Introduction to Livestock Industries 2


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Part 2 of the overview of the livestock industries.

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  • Chicken, major part of remarks Broiler producers originally byproduct of egg production. “Cull” egg layers. Seedstock producers within each category of production. “Company” breeds
  • Precocious young: no maternal rearing required Hatcheries: temp and humidity controlled environment Broilers harvest weight: ~5 lbs. Harvest age VERY genetics dependent!
  • No checkoff programs. Industry sponsors advertisements, promotion, etc.
  • Litter size is unique to traits that we selected for in other species. Why? Domesticated originally for meat, but now use as biological models and as pets (Vietnamese Potbelly)
  • Yorkshire sow conformation vs. Meishan sow conformation Both Sus scrofa . Different breeds. Yorkshire used in breeding in US. Good mothers, prolific, etc. Meishan VERY prolific—imported to US from China in 1989 via cooperative venture: USDA, Iowa State University, University of IL.
  • Grain dependent due to confinement and due to pigs being omnivorous animals. No cellulose utilization, to speak of. IA, NC, MN—top 3 for farrowings and total #. WHY? Increasing vertical integration
  • “Company” lines, not breeds PIC380 is a Pig Improvement Corporation boars. Developed boars from 17 “lines” not breeds of pig populations worldwide. Marker Assisted Selection to develop various lines . . . Select for genetic markers.
  • Sell to finishers Is it more efficient to finish your own pigs or to sell feeder pigs?
  • Segregated early weaning: no other animals in facility except animals that age. Decrease disease pressure when early wean. *Do not breed gilts on first estrus; low #eggs ovulated, compared to ensuing estruses. Gilts farrow by the time they are 1 yr. of age
  • Horizontal integration: pass products from one company to another to produce final product. More than one entity controls inputs from conception to consumption. National Pork Board: Umbrella organization for state producer groups. Voice for pork producers in Washington, provides consumers info, etc. Administers check off funds program. Pork: the Other White Meat ad campaign. McRib sandwiches. Bacon cheeseburgers—Hardee’s several years ago. Pork check-off: per-head assessment to promote beef, do research, and to educate the public about pork
  • Note that sheep are being used as biological models more and more.
  • Merino ewe—hallmark of fleece quality. FINE diameter wool. More on wool later. Suffolk ewes—clean black head. Sturdy, stocky bodies. Large size. Many breeds now equal emphasis on meat and wool.
  • Why hair sheep? What is our purpose on the Campus Farm? Need a teaching model. Not selling wool. Meat production . . . Compete at MD Sheep & Wool Festival first weekend of May each year. Katahdin and Dorpers at Campus Farm
  • Almost look like they’re “muddy” Fleece/hair will adapt to climatic conditions
  • Farm flocks can be small or large, depending on area of the country. Midwest: larger. Range flocks: larger flight zones. Why do you want range sheep to have larger flight zones?
  • Photo is of Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire, England (range flock).
  • Weaned at different ages, due to market differences. Hot house lambs straight off ewes. Feeder lamb type stock weaned 60-70 D.
  • Other includes ranch work, polo, police horses Recreation largest use in US and in MD
  • Physiological puberty fillies: 12-16 months. BUT breed as 3 YO due to need to develop skeleton Stallions will produce sperm 12-14 mos. Of age, BUT mental maturity and physiological maturity to withstand a full breeding season 5 YO.
  • Introduction to Livestock Industries 2

