Medical Laboratory Scientists-         Consecrate                  Sejojo Phaaroe                     AMLSL President and ...
Oath of a medical laboratory         technologist/Scientist• I solemnly pledge myself to consecrate my life to  the servic...
Cont• I will be loyal to the profession of medical  laboratory science• I will maintain and promote standards of  excellen...
Significance & Meaning of the consecrateMed Laboratory Scientists should not be one of the                             Fol...
Significance & Meaning of the                    consecrate• All the world is a laboratory to the inquiring mind. Martin H...
Client tale•   Insurances                • Out patients•   Drs•   Food Handlers             • Health programs•   Traveller...
• “The Medical Laboratory is a place where ,  under rather difficult conditions , we create a  protected island where toge...
• Brancusi "Endless Column", science is infinite;  science has no limit , no frontiers, no borders,  Just like the "Endles...
• In a word, I consider hospitals only as the  entrance to scientific medicine; they are the  first field of observation w...
• In the laboratory there are no fustian ranks, no  brummagem aristocracies; the domain of Science  is a republic, and all...
• Thank you
Role of a             Medical Laboratory Scientists                  Regulatory Board                                     ...
BECHMARKKnow where you are and where you are going         Consensus building workshop November 2009
Demand by International Conventions• International Federation of Biomedical Laboratory  Science- (IFBLS)• Council for Inte...
• HOW BIG IS THE  PROBLEM? Why do we Need forMedical Lab Regulation      in Lesotho
Response?  CHALLENGES:  OP ‘I s  HIV – AIDS  LAB WORK OVERLOADS  High staff turn over  Attrition , and staff shortages  Fo...
Response?       I see how big it is but there is       nothing I can do!
Response!!!!                            benchmark                Medical Lab Regulatory                                   ...
BRAINSTORMConsensus building workshop November 2009                                                               5. Regio...
Role in general• To protect the public.• To do this, we keep a register of professionals  who meet our standards for their...
Mission of the MLS Board• To protect the public health or welfare of people of  Lesotho by ensuring that each person Licen...
4.2 MANAGEMENT SYSTEM                 INPUTS                              PROBLEM SOLVING4.1   Organisation               ...
Personnel                  Performing specific tasks            Qualified ProfessionalEducation            CBE Training   ...
Cont• The Board Shall employ professional and  support staff to carry out the provision of the  Law along with the Policie...
Specific personnel to perform:                           Sampling                                  Tests / calibrationsKee...
Cont• ISO 15189 ; Article 5.1 .2 Laboratory management  shall maintain records of the relevant educational  and profession...
cont• Educating Licenced Medical Scientists  regarding changes in the Law• Investigating alleged violations and imposing  ...
Professional qualification• The Board in collaboration with the Association will run  a programme of post-registration tra...
PROFESSIONAL LEVELS & ROUTES FELLOWSHIP (                                                     Ph.D. /DSc. FIMLS/FIBMS /CFI...
Research conducted by medical scientists has resulted inadvanced treatments for many diseases.
Client tale•   Insurances                           •   Out patients•   Drs                    •   Health programs•   Food...
Eosinophilia in parasitic infestation
Laboratory frontiers-• FNAB-cytology• Estrogen receptors• Genetic screening- BRCA1, BRCA2
Detailed Method of PCR                                                                                                    ...
CYTOGENETICS & INHERITANCE
LIST OF STANDARDS             1. DEFINED PROFESSIONAL LEVELS•   Medical Laboratory Scientists•   - Degree in Medical Labor...
Medical Laboratory Technologist• Diploma Medical Laboratory Sciences•  Board Examination• Board Certified• General subject...
Medical Laboratory Technicians• Vocational training or trained on the Bench• Certificate in Medical Laboratory Sciences• B...
2. DEFINED CRITERIA FOR INITIAL REGISTRATION OF       PROFESSIONALS QUALIFIED INSIDE AND OUTSIDE                          ...
