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Organic cultivation of OKRA Presented by: - Thadchanamoorthy Sekaran Farm practice course
Introduction <ul><li>It is also known as okra, lady finger & gumbo </li></ul><ul><li>This is a highly nutritious green edi...
Botanical classification <ul><li>Kingdom - Plantae </li></ul><ul><li>Division - Magnoliophyta </li></ul><ul><li>Class - Ma...
General features <ul><li>Plant characters: </li></ul><ul><li>Erect, unbranched </li></ul><ul><li>Stems are green & sparse ...
Haritha <ul><li>Fruits - dark green, medium in size, </li></ul><ul><li>pyramidal elongated, edged (5-6),  </li></ul><ul><l...
Uses <ul><li>The main use of okra is as a flavouring for cooking with meats because of the high mucilaginous content . </l...
Ecological Requirements <ul><li>Optimum temperature range  : 22-35 °C </li></ul><ul><li>Elevation : About 1300m </li></ul>...
Objectives <ul><li>To study the every part of the okra cultivation and management practices. </li></ul><ul><li>To study th...
Field management <ul><li>Land preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Sowing of seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Watering </li></ul><ul><li>W...
Land preparation <ul><li>Cleaning : Stones,glass & sticks were removed </li></ul><ul><li>Ploughing : By two wheel tractor ...
Before land preparation After land preparation
Planting and spacing <ul><li>My plot size : 6.6x7.2m 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Spacing : 60x90cm 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Within row ...
Sowing of seeds <ul><li>Recommended seed rate  = 4.5kg seed/ha </li></ul><ul><li>My plot size  =47.52m 2 </li></ul><ul><li...
 
watering <ul><li>From sowing to germination  – 2 times/day. </li></ul><ul><li>From germination to pod formation  – 1 time/...
Fertilizer application <ul><li>Organic fertilizer – cow dung </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended rate – 20-30 tons/ha </li></ul>...
Pest and disease control <ul><li>Commonly 2 kinds of pests was observed. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf eating caterpillar </li></...
Other practices <ul><li>Weeding: - </li></ul><ul><li>Weed 2 and 4 weeks after emergence and at early flowering.  </li></ul...
Harvest <ul><li>To harvest the okra use a knife or a pair of pruners to cut the pods from the stem connecting them to the ...
<ul><li>Results and discussion </li></ul>
Economic yield <ul><ul><li>Area of the plot   47.52 m2  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of plants 80 </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Cost benefits analysis <ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Labour  = 200.00  </li></ul><ul><li>Organic  chemical  = 60.00 </li>...
Yield components <ul><li>Yield = (No. of plants/ha X No. of Fruits/plant X mass of fruit (kg)) </li></ul><ul><li>Potential...
Yield components cont… <ul><li>No of pods per plant = 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Mass of pod (g) = 36g/pod </li></ul><ul><li>No o...
Plant height
Number of leaves per plant Inorganic
Compare organic, inorganic results Characters Standard Organic farming Inorganic farming Days to flowering 30 days 34 days...
Average weight Harvesting time parts fresh weight Dry weight leaves 49.63 18.08 stem 58.73 21.67 root 18.8 8.14 pods 140.6...
Average weight
Constraints <ul><li>Higher rainfall during our farm practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Damaged hose pipes </li></ul><ul><li>Opera...
Suggestion <ul><li>Mulching materials can be placed between crop rows to conserve soil moisture </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust t...
Conclusion <ul><li>I got the brief knowledge in organic cultivation of okra. </li></ul><ul><li>I earned 713.28/- as net pr...
References <ul><li>Singh, K. B. and Malhotra, R. S., (1970). Interrelationship between yield and yield components. Indian ...
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Thank You !