    1. 1. The Livestock & Poultry Industries-II Lecture 5 Fall 2006 Elaine Bailey ELB, ANSC 101 1
    2. 2. Reminders . . .AGNR Fall Bash this Wed., 9/20,5-7PM, ANSC CourtyardAssignment #1 DUE: 11:55PM,Monday, Sept. 25GET THE EASY POINTS!!!Lab manuals? ELB, ANSC 101 2
    3. 3. But first . . .The “rest” of the storyThe Little Mare Won . . .SAFETY FIRST!!!THEN, work w/handling and trainingissues ELB, ANSC 101 3
    4. 4. Ostriches Meat Oil, feathers, leather Large capital outlay for upstart Markets? Nutrition research: Dr. Roselina Angel ELB, ANSC 101 4
    5. 5. The Poultry IndustryVertically integratedEgg producers(breeders)Broiler producers(breeders)Perdue Farms, MDHolly FarmsBreeds of lessimportance ELB, ANSC 101 5
    6. 6. Chicken TidbitsHatch time: ~21 daysPrecocious youngHens begin to lay ~18 weeks of ageBroilers reach harvest weight 4-6weeks* ELB, ANSC 101 6
    7. 7. ELB, ANSC 101 7
    8. 8. Industry Highlights of 20 years Check-off programs to promote products? Inexpensive meat: chicken Poultry production vertically integrated Competition to improve efficiency ELB, ANSC 101 8
    9. 9. Domesticating SwineMeatEmphasis on: Growth rate Litter size* Carcass traitsGenus & species: Sus scrofaOther uses? ELB, ANSC 101 9
    10. 10. Sus scrofa? ELB, ANSC 101 10
    11. 11. Phases of Pork ProductionFarrow to finish “All inclusive” VERY grain dependent Commercial producers Seedstock (purebred) producers ELB, ANSC 101 11
    12. 12. “Genetics” Companies DeKalb Pig Improvement Corporation Land o’ Lakes Swine Genetics International Patterning after poultry companies? ELB, ANSC 101 12
    13. 13. Phase II Pork ProductionFeeder pig producers Intermediary step Sell weaned pigs 40-50 lbs. Efficiency . . . sew.htm ELB, ANSC 101 13
    14. 14. Phase III Pork Production Feeders (Finishers)  Grain (concentrate) ration  Rapid growth  Harvest at 250-260 pounds+  What is “finished?” swineproduction.htm ELB, ANSC 101 14
    15. 15. Swine tidbitsAge at puberty: 6-8 monthsAge at weaning: 10D-3 weeks (SEW)Gestation length: 114 daysGoal: breed gilts ~ 8 months of age* ELB, ANSC 101 15
    16. 16. Back to Grandin’s Articles . . . Comfort in seeing other animals BUT . . . Are there other reasons to house animals w/common fence line? Pheromones and boars Promoting estrus ELB, ANSC 101 16
    17. 17. Pork IndustryVarious “phases”Horizontal integrationMore vertical integration—Carroll’sFoods, Tyson FoodsNational Pork BoardPork check-off ELB, ANSC 101 17
    18. 18. Domesticating SheepMeatWoolEmphasis on: Growth rate ?Fecundity? Wool qualityGenus & species: Ovis ariesDUAL purpose ELB, ANSC 101 18
    19. 19. Primary Purposes members/members1.html ELB, ANSC 101 19
    20. 20. Enter a New Era . . .Hair sheep ELB, ANSC 101 20
    21. 21. Katahdin“Hair sheep”SHEDWhite or reddishCampus FarmWHY? ELB, ANSC 101 21
    22. 22. DorperEasy care breedCombo of hair &woolSkin valueBreed “out ofseason”Campus Farm ELB, ANSC 101 22
    23. 23. Phases of Sheep ProductionFarm Flocks Secondary enterprise Grain operations 4-H projectsRange Flocks Grazing lands Less handling* Timed to lamb during less severe weather ELB, ANSC 101 23
    24. 24. Commercial vs. Purebred Flocks Commercial flocks  Typically Xbred  Castrate ram lambs  NOT primarily marketing genetics Purebred flocks  Market genetics  NO castration of ram lambs ELB, ANSC 101 24
    25. 25. Total US Sheep 15,000Thousands of 10,000 sheep 5,000 0 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Year NASS, Economic Research Service ELB, ANSC 101 25
    26. 26. Sheep TidbitsAge at puberty: 5-7 monthsAge at weaning: WIDE variation*Gestation length: ~147 daysNICHE markets Meat Wool crafters (specialty fleeces) ELB, ANSC 101 26
    27. 27. Domesticating HorsesPowerTransportationEmphasis on: Structure Longevity Strength/SpeedGenus & species: Equus caballus ELB, ANSC 101 27
    28. 28. Purpose ELB, ANSC 101 28
    29. 29. How Are US Horses Used? Thousands of head4000 Recreation3000 Showing2000 Other Racing1000 0 Activity American Horse Council Study, 2002 ELB, ANSC 101 29
    30. 30. Phases of Production Breeding farms Specialty (discipline) farms Training facilities Boarding facilities Unique to other species ELB, ANSC 101 30
    31. 31. Horse TidbitsAge at puberty Females: Light horse breeds 12-18 months** (36 mos.) Females: Draft breeds 18-24 months Males: 12-14 months** (60 mos.)Age at weaning: 4-6 monthsGestation length: 340 days ELB, ANSC 101 31
    32. 32. So we’ve domesticated some species . . . . Now what?Breed developmentBreed: “animals of common origin withcharacteristics that distinguish themfrom other groups within the samespecies.” (Taylor & Field, 2004)HOW do we determine traits to “set” ina given breed? ELB, ANSC 101 32
    33. 33. ELB, ANSC 101 33