3. LEVELS OF REGISTRATION –               LICENSING• Students• National Students from approved institutions that  are Boar...
4. ESTABLISH BOARD EXAMINATIONS• - Board Examinations shall be conducted for  all levels of professional Practitioners.
5. PRESCRIBE CODE OF CONDUCT•    The code of conduct covers prohibitions and professional Conduct performance    and ethic...
6. SET CRITERIA FOR CONTINOUS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CPD) AND ONGOING COMPETENCY• CPD is the means for maintaining and ...
7. CPD CRITERIA• - CPD is required over a twelve month period  and is requisite for Re-registration.• - CPD points shall b...
8. DEFINE CRITERIA FOR HANDLINGPROFESSIONAL MISCONDUCT or LAW               SUITS• The purpose of malpractice lawsuits is ...
• 9. ONGOING, RE-REGISTRATION AND DE-  REGISTRATION•• A person shall not be entitled to practise in medical laboratories  ...
10. CRITERIA FOR PRE-SERVICE EDUCATIONAL CURRICULUM–All curricula, graduation criteria and training institutions shall be ...
case1BLOOD TRANSFUSION REACTION• A Medical Laboratory Technologist is working night  duty, and he gets a bell notice and a...
Case 2• It is Early January, Food handlers attend the  Public Health screening clinic before they could  receive the Schoo...
A false Positive Pap Smear•   Analyse the scenarion?•   Unnecessary surgery•   Death•   Drug toxicity• A false negative , ...
Case 3• A laboratory practitioner is working night duty and  receive a request to perform a test of Urea , Na,  Cl, and Cr...
Case 4.• Context.-Shigella dysenteriae type 2 is rare in the United  States, and outbreaks associated with this pathogen a...
• Main Outcome Measures.-We interviewed laboratory staff and performed  identification, serotyping, and pulsed-field gel e...
• An Outbreak of Shigella dysenteriae Type 2 Among Laboratory Workers Due to Intentional  Food Contamination  (JAMA, 1997)...
THE ROAD AHEAD NOW?
• THANK YOU FOR LISTENING
Association of Medical Laboratory Scientists of Lesotho         “advanced technology advances Health”                   Re...
The Role of Medical Laboratory    Scientists (Professional) Association-                    AMLSL•  Unlike the MLS BOARD ,...
cont• An association can lobby for the interests of its  members and the profession of MLS.• AMLSL provides a united voice...
Cont• Members pay dues to enjoy membership  benefits- journal, congress fees, discounts travel• Primary function od AMLSL:...
• It provides a platform of networking, learning and  sharing• Promote Education and practice standards• Organises congres...
cont• Advocacy• Careers• Provide information relevant to all walks of  Laboratory Medicine• Motivate professionals and giv...
• Thank you
Cyanides-Overview• HCN and CK  – Highly volatile  – Easily dispersed as aerosols  – Readily soluble and stable in water  –...
Cyanides-Toxicity• Inhibits oxidizing enzymes containing ferric  iron, mainly cytochrome oxidase• Interferes with aerobic ...
Cyanides-Toxicity• Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN)  – 60 mg•min/m3 - No serious symptoms  – 200 mg•min/m3 - Fatal after 10 minutes ...
Protective Equipment• Chemical protective clothing required• Respirator filters containing silver oxide offer  effective p...
Signs and Symptoms• Diagnosis  – History  – Abrupt onset of symptoms  – Bitter almond odor on the breath• Mild HCN cases  ...
Signs and Symptoms• Low HCN concentrations  – Apprehension, dyspnea, headache, vertigo and a    metallic taste are seen in...
Signs and Symptoms• High concentrations  – Throat constriction, giddiness, confusion,    decreased vision, vice-like gripp...
Signs and Symptoms• Very high concentrations  – Main initial symptom: hyperventilation  – Loss of consciousness, convulsio...