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  1. 1. Organic cultivation of OKRA Presented by: - Thadchanamoorthy Sekaran Farm practice course
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>It is also known as okra, lady finger & gumbo </li></ul><ul><li>This is a highly nutritious green edible pod vegetable. </li></ul><ul><li>Internally, the fruits contain small, round, mucilaginous white colored seeds. </li></ul><ul><li>It is cultivated tropical and warm temperate regions of the world for its fibrous fruits or &quot;pods&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Okra is native to tropical Africa, where it has been cultivated for many centuries. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Botanical classification <ul><li>Kingdom - Plantae </li></ul><ul><li>Division - Magnoliophyta </li></ul><ul><li>Class - Magnoliopsida </li></ul><ul><li>Order - Malvales </li></ul><ul><li>Family - Malvaceae </li></ul><ul><li>Genus - Abelmoschus </li></ul><ul><li>Species - A. esculentus </li></ul>
  4. 4. General features <ul><li>Plant characters: </li></ul><ul><li>Erect, unbranched </li></ul><ul><li>Stems are green & sparse hairs on stems. </li></ul><ul><li>Light green coloured petiole. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf characters:- </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves are alternate: palmately 5 lobed stipules narrow, serrate lamina. </li></ul><ul><li>Both the upper & the lower parts of leaf base & petiole base have red coloured pigmentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Flower characters:- </li></ul><ul><li>Flowers solitary, auxiliary. </li></ul><ul><li>Calyx of 5 sepals, hairy, joined. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Haritha <ul><li>Fruits - dark green, medium in size, </li></ul><ul><li>pyramidal elongated, edged (5-6), </li></ul><ul><li>stem - strong anthocyanin pigmentation, </li></ul><ul><li>Upper leaves deeply lobed. </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable for Island wide cultivation, </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerant to Yellow Vein Mosaic. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Uses <ul><li>The main use of okra is as a flavouring for cooking with meats because of the high mucilaginous content . </li></ul><ul><li>The pods are ideal for both thickening and flavouring stews and soups. </li></ul><ul><li>The pods can also be boiled or fried and eaten as a vegetable. </li></ul><ul><li>Okra leaves may be cooked in a similar manner as the greens of beets or dandelions. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Ecological Requirements <ul><li>Optimum temperature range : 22-35 °C </li></ul><ul><li>Elevation : About 1300m </li></ul><ul><li>Relative humidity : 60 to 70 % </li></ul><ul><li>Rain fall : about 1200 mm </li></ul><ul><li>pH : 6.2-6.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Preferable soil type: Loam to Clay soil </li></ul><ul><li>It can be grown on wide range of soil. </li></ul><ul><li>well drained soil is suitable. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Objectives <ul><li>To study the every part of the okra cultivation and management practices. </li></ul><ul><li>To study the okra organic cultivation practices. </li></ul><ul><li>To evaluate the yield of the crop. </li></ul><ul><li>To analyze the cost benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>To compare yields and cost benefits between organic and inorganic cultivation of okra. </li></ul><ul><li>To identify the problems during the crop management. </li></ul><ul><li>To propose the suggestions for the problems. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Field management <ul><li>Land preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Sowing of seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Watering </li></ul><ul><li>Weeding </li></ul><ul><li>Thinning out </li></ul><ul><li>Infilling </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer application </li></ul><ul><li>Pest and Disease control </li></ul><ul><li>Harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul>
  10. 10. Land preparation <ul><li>Cleaning : Stones,glass & sticks were removed </li></ul><ul><li>Ploughing : By two wheel tractor </li></ul><ul><li>Leveling : By mammoty </li></ul><ul><li>Planting hole: 30x30cm 2 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Before land preparation After land preparation
  12. 12. Planting and spacing <ul><li>My plot size : 6.6x7.2m 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Spacing : 60x90cm 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Within row : 60cm </li></ul><ul><li>Between row : 90cm </li></ul><ul><li>Number of holes : 88 </li></ul><ul><li>Depth : 20-30cm </li></ul><ul><li>Sowing seeds : 3 seeds/hill </li></ul><ul><li>Planting Date : 02-january-2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Planting time : Early morning suitable. </li></ul><ul><li> Avoid rainy days </li></ul>Hole 60cm 90cm
  13. 13. Sowing of seeds <ul><li>Recommended seed rate = 4.5kg seed/ha </li></ul><ul><li>My plot size =47.52m 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds used in my plot = 21.384g </li></ul><ul><li>  Direct sowing was practiced. </li></ul><ul><li>Best time of planting </li></ul><ul><li>Maha - late September to early October </li></ul><ul><li>Yala - April to early may </li></ul><ul><li>I was planted at 02 nd January 2010 </li></ul>
