For this class, poultry included. USDA typically separates poultry out. Horses questionable as to where they fit. Are they agriculture? Other species? Bison, ostriches, emus, etc.
Do dairy and beef cattle belong to the same genus and species? Yes.
Why emphasize milking ability of cows for beef? Milking ability of cow affects weaning weight of calf How do we measure fertility? Calf crop, age at puberty, generation interval, etc. Are there concerns about selecting for traits such as polledness or color pattern? Other traits can be “concentrated” if they are linked. Example: dwarfism in Polled Hereford cattle.
Cow-Calf: 16 states have 75% of brood cow numbers in US Commercial producers: crossbreds to maximize heterosis for beef production Purebreds to provide genetics to enable production of a superior product. Known “gene carriers” among purebred bulls
Cheap feed source Renewable resource? Add “cheap” gain to cattle
Finished: of sufficient fat content to produce tender, juicy, flavorful meat. Feeding endpoint. Retained ownership: cow-calf producer hires contract feeder to feed cattle to slaughter weight, then sells fed cattle to packers. Contract feeding in areas where LOTS of grain (Midwest—TX, KS, etc.)
Puberty correlated w/breed. Larger breeds, later maturity Age at weaning affected by available feed resources, cow health, etc. Want heifers to calve first time as 2-year-olds.
Horizontal integration: pass products from one company to another to produce final product. More than one entity controls inputs from conception to consumption. NCBA: Umbrella organization for state producer groups. Voice for beef producers in Washington, provides consumers info, etc. Beef check-off: per-head assessment to promote beef, do research, and to educate the public about beef
Carousel milker unit. Note cleanliness of area. Also, note height of milkers to height of worker.
Milk check-off funds: Milk Jug 1% milk as part of McDonald’s Happy Meals. Got Milk? ad campaign Cal Ripken, Daisy Fuentes, Williams (tennis star) sisters, etc.
Milk grades “control” what milk used for. Grade A fluid milk (consumption). Grade B processing to other products.
Fancy birds for show VERY minimal part of poultry industry. Birds have the best feed:gain ratio of any animal we deal with. LT 2:1 feed:gain.
2005: approximately 100,000 ostriches processed
Chicken, major part of remarks Broiler producers originally byproduct of egg production. “Cull” egg layers. Seedstock producers within each category of production. “Company” breeds
Precocious young: no maternal rearing required Hatcheries: temp and humidity controlled environment Broilers harvest weight: ~5 lbs. Harvest age VERY genetics dependent!
Introduction to Livestock Industries
The Livestock & Poultry Industries-I Lecture 4 Fall 2006 Elaine Bailey ELB, ANSC 101 1
What are domestic “livestock” species?Cattle (beef & dairy)PoultrySwineSheepHorsesOthers? ELB, ANSC 101 2
More birdsRatites Flat, “raft-like” keel bones Include Camelus struthio (ostrich), Dromaius novaehollandiae (emu), as well as cassowary and rhea 1995, 1,200 ostriches “processed” in US 1998, 100,000 ostriches processed in US 2006? Adapted from ELB, ANSC 101 Doerr, 2000 18
Ostriches Meat Oil, feathers, leather Large capital outlay for upstart Markets? Nutrition research: Dr. Roselina Angel ELB, ANSC 101 19
The Poultry IndustryVertically integratedEgg producers(breeders)Broiler producers(breeders)Perdue Farms, MDHolly FarmsBreeds of lessimportance ELB, ANSC 101 20
Chicken TidbitsHatch time: ~21 daysPrecocious youngHens begin to lay ~18 weeks of ageBroilers reach harvest weight 4-6weeks* ELB, ANSC 101 21