Role of mls professional board and the association
Role of mls professional board and the association
Role of mls professional board and the association
Role of mls professional board and the association
Role of mls professional board and the association
Role of mls professional board and the association
Role of mls professional board and the association
Role of mls professional board and the association
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Lesotho Medical Laboratory Regulatory Council

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Role of mls professional board and the association

  1. 1. Medical Laboratory Scientists- Consecrate Sejojo Phaaroe AMLSL President and Lesotho Medical Laboratory Regulatory Council- Focal person 1st Health Professionals Symposium 2012
  2. 2. Oath of a medical laboratory technologist/Scientist• I solemnly pledge myself to consecrate my life to the service of humanity by generating Quality information and services• I will preserve the Safety, dignity and privacy of patients’ and others• I will lead my life and practice my profession in uprightness and honor• I will exercise my profession solely for the benefit of humanity and perform no act for a criminal purpose
  3. 3. Cont• I will be loyal to the profession of medical laboratory science• I will maintain and promote standards of excellence in performing and advancing the art and science of medical laboratory technology• I will seek to establish cooperative and respectful working relationships with other health professionals• I make these promises solemnly, freely, and upon my honor.
  4. 4. Significance & Meaning of the consecrateMed Laboratory Scientists should not be one of the Following puzzle? Release of non Any reliable results Any Crime unlawfull Practice un- Take unlawfully Mull- licensed patient’s money practice Scandal Un-harmonised Misconduct Discriminate Bioterrorism Ethnic / social patients Fraud discrimination Belief / working relations Religion
  5. 5. Significance & Meaning of the consecrate• All the world is a laboratory to the inquiring mind. Martin H. Fischer• Non-Bioterrorist act, Safety to Patient and others comes first as we use chemicals, Microorganisms and biological organs and hence behave like professionals.• Integrity , honesty, trust is on our operations and reliable results to successfully treat and monitor patient’s treatment• Behind every specimen lies the life of a Patient , careful handling and quality assurance procedures are mandatory before the results are validated, and they should reflect a true state of the patient• Litigation is possible if professionals are negligent.• our work is of a humanitarian , we do not have to steal from sick patients• We pledge to practice with safety, professionalism , and harmony with our colleagues and other health professionals• We pledge to continue inquiring new discoveries that will benefit , but not to harm or robe mankind through Ethical considerations.• We are the Fact Factory.
  6. 6. Client tale• Insurances • Out patients• Drs• Food Handlers • Health programs• Travellers • Government• Job SEEKERS departments• Marriage couples• New born • Health planners• ANC, • Development• FP, partners• PATIENTS • Economic planners• Priv Doctors• Community • Health planners• Criminal investigations • Donor agencies• Legal agencies • Bond contractors
  7. 7. • “The Medical Laboratory is a place where , under rather difficult conditions , we create a protected island where together with our younger collaborators , we use all our mental power and energy , to be an active part of medical development and to enjoy the thrill of new discoveries in modern science to benefit mankind”. Sejojo Phaaroe
  8. 8. • Brancusi "Endless Column", science is infinite; science has no limit , no frontiers, no borders, Just like the "Endless Column", science is a continuous, endless exploration to uncover natures secrets, including our own. This is the adventure we have embarked on. Hence we pledge to be humanitarians of success.