  14. 15. watering <ul><li>From sowing to germination – 2 times/day. </li></ul><ul><li>From germination to pod formation – 1 time/day </li></ul><ul><li>After pod formation – once in two days </li></ul><ul><li>Water critical stages </li></ul><ul><li>Germination period </li></ul><ul><li>Flowering time </li></ul>
  15. 16. Fertilizer application <ul><li>Organic fertilizer – cow dung </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended rate – 20-30 tons/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Basal application was done 1-2 days before planting. </li></ul><ul><li>Top dressing was done 4 weeks after planting. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Pest and disease control <ul><li>Commonly 2 kinds of pests was observed. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf eating caterpillar </li></ul><ul><li>Shoot and pod borer </li></ul><ul><li>Okra Haritha variety is tolerant to yellow vein mosaic virus. </li></ul><ul><li>So n0 severe disease in okra Haritha. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Other practices <ul><li>Weeding: - </li></ul><ul><li>Weed 2 and 4 weeks after emergence and at early flowering. </li></ul><ul><li>Weeding 4 weeks after planting should coincide with fertilizer application. </li></ul><ul><li>Infilling:- </li></ul><ul><li>Infilling was done 1 week after planting. </li></ul><ul><li>Thinning out:- </li></ul><ul><li>Thinning out was done 2 weeks after planting. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Harvest <ul><li>To harvest the okra use a knife or a pair of pruners to cut the pods from the stem connecting them to the plant. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s important to harvest the okra when the pods are young as they become tough, woody, and inedible if left on the plant until they mature. </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Results and discussion </li></ul>
  20. 21. Economic yield <ul><ul><li>Area of the plot 47.52 m2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of plants 80 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average yield of 0.288kg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total yield of plot =0.288x 80 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>=23.04 kg </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic yield for one ha =23.04/47.52 x 10,000m 2 </li></ul><ul><li>=4848.48kg/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Total yield for 1 ha land is about 4848.48 kg </li></ul>
  21. 22. Cost benefits analysis <ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Labour = 200.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Organic chemical = 60.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer & manure = 500.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity = 200.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Total = 960.00   </li></ul><ul><li>Income </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total amount of yield = 23.904 kg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Price for 1 kg of pods = Rs 70.00 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total income = Rs 1673.28 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Net profit = Rs 713.28 </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Yield components <ul><li>Yield = (No. of plants/ha X No. of Fruits/plant X mass of fruit (kg)) </li></ul><ul><li>Potential yield of okra =10 Mt /ha </li></ul><ul><li>No. of pots/plant = 7-8 Fruits/plant </li></ul><ul><li>Potential yield = 10-15 Mt/ha (under good management practice) </li></ul>
  23. 24. Yield components cont… <ul><li>No of pods per plant = 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Mass of pod (g) = 36g/pod </li></ul><ul><li>No of plants = 83 plants </li></ul><ul><li>So total yield = 8x0.036kgx83 </li></ul><ul><li>= 23.904kg </li></ul><ul><li>Yield per ha = 23.904/47.52 x 10,000 </li></ul><ul><li> = 5030.303 kg </li></ul>
  24. 25. Plant height
  25. 26. Number of leaves per plant Inorganic
  26. 27. Compare organic, inorganic results Characters Standard Organic farming Inorganic farming Days to flowering 30 days 34 days 36 days Height at flowering 50 cm 32.2 cm 42.7 cm Length of pod 23-25 cm 16 cm 23.2 cm Leanth of leaf petiole 45-50 cm 28 cm 43.6 cm Pods per plant 30-50 8-10 15 Average pod weight 35-40 g 33g 39g
  27. 28. Average weight Harvesting time parts fresh weight Dry weight leaves 49.63 18.08 stem 58.73 21.67 root 18.8 8.14 pods 140.69 57.75 total bio mass 267.85 105.64
  28. 29. Average weight
  29. 30. Constraints <ul><li>Higher rainfall during our farm practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Damaged hose pipes </li></ul><ul><li>Operation of motor pump </li></ul><ul><li>Monkey was damaged to crops. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Suggestion <ul><li>Mulching materials can be placed between crop rows to conserve soil moisture </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust the planting time schedule for high production </li></ul><ul><li>Build up drainage facilities to avoid flood condition. </li></ul>
  31. 32. Conclusion <ul><li>I got the brief knowledge in organic cultivation of okra. </li></ul><ul><li>I earned 713.28/- as net profit from my plot. </li></ul>
  32. 33. References <ul><li>Singh, K. B. and Malhotra, R. S., (1970). Interrelationship between yield and yield components. Indian Journal of genetics and plant breeding 30 : 244-250. </li></ul><ul><li>Adams, C.F., (1975). Nutritive value of American foods in common units. United States department of Agriculture, Agriculture hand book. 456. </li></ul>
  33. 34. For Discussion…?
  34. 35. Thank You !

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