Relative Clauses


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Relative Clauses

  2. 2. 1. Subject and Object Relative clauses give extra information about a noun in the main clause. They can refer to this as subject or object. “That’s the woman who bought my car” “That’s the flat that I was looking for” 2. Combining sentences Note how sentences are combined. Subject : “This is Sofia. She bought my car” “ Sofia is the person who bought my car” Object : “That is the flat. I was looking for it” “ That is the flat that I was looking for” Subject Object RELATIVE CLAUSES
  3. 3. <ul><li>1. Defining Clauses </li></ul><ul><li>Defining clauses tell us which person or thing, or which </li></ul><ul><li>kind of person or thing, is meant. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Paris is a city I’ve always wanted to visit” </li></ul><ul><li>2. Non-Defining Clauses </li></ul><ul><li>Non-defining clauses add extra information, </li></ul><ul><li>separated by commas in writing, and intonation </li></ul><ul><li>in speaking. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Tom’s mother, who is 78 , goes swimming </li></ul><ul><li>every day” </li></ul>RELATIVE CLAUSES
  4. 4. <ul><li>Omitting the relative pronoun </li></ul><ul><li>1. Object Clauses </li></ul><ul><li>The relative pronoun can be left out in object clauses in </li></ul><ul><li>both speaking and writing if they are defining. </li></ul><ul><li>“ That‘s the flat I was looking for” </li></ul><ul><li>2. Non-Defining Clauses </li></ul><ul><li>The relative pronoun cannot be left out in a </li></ul><ul><li>non-defining clause. </li></ul><ul><li>“ I poured him a glass of wine, which he drank </li></ul><ul><li>at once” </li></ul>RELATIVE CLAUSES
  5. 5. <ul><li>Which, Who and That </li></ul><ul><li>1. That instead of which </li></ul><ul><li>That is often used instead of which in speech. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Is this the house that you bought?” </li></ul><ul><li>2. That instead of who </li></ul><ul><li>That can also refer to people in everyday speech. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Have you met the boy that Sue is going to marry?” </li></ul><ul><li>3. Which in non-defining clauses </li></ul><ul><li>That cannot be used to introduce a non-defining clause. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The hotel, which was a hundred years old, was very </li></ul><ul><li>comfortable” </li></ul><ul><li>4. Prepositions </li></ul><ul><li>That cannot be used after a preposition. </li></ul><ul><li>“ This is the car (that/which) I paid £ 2000” </li></ul><ul><li>( everyday speech) </li></ul><ul><li>“ This is the car for which I paid £ 2000” </li></ul><ul><li>( formal) </li></ul>RELATIVE CLAUSES
  6. 6. <ul><li>Whose and Whom </li></ul><ul><li>1. Whose means of whom and usually refers to people. </li></ul><ul><li>“ This is Jack. His sister is staying with us.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ This is Jack whose sister is staying with us.” </li></ul><ul><li>2. Whom is the object for of who , and has to </li></ul><ul><li>be used after prepositions. </li></ul><ul><li>“ This is the person I sold my car to” </li></ul><ul><li>(everyday speech) </li></ul><ul><li>“ This is the person to whom I sold my car.” </li></ul><ul><li>(formal) </li></ul>RELATIVE CLAUSES
  7. 7. <ul><li>Exercises (I) </li></ul><ul><li>1. Choose the most suitable word in each sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>a) My friend Jack, that/who/whose parents live in Glasgow, </li></ul><ul><li>invited me to spend Christmas in Scotland. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Here’s the computer program that/whom/whose I told </li></ul><ul><li>you about. </li></ul><ul><li>c) I don’t believe the story that/who/whom she told us. </li></ul><ul><li>d) Peter comes from Witney, that/who/which is near </li></ul><ul><li>Oxford. </li></ul><ul><li>e) This is the gum with that/whom/which the murder </li></ul><ul><li>was commited. </li></ul><ul><li>f) Have you received the parcel that/whom/which </li></ul><ul><li>we sent you? </li></ul><ul><li>g) Is this the person who/which/whose you asked me about? </li></ul><ul><li>h) That’s the girl that/who/whose brother sits next to me at </li></ul><ul><li>school. </li></ul><ul><li>i) The meal, that/which/whose wasn’t very tasty, was quite </li></ul><ul><li>expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>j) We didn’t enjoy the play that/who/whose we went to see. </li></ul>RELATIVE CLAUSES
  8. 8. <ul><li>Exercises (II) </li></ul><ul><li>1. Put a suitable relative pronoun in each space, or leave the </li></ul><ul><li>space blank wherever possible. </li></ul><ul><li>a) The person ..... fingerprints are on the gun was the person ...... </li></ul><ul><li>killed Dr. Martin. </li></ul><ul><li>b) My bike, .....I have left at the gate, has disappeared. </li></ul><ul><li>c) The shoes .... I finally bought were the ones .... I tried on first. </li></ul><ul><li>d) The bag in .... the robbers put the money was found outside the </li></ul><ul><li>bank. </li></ul><ul><li>e) The medicine ..... the doctor gave me had no effect at all. </li></ul><ul><li>f) Peter, ..... couldn’t see the screen, decided to change his seat. </li></ul><ul><li>g) The present .... you gave me was the one .... I gave you last year!. </li></ul><ul><li>h) I really liked the tea ..... you made me this morning. </li></ul><ul><li>i) What was the name of your friend .... tent we borrowed?. </li></ul><ul><li>j) He is the person .... I wrote to. </li></ul>RELATIVE CLAUSES