  9. 9. • In a word, I consider hospitals only as the entrance to scientific medicine; they are the first field of observation which a physician enters; but the true sanctuary of medical science is a laboratory; only there can he seek explanations of life in the normal and pathological states by means of experimental analysis and facts of Facts. We are the Fact Factory: Claude Bernard
  10. 10. • In the laboratory there are no fustian ranks, no brummagem aristocracies; the domain of Science is a republic, and all its citizens are brothers and equals, its princes of Monaco and its stonemasons of Cromarty meeting, barren of man-made gauds and meretricious decorations, upon the one majestic level!• — Mark Twain
  11. 11. • Thank you
  12. 12. Role of a Medical Laboratory Scientists Regulatory Board Sejojo Phaaroe AMLSL President and MLS Board Focal personHealth Research & Laboratory Services
  13. 13. BECHMARKKnow where you are and where you are going Consensus building workshop November 2009
  14. 14. Demand by International Conventions• International Federation of Biomedical Laboratory Science- (IFBLS)• Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences-(CIOMS)• AMCOA –Lesotho 2008• International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC)• SADAC-EU – 2009 Lead assessors/Technical assessors• ISO 15189 , Medical laboratories – Particular requirements for quality and competence• documents of other RB, ( IBSM-UK, AIMS, ASCP, HPCSA, Newzeland MLS regulatory board, ZIMLS , Honk Kong RB, Malaysia Rb, Lesotho Nursing Council, Lesotho Medical Dental and Pharmacy Council,
  15. 15. • HOW BIG IS THE PROBLEM? Why do we Need forMedical Lab Regulation in Lesotho
  16. 16. Response? CHALLENGES: OP ‘I s HIV – AIDS LAB WORK OVERLOADS High staff turn over Attrition , and staff shortages Foreign work seekers Professional negligence cases Private Labs, mushrooming Task shifting Increased demand for Lab testing- Insurances, employment, victims of violence, school seekers, travelling Sentinel surveys Health planning and staffing
  17. 17. Response? I see how big it is but there is nothing I can do!
  18. 18. Response!!!! benchmark Medical Lab Regulatory Science is our workplace issue Lets take immediate strategic measurable action LIKE PROFESSIONALS !!!Medical Laboratory Science or LABORATORY MEDICINEis not a replacement profession -
  19. 19. BRAINSTORMConsensus building workshop November 2009 5. Regional & International Collaboration2. Pre-servicerequirementsand training 1. What is composit ion of the board 2. Where that it 4. Legal powers stand 3. Facility and functions of Licensing Board
  20. 20. Role in general• To protect the public.• To do this, we keep a register of professionals who meet our standards for their training, professional skills, behaviour and health.• We will take action against registered professionals who do not meet our standards or who use a protected Medical Technologist (MT) or Medical Laboratory Scientist (MLS) title illegally• The Dogs with no falling teeth when professional Negligence emanate
  21. 21. Mission of the MLS Board• To protect the public health or welfare of people of Lesotho by ensuring that each person Licensed as a Medical Laboratory Practitioner is Competent to Practise safely• The board shall be empowered by the Legislation with Regulatory powers to regulate the Practice of Vocational, Professional and advanced practice Medical Laboratory Scientist( Technicians, Technologists, and Scientists)• The Board shall meet regularly to execute its responsibilities for administering the Law governing MLS Practice and Education
  22. 22. 4.2 MANAGEMENT SYSTEM INPUTS PROBLEM SOLVING4.1 Organisation 4.8 Complaints4.3 Document Control 4.9 Control of Non-conformities4.4 Review of Requests, Tenders & Contracts 4.11 Corrective Action4.6 Purchasing Services and Supplies 4.12 Preventive Action5.1 General5.3 Accommodation & Environmental conditions COMPETENCE 5.4, 5.6, 5.7 4.5 Subcontracting 5.2 Person 5.5 Test/Calibration of tests and nel Equipment Methods, Measurement calibrations Traceability; Sampling 5.9 Assuring the quality of test/calibration resultsMONITORING & IMPROVEMENT OUTPUTS 4.10 Continual Improvement 4.7 Service to the Customer 4.14 Internal Audits 4.13 Control of Records 4.15 Management Review 5.10 Reporting the Results
