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Introduction to Livestock Industries

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Overview of livestock industries, including cattle, hogs, sheep, poultry, and horses. Part 1 of 2.

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Introduction to Livestock Industries

  1. 1. The Livestock & Poultry Industries-I Lecture 4 Fall 2006 Elaine Bailey ELB, ANSC 101 1
  2. 2. What are domestic “livestock” species?Cattle (beef & dairy)PoultrySwineSheepHorsesOthers? ELB, ANSC 101 2
  3. 3. TerminologyFood animalsRecreational agricultureVertically integrated businessHorizontally integrated businessDual purpose animals ELB, ANSC 101 3
  4. 4. Cattle Beef Dairy http://www.glengorm.co.uk/images/cowstoned.jpg Dual purpose PURPOSE different Two species exist  Bos taurus  Bos indicushttp://regentsprep.org/Regents/biology/units/heredity/shorthorn.jpg ELB, ANSC 101 4
  5. 5. Bos taurus vs. Bos indicushttp://iserramar.globo.com/webcountry/criadores/bovinos.htm http://iserramar.globo.com/webcountry/criadores/bovinos.htm ELB, ANSC 101 5
  6. 6. What traits do we want to emphasize?Beef Dairy Growth rate  Milk production Feed efficiency  Fertility (feed:gain)  Temperament Milking ability of cows?  Milk composition Fertility  Polledness? Temperament  Color pattern? Polledness? Color pattern? ELB, ANSC 101 6
  7. 7. Phases of Beef Production Cow-Calf  Forage abundant (TX, MO, OK)  Commercial producers  Seedstock (Purebred) producershttp://www.breedingcattlepage.com/Iashorthorns/fieldday.htm ELB, ANSC 101 7
  8. 8. Phase II Beef ProductionStocker-Yearling Intermediary step Emphasis on frame growth Replacement heifers Utilize crop residue* Photo Courtesy, Purdue University ELB, ANSC 101 8
  9. 9. Phase III Beef Production Feedlot (Finishing)  Grain (concentrate) ration  Rapid growth  Harvest at 1000-1300 pounds+  What is “finished?”USDA Economic Research Service Photo ELB, ANSC 101 9
  10. 10. Cattle tidbitsAge at puberty: 12-15 months*Age at weaning 5-7 monthsGestation length: 283 daysGoal: breed heifers at 15 months of age ELB, ANSC 101 10
  11. 11. Beef IndustryVarious “phases”Horizontal integrationVery little vertical integrationNCBA (National Cattlemen’s BeefAssociation)Beef check-off ELB, ANSC 101 11
  12. 12. The Dairy IndustryMilk & dairy productsSecondary product: beefProduction, processing, distribution ofmilkLABOR: 2 or 3 milkings/day typicalFacility cost, capital investment ELB, ANSC 101 12
  13. 13. http://www.fbibuildings.com/Pages/DY_carousel3.html ELB, ANSC 101 13
  14. 14. Dairy Industry Shift from smaller to larger farms Marketing genetics vs. marketing milk Little vertical integration National Milk Producers Federation Milk check-off ELB, ANSC 101 14
  15. 15. Milk MarketingCooperativeMid-Atlantic MilkMarketingAssociationProcessing*Grades of milk ELB, ANSC 101 15
  16. 16. The Poultry Industry Dual purpose: meat and eggs Other poultry products? Chicken, turkey, duck, goose . . . ? Feed efficiency and growth rate! ELB, ANSC 101 16
  17. 17. Growth and Feed Efficiency ELB, ANSC 101 17
  18. 18. More birdsRatites Flat, “raft-like” keel bones Include Camelus struthio (ostrich), Dromaius novaehollandiae (emu), as well as cassowary and rhea 1995, 1,200 ostriches “processed” in US 1998, 100,000 ostriches processed in US 2006? Adapted from ELB, ANSC 101 Doerr, 2000 18
  19. 19. Ostriches Meat Oil, feathers, leather Large capital outlay for upstart Markets? Nutrition research: Dr. Roselina Angel ELB, ANSC 101 19
  20. 20. The Poultry IndustryVertically integratedEgg producers(breeders)Broiler producers(breeders)Perdue Farms, MDHolly FarmsBreeds of lessimportance ELB, ANSC 101 20
  21. 21. Chicken TidbitsHatch time: ~21 daysPrecocious youngHens begin to lay ~18 weeks of ageBroilers reach harvest weight 4-6weeks* ELB, ANSC 101 21
  22. 22. ELB, ANSC 101 22
  23. 23. Industry Highlights of 20 years Check-off programs to promote products? Inexpensive meat: chicken Poultry production vertically integrated Competition to improve efficiency ELB, ANSC 101 23
  24. 24. Next Time . . .Delving deeper into the livestockindustrySheepHogsHorses ELB, ANSC 101 24

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