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Connectors

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Connectors

  1. 1. CONNECTORS © Anna Morales Puigcerver 2005
  2. 2. Contrast or Opposing Ideas <ul><li>although /even though / though </li></ul><ul><li>whereas / while </li></ul><ul><li>despite / in spite of </li></ul><ul><li>but / yet/ however / nevertheless </li></ul><ul><li>On the one hand / On the other hand </li></ul><ul><li>In contrast to / contrary to / unlike </li></ul>
  3. 3. Examples <ul><li>Although he is old, he is very active. </li></ul><ul><li>He is old, whereas Paul is young. </li></ul><ul><li>In spite of his old age, he is very active. </li></ul><ul><li>The shopping centre is small; however , I usually find everything I need . </li></ul><ul><li>On the one hand , the book is amusing. On the other hand , it’s rather long. </li></ul><ul><li>In contrast to other horror films, this one was quite amusing. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Comparison <ul><li>like / (just) as + adjective + as / more/less + adjective + than, be the same as / similarly / both / likewise. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Paris has some great museums of art. Similarly , London has some wonderful museums. </li></ul><ul><li>This book is not as interesting as that one. </li></ul>Examples
  6. 6. <ul><li>because / since / as </li></ul><ul><li>because of / due to / owing to </li></ul>Reason, cause and effect
  7. 7. <ul><li>We arrived late because the bus broke down. </li></ul><ul><li>The concert was cancelled owing to poor ticket sales. </li></ul>Examples
  8. 8. <ul><li>In order to, so that / in order that, so as to </li></ul>Purpose
  9. 9. <ul><li>We’ll work tonight in order to finish it on time. </li></ul>Examples
  10. 10. <ul><li>when, while, whenever </li></ul><ul><li>First of all / Firstly, secondly... </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, later, next, in short, in conlusion </li></ul>Time and sequence
  11. 11. <ul><li>Whenever I go shopping, I buy sweets. </li></ul><ul><li>First of all , I’ll buy a car. </li></ul><ul><li>In conclusion , it is important to teach young people about the dangers of alcohol. </li></ul>Examples
  12. 12. <ul><li>Therefore, consequently </li></ul><ul><li>As a result (of) </li></ul>Result and consequences
  13. 13. <ul><li>She studied hard. Therefore, she passed the exam. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result of her high marks, she was accepted to university. </li></ul>Examples
  14. 14. <ul><li>Moreover / Furthermore / In addition </li></ul><ul><li>For example / For instance / such as / like </li></ul><ul><li>as well as / In addition to / also </li></ul>Addition and example
  15. 15. <ul><li>The city is a famous centre. Furthermore , it is well known for its annual dance festival. </li></ul><ul><li>I like all kinds of fruit; for example , melons, oranges and pineapples. </li></ul><ul><li>Please bring some drinks as well as snacks. </li></ul>Examples
  16. 16. <ul><li>Fill in the gaps with a suitable connector. </li></ul><ul><li>1.- She stayed at work late .................................................... complete the report. </li></ul><ul><li>2.- .......................................... he was rich, he lived a relatively simple life. </li></ul><ul><li>3.- I didn’t get the job .................................................. my qualifications. </li></ul><ul><li>4.- Arranged marriages are common in many Middle eastern countries. In the West, ..................................................., they are unusual. </li></ul><ul><li>5.- You may have questions which you wish to raise . .........................................., who will answer the phone ................................... you are visiting clients. </li></ul><ul><li>6.- ........................................ I hear that song, I think of you. </li></ul><ul><li>7.- Flights from Barcelona were cancelled .......................................... the weather. </li></ul><ul><li>8.- We went for a swim .................................................. the water was freezing. </li></ul><ul><li>9.- I understand your point of view. ....................................I don’t agree with it. </li></ul><ul><li>10.- John had lived in the village for 20 years. ................................ the locals still considered him an outsider. </li></ul>Exercises (I) in order to / so as to / to Although despite / in spite of on the other hand For instance Whenever even though However owing to / due to / because of Nevertheless while
  17. 17. <ul><li>Fill in the gaps with a suitable connector. </li></ul><ul><li>1.- We were delayed ................................................................. an accident. </li></ul><ul><li>2.- Leave the keys at the front desk ..................... you leave. </li></ul><ul><li>3.- ........................................... the house was empty, I rang the doorbell. </li></ul><ul><li>4.- I prefer the city ........................................... John prefers country life. </li></ul><ul><li>5.- We saw the Eiffel Tower ............................................. Eurodisney. </li></ul><ul><li>6.- Her advice seems strange, .................. I believe she’s right. </li></ul><ul><li>7.- ............................. most directors, Alejandro Almenabar writes the music of his films. </li></ul><ul><li>8.- My doctor told me to avoid fatty foods ................................ bacon or hamburgers. </li></ul><ul><li>9.- .............................. we need somewhere to live. ........................, we need to find work. And ........................................... we have to save money. </li></ul><ul><li>10.- The new car is smaller and ................................. cheaper. </li></ul><ul><li>11.- We need a reliable person for this job. .......................... a person like Marta. </li></ul><ul><li>12.- Digital cameras are still a bit expensive, but they are getting cheaper all the time. ................................................................................ they are improving. </li></ul>Exercises (II) because of / owing to / due to when Even though whereas as well as Unlike yet First(ly) Second(ly) such as Third(ly) therefore For instance Moreover / In addition / Furthermore
  18. 18. SUMMARY The city is a famous music centre. Furthermore , it is well known for its annual dance festival. I like all kind of fruit; for example , melons, oranges and pineapples. Please bring some drinks as well as snacks. Addition and example Moreover/Furthermore/In addition For example/For instance, such as, like As well (as), in addition to, also She studied hard. Therefore , she passed the exam. As a result of her high marks, she was accepted to university. Result and consequences Therefore, consequently As a resut (of) Whenever I go shopping, I buy sweets. First of all , I’ll buy a car. In conclusion , it is important to teach young people about the dangers of alcohol. Time and sequence When, while, whenever First of all/firstly, secondly... We’ll work tonight in order to finish it on time. Purpose In order to, so that /in order that, so as to We arrived late because the bus broke down. The concert was cancelled owing to poor ticket sales. Reason, cause and effect Because,since, as Because of, due to, owing to Paris has some great museums of art. Similarly , London has some wonderful museums. This book is not as interesting as that one. Comparison Like, (just) as + adjective + as, more/less + adjective + than, be the same as, similarly, both, likewise Although he is old, he is very active. He is old, whereas Paul is young. In spite of his old age, he is very active. The shopping centre is small; however , I usually find everything I need there. On the one hand , the book is amusing. On the other hand , it’s rather long. In contrast to other horror films, this one was quite amusing. Contrast or opposing ideas although/even though/though, whereas, while Despite, in spite of But, yet, however, nevertheless On the one hand.... On the other (hand) In contrast to/contrary to, unlike Examples Connectors

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