  23. 23. Personnel Performing specific tasks Qualified ProfessionalEducation CBE Training Professional Experience + Demonstrated Skills MLS Regulatory Board License
  24. 24. Cont• The Board Shall employ professional and support staff to carry out the provision of the Law along with the Policies, and regulations established by the Board• The Board Pursues its mission by upholding minimum standard for educational programs in MLS• Licensing qualified individuals as Medical Laboratory Scientists and Technologists
  25. 25. Specific personnel to perform: Sampling Tests / calibrationsKeep records Include dates Issue test reports/calibrations certificatesReadily available Give opinions/interpretations/ Authorisations Relevance to patient management Competence Operate particular equipment Training Skills Experience Continuous Educational & professional qualifications CPD + Medical Laboratory Sciences Regulatory Board
  26. 26. Cont• ISO 15189 ; Article 5.1 .2 Laboratory management shall maintain records of the relevant educational and professional qualifications, training and experience and competence of all personnel -certification or License -reference from previous employment -job descriptions -records of continuing education andachievements -competency evaluation -provision for untoward incident or accidentreports
  27. 27. cont• Educating Licenced Medical Scientists regarding changes in the Law• Investigating alleged violations and imposing appropriate discipline on the licenses of those found to be violating Board statutes, regulations, rules and Policies.• The malpractice lawsuits
  28. 28. Professional qualification• The Board in collaboration with the Association will run a programme of post-registration training and advanced qualifications to help medical Laboratory scientists to demonstrate the required knowledge and skills to advance in their careers as Technology and practice advances• In Australia, UK , Malaysia, SA, – Professional Fellowship Programs (FIBMS) / (FIMLS) / (CFIAC) exist through research and records of publications as Professional Doctorates and are an equivalent of Ph. D• Chartered Scientists status- C. Sci• Professional Doctorate Vs. Ph. D discuss differences
  29. 29. PROFESSIONAL LEVELS & ROUTES FELLOWSHIP ( Ph.D. /DSc. FIMLS/FIBMS /CFIAC PROFESSIONAL LEVEL 4 DOCTORATEAdvanced Specialist M. Sc./ M.Phil.Registry Diplomas . B Med Sci.Specialist (Hon.)Registry LEVEL 3Diplomas MEDICAL MEDICAL MEDICAL B Med Sci. SCIENTISTS SCIENTISTS SCIENTISTS Certificate MEDICAL MEDICAL Dip. MLS of Practice LEVEL 2 TECHNOLOGIST TECHNOLOGIST LEVEL 2 MEDICAL Cert MLS Assistants LEVEL 1 LEVEL 1 TECHNICIANS
  30. 30. Research conducted by medical scientists has resulted inadvanced treatments for many diseases.
  31. 31. Client tale• Insurances • Out patients• Drs • Health programs• Food Handlers • Epidemiology• Oveaseas Travellers • Government• Job SEEKERS• Marriage couples departments• New borne • Health planners• ANC, • Development• FP,• PATIENTS partners• Private Doctors • Economic planners• Community • Health planners• School seekers • Donor agencies• Legal agencies • Bond contractors
  32. 32. Eosinophilia in parasitic infestation
  33. 33. Laboratory frontiers-• FNAB-cytology• Estrogen receptors• Genetic screening- BRCA1, BRCA2
  34. 34. Detailed Method of PCR 25 cycles 1 cycle1 step1 step 2 step 3 step 4 94 105 – fold amp of target DNA fragment 74 Synthesis of cDNA 55 Primer annealingTemperature( Åé) 22 1 2 3 4 5 Time (min) (Sejojo Phaaroe MT CT (IAC), AIBMS)--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Step 1: Denature the target double- stranded DNA fragment in the reaction Mixture containing containing primer, dNTP, and polymerase : 940c, 30 secStep2: Anneal primer to obtained single- stranded DNA: 550C, 30 secStep 3: Synthesize cDNA with DNA polymerase: 72oc, 1min.Step 4: Return to step 1- to denature the amplifiedouble- stranded DNA again to yield single- stranded DNA: 94oc, 30 secOne set of the consecutive 1-4 steps is referred as one cycle and perform 25 cycles.Parameters must be optimised for a target DNA fragment as the most efficientcondition for PCR varies depending on a target DNA fragment.
