beef, do research, and to educate the public about pork
  • Note that sheep are being used as biological models more and more.
  • Merino ewe—hallmark of fleece quality. FINE diameter wool. More on wool later. Suffolk ewes—clean black head. Sturdy, stocky bodies. Large size. Many breeds now equal emphasis on meat and wool.
  • Why hair sheep? What is our purpose on the Campus Farm? Need a teaching model. Not selling wool. Meat production . . . Compete at MD Sheep & Wool Festival first weekend of May each year. Katahdin and Dorpers at Campus Farm
  • Almost look like they’re “muddy” Fleece/hair will adapt to climatic conditions
  • Farm flocks can be small or large, depending on area of the country. Midwest: larger. Range flocks: larger flight zones. Why do you want range sheep to have larger flight zones?
  • Photo is of Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire, England (range flock).
  • Weaned at different ages, due to market differences. Hot house lambs straight off ewes. Feeder lamb type stock weaned 60-70 D.
  • Other includes ranch work, polo, police horses Recreation largest use in US and in MD
  • Physiological puberty fillies: 12-16 months. BUT breed as 3 YO due to need to develop skeleton Stallions will produce sperm 12-14 mos. Of age, BUT mental maturity and physiological maturity to withstand a full breeding season 5 YO.
  • Introduction to Livestock Industries 2

    1. 1. The Livestock & Poultry Industries-II Lecture 5 Fall 2006 Elaine Bailey ELB, ANSC 101 1
    2. 2. Reminders . . .AGNR Fall Bash this Wed., 9/20,5-7PM, ANSC CourtyardAssignment #1 DUE: 11:55PM,Monday, Sept. 25GET THE EASY POINTS!!!Lab manuals? ELB, ANSC 101 2
    3. 3. But first . . .The “rest” of the storyThe Little Mare Won . . .SAFETY FIRST!!!THEN, work w/handling and trainingissues ELB, ANSC 101 3
    4. 4. Ostriches Meat Oil, feathers, leather Large capital outlay for upstart Markets? Nutrition research: Dr. Roselina Angel ELB, ANSC 101 4
    5. 5. The Poultry IndustryVertically integratedEgg producers(breeders)Broiler producers(breeders)Perdue Farms, MDHolly FarmsBreeds of lessimportance ELB, ANSC 101 5
    6. 6. Chicken TidbitsHatch time: ~21 daysPrecocious youngHens begin to lay ~18 weeks of ageBroilers reach harvest weight 4-6weeks* ELB, ANSC 101 6
    7. 7. ELB, ANSC 101 7
    8. 8. Industry Highlights of 20 years Check-off programs to promote products? Inexpensive meat: chicken Poultry production vertically integrated Competition to improve efficiency ELB, ANSC 101 8
    9. 9. Domesticating SwineMeatEmphasis on: Growth rate Litter size* Carcass traitsGenus & species: Sus scrofaOther uses? ELB, ANSC 101 9
    10. 10. Sus scrofa? http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/swine/ ELB, ANSC 101 10
    11. 11. Phases of Pork ProductionFarrow to finish “All inclusive” VERY grain dependent Commercial producers Seedstock (purebred) producers ELB, ANSC 101 11
    12. 12. “Genetics” Companies DeKalb Pig Improvement Corporation Land o’ Lakes Swine Genetics International Patterning afterhttp://www.pic.com/index.asp?orgid=581&storyTypeID=&sid=&langID= poultry companies? ELB, ANSC 101 12
    13. 13. Phase II Pork ProductionFeeder pig producers Intermediary step Sell weaned pigs 40-50 lbs. Efficiency . . . www.lakesidefeeders.com/ sew.htm ELB, ANSC 101 13
    14. 14. Phase III Pork Production Feeders (Finishers)  Grain (concentrate) ration  Rapid growth  Harvest at 250-260 pounds+  What is “finished?”www.jrbfarms.com/ swineproduction.htm ELB, ANSC 101 14
    15. 15. Swine tidbitsAge at puberty: 6-8 monthsAge at weaning: 10D-3 weeks (SEW)Gestation length: 114 daysGoal: breed gilts ~ 8 months of age* ELB, ANSC 101 15
    16. 16. Back to Grandin’s Articles . . . Comfort in seeing other animals BUT . . . Are there other reasons to house animals w/common fence line? Pheromones and boars Promoting estrus ELB, ANSC 101 16
    17. 17. Pork IndustryVarious “phases”Horizontal integrationMore vertical integration—Carroll’sFoods, Tyson FoodsNational Pork BoardPork check-off ELB, ANSC 101 17
    18. 18. Domesticating SheepMeatWoolEmphasis on: Growth rate ?Fecundity? Wool qualityGenus & species: Ovis ariesDUAL purpose ELB, ANSC 101 18
    19. 19. Primary Purposes http://www.suffolks.com.au/delegates.htmwww.rmncsba.org/ members/members1.html ELB, ANSC 101 19
    20. 20. Enter a New Era . . .Hair sheep ELB, ANSC 101 20
    21. 21. Katahdin“Hair sheep”SHEDWhite or reddishCampus FarmWHY? ELB, ANSC 101 21
    22. 22. DorperEasy care breedCombo of hair &woolSkin valueBreed “out ofseason”Campus Farm ELB, ANSC 101 22
    23. 23. Phases of Sheep ProductionFarm Flocks Secondary enterprise Grain operations 4-H projectsRange Flocks Grazing lands Less handling* Timed to lamb during http://www.mth.msu.edu/~maccluer/Farm/sheep.jpeg less severe weather ELB, ANSC 101 23
    24. 24. Commercial vs. Purebred Flocks Commercial flocks  Typically Xbred  Castrate ram lambs  NOT primarily marketing genetics Purebred flocks  Market genetics  NO castration of ram lambshttp://www.homestead.com/mstecker/salisbury.html ELB, ANSC 101 24
    25. 25. Total US Sheep 15,000Thousands of 10,000 sheep 5,000 0 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Year NASS, Economic Research Service ELB, ANSC 101 25
    26. 26. Sheep TidbitsAge at puberty: 5-7 monthsAge at weaning: WIDE variation*Gestation length: ~147 daysNICHE markets Meat Wool crafters (specialty fleeces) ELB, ANSC 101 26
    27. 27. Domesticating HorsesPowerTransportationEmphasis on: Structure Longevity Strength/SpeedGenus & species: Equus caballus ELB, ANSC 101 27
    28. 28. Purpose http://www.kbrhorse.net/whb/must28.htmlhttp://www.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/asiapcf/auspac/11/02/aust.horse/ ELB, ANSC 101 28
    29. 29. How Are US Horses Used? Thousands of head4000 Recreation3000 Showing2000 Other Racing1000 0 Activity American Horse Council Study, 2002 ELB, ANSC 101 29
    30. 30. Phases of Production Breeding farms Specialty (discipline) farms Training facilities Boarding facilities Unique to other specieshttp://www.sheldakranch.com/photo.htm ELB, ANSC 101 30
    31. 31. Horse TidbitsAge at puberty Females: Light horse breeds 12-18 months** (36 mos.) Females: Draft breeds 18-24 months Males: 12-14 months** (60 mos.)Age at weaning: 4-6 monthsGestation length: 340 days ELB, ANSC 101 31
    32. 32. So we’ve domesticated some species . . . . Now what?Breed developmentBreed: “animals of common origin withcharacteristics that distinguish themfrom other groups within the samespecies.” (Taylor & Field, 2004)HOW do we determine traits to “set” ina given breed? ELB, ANSC 101 32
    33. 33. ELB, ANSC 101 33

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