  35. 35. CYTOGENETICS & INHERITANCE
  36. 36. LIST OF STANDARDS 1. DEFINED PROFESSIONAL LEVELS• Medical Laboratory Scientists• - Degree in Medical Laboratory Sciences• -National Diploma in Medical Laboratory Sciences + 3 years Specialist professional training /Registry/ in a recognised institution• - Board Examination• -Board Certified• General subject covered : anatomy and physiology, Instrumentation, cell biology, biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, immunology, Pathophysiology, Quality Management Essentials , Research Methology•• specialist subjects: Medical Microbiology, Histopathology, Clinical Biochemistry, Clinical Immunology, Clinical Haematology, Blood Transfusion Sciences, Molecular Pathology , Cytopathology.
  37. 37. Medical Laboratory Technologist• Diploma Medical Laboratory Sciences• Board Examination• Board Certified• General subject covered : anatomy and physiology, cell biology, biochemistry, genetics, Instrumentation ,molecular biology, immunology, Pathophysiology, Quality Management Essentials, Project• Medical Laboratory Sciences : : Medical Microbiology, Cellular pathology, Clinical Biochemistry, Haematology, Blood Transfusion Sciences.
  38. 38. Medical Laboratory Technicians• Vocational training or trained on the Bench• Certificate in Medical Laboratory Sciences• Basic Medical Laboratory Sciences: haematology, Medical microbiology, clinical chemistry, Quality Management Essentials• Board Examination• Board Certified
  39. 39. 2. DEFINED CRITERIA FOR INITIAL REGISTRATION OF PROFESSIONALS QUALIFIED INSIDE AND OUTSIDE LESOTHO• National:• - Certificate, Diploma or Degree as above obtained from approved institutions that are Board Certified.• - Completion of Board approved Manual during in-service training• -Passed the Board Examination• International:• - Diploma or Degree obtained from approved institutions that are Board certified in the Country of Origin.• -Currently Registered in the Country of Origin• - Reciprocity of Qualifications• - If a candidate comes from a Country which does not appear in the International Directory of Medical Laboratory Science Education of IFBLS they should Pass Lesotho Board Examination
  40. 40. 3. LEVELS OF REGISTRATION – LICENSING• Students• National Students from approved institutions that are Board Certified.• International Students from approved institutions that are Board Certified in the country of origin.• Qualified Professionals• Qualified graduates with board certificate• International qualified graduates with current board certificate in the country of origin which appears in the IFBLS Directory .
  41. 41. 4. ESTABLISH BOARD EXAMINATIONS• - Board Examinations shall be conducted for all levels of professional Practitioners.
  42. 42. 5. PRESCRIBE CODE OF CONDUCT• The code of conduct covers prohibitions and professional Conduct performance and ethics within which Medical Laboratory Practitioners work in relation to patient expectation, limitations and confidentiality. The ethical framework within which a Medical Laboratory Practitioners concerned with• -interpretation and application of Board Registration• - Continuous Professional Development Reporting of Impairment or of• - Advertising and canvasing or touting Unprofessional, illegal or unethical• -information on professional stationery Conduct• -Naming of the Practice -Research, development and use of• -fees and commission chemical, nuclear and Biological• -Partnership and Juristic persons capabilities.• -Professional reputation -Dual registration• -professional confidentiality - Repeal• -Retention of Human organs -Patients right charter• -Signing official documents• -Professional Appointments• -Defeating and or obstructing the Board in the performance of its duties• - Performance of The Professional acts• - Exploitation• -Financial Interest
  43. 43. 6. SET CRITERIA FOR CONTINOUS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CPD) AND ONGOING COMPETENCY• CPD is the means for maintaining and updating professional competence, to ensure that the public interest will be always promoted and protected, as well as ensuring the best possible service to the community.• CPD should address the emerging health needs and be relevant to the health priorities of Lesotho• Maintaining, updating and improving competence
  44. 44. 7. CPD CRITERIA• - CPD is required over a twelve month period and is requisite for Re-registration.• - CPD points shall be set according to level of professional practitioners as well as type of CPD approved activity.• - CPD service providers shall be approved by the Board.• - CPD shall be self-monitored by the individual registered professional practitioner.
  45. 45. 8. DEFINE CRITERIA FOR HANDLINGPROFESSIONAL MISCONDUCT or LAW SUITS• The purpose of malpractice lawsuits is to hold professionals accountable while securing appropriate compensation for losses and suffering. Since a Statute of Limitations may apply to malpractice lawsuits—usually within two years--the victim or the victims loved ones should file a complaint as soon as possible
  46. 46. • 9. ONGOING, RE-REGISTRATION AND DE- REGISTRATION•• A person shall not be entitled to practise in medical laboratories within Lesotho unless he/she is currently board certified.• Renewal fee shall be payable annually.• Re-registration fees shall be applicable.• On-going and re-registration shall be on the basis of CPD compliance and proof of good conduct.• Circumstances of de-registration• Professional misconduct• Payment failure of membership fee• CPD non-compliance
  47. 47. 10. CRITERIA FOR PRE-SERVICE EDUCATIONAL CURRICULUM–All curricula, graduation criteria and training institutions shall be board approved.–All institutional faculty shall be Board approved in collaboration with CHE–The Board shall enforce adherence to set standards within the approved curriculum.–The Board shall provide a current list of approved training institutions, curricula and qualifications.
  48. 48. case1BLOOD TRANSFUSION REACTION• A Medical Laboratory Technologist is working night duty, and he gets a bell notice and a porter gives him blood to perform a x-match for blood transfusion. The Patients request form is written urgent with a diagnosis of Road traffic accident. The Doctor Follows the Blood request sent by the Porter and ask the Technologist to urgently process 4 Units of Blood as the Patient is Pale and bleeding massively . A technologist performs a group which is group A and decide to give all 3 units labelled group A without performing x-matching techniques because the Doctor is Nailing him and he is lethargic he needs a sleep. The Units of Blood are transfused but later the Patient develops transfusion reactions• Analyse the scenario .
  49. 49. Case 2• It is Early January, Food handlers attend the Public Health screening clinic before they could receive the School feeding and Catering contract and are sent to the Laboratory for Widal test, VDRL and Stool culture . The Widal test of One of the handler test Positive , so she bribes the Laboratory Technologist to report it falsely as Negative as she desperately needs to win a school feeding tender.• An out break of Typhoid erupts in one of the schools when the school open late January and vertical investigations continue.• What would be the ethical case scenario and consequences of the case. ?
  50. 50. A false Positive Pap Smear• Analyse the scenarion?• Unnecessary surgery• Death• Drug toxicity• A false negative , follow up TB smear• -drug resistance• Relapse• Community spread• Death
  51. 51. Case 3• A laboratory practitioner is working night duty and receive a request to perform a test of Urea , Na, Cl, and Creatinine ,and blood glucose to a patient• The Technologist does not know how to operate the chemistry analyser and writes K+ results within the normal range when the Doctor requests urgently release of the results . A patient was found unconscious , in a park, and she has been sent by the municipal with an emergency umbulance to Mamohato Memorial Hospital and was put on IV line when further investigations are carried• What would be the consequences of the scenario if the patient truly had hyperkalaemia?
  52. 52. Case 4.• Context.-Shigella dysenteriae type 2 is rare in the United States, and outbreaks associated with this pathogen are uncommon.• Objective.- To determine the magnitude and source of an outbreak of S dysenteriae type 2.• Design.-Retrospective cohort.• Setting.-Laboratory of a large medical center .• Patients.-Case patients were identified as laboratory workers who had diarrhea on or after October 28 and a positive stool culture or temperature greater than 37.8°C. Laboratory workers with diarrhea only were probable case patients.
  53. 53. • Main Outcome Measures.-We interviewed laboratory staff and performed identification, serotyping, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis on isolates from case patients, implicated food, and laboratory stock culture.• Results.-From October 29 through November 1, a total of 12 (27%) of 45laboratory staff developed severe, acute diarrheal illness; 8 had S dysenteriae isolated from stool and 4 were hospitalized. All case patients reported having eaten muffins or doughnuts placed in the staff break room on October 29. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis• showed stool isolates from 9 case patients were indistinguishable from S dysenteriae type 2 recovered from an uneaten muffin and from the laboratorys stock strain, a portion of which was missing.• Conclusions.- The source of the outbreak was most likely the laboratorys stock culture, which was used to contaminate the pastries. Results of this investigation underscore the need for adequate precautions to prevent inadvertent or intentional contamination from highly pathogenic laboratory specimen
  54. 54. • An Outbreak of Shigella dysenteriae Type 2 Among Laboratory Workers Due to Intentional Food Contamination (JAMA, 1997)• A large community outbreak of salmonellosis caused by intentional contamination of restaurant salad bars JAMA 1997 Aug 6;278(5):389-95 (ABSTRACT)• An Outbreak of Shigella dysenteriae Type 2 Among Laboratory Workers Due to Intentional Food Contamination (JAMA, 1997
  55. 55. THE ROAD AHEAD NOW?
  56. 56. • THANK YOU FOR LISTENING
  57. 57. Association of Medical Laboratory Scientists of Lesotho “advanced technology advances Health” Registered since 1993
  58. 58. The Role of Medical Laboratory Scientists (Professional) Association- AMLSL• Unlike the MLS BOARD , a AMLSL (also called professional association(s) is a private organization whose members must pay dues to enjoy the benefits of membership.• One of the primary functions of a MLS association is to represent its members in legislative, political and practice matters.• It provides a central voice for its MLS membership.
  59. 59. cont• An association can lobby for the interests of its members and the profession of MLS.• AMLSL provides a united voice that can speak out on the issues important to a specific area of MLS practice and/or to the MLS profession as a whole.• In addition, a MLS provides leadership in other areas such as improving working conditions and benefits for MLS Scientists.• AMLSL also may lead the way in developing public health policies and educational continuous professional development
  60. 60. Cont• Members pay dues to enjoy membership benefits- journal, congress fees, discounts travel• Primary function od AMLSL:- To represent members in legislative, education, political and practice matters• It’s a Mouth Piece of Profession• It Provides Central Voice for its Medical Scientists Membership• It can lobby the legislature for the interest of its members• Provides a united voice that can speak out on issues important• It promotes professionalism and standards
  61. 61. • It provides a platform of networking, learning and sharing• Promote Education and practice standards• Organises congresses• CPD schemes• Bench marks• Market and promote the profession• Harmonised environment• International , Regional, National cooperation• Forecast
  62. 62. cont• Advocacy• Careers• Provide information relevant to all walks of Laboratory Medicine• Motivate professionals and give them certificate of recognition• Public Journal• to provide personal and professional support such as Discounts , bank cards, travel discounts , cash advances, arranged car advances, insurances
  63. 63. • Thank you
  64. 64. Cyanides-Overview• HCN and CK – Highly volatile – Easily dispersed as aerosols – Readily soluble and stable in water – Major route of toxicity is inhalation – Aroma of bitter almonds or marzipan – CK has cumulative effect on victims
  65. 65. Cyanides-Toxicity• Inhibits oxidizing enzymes containing ferric iron, mainly cytochrome oxidase• Interferes with aerobic respiration• Lactic acid accumulates and cells die from a histotoxic anoxia• Alters calcium metabolism
  66. 66. Cyanides-Toxicity• Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) – 60 mg•min/m3 - No serious symptoms – 200 mg•min/m3 - Fatal after 10 minutes – Above 2,500 mg•min/m3 - death within a minute
  67. 67. Protective Equipment• Chemical protective clothing required• Respirator filters containing silver oxide offer effective protection – Change filter immediately after exposure
  68. 68. Signs and Symptoms• Diagnosis – History – Abrupt onset of symptoms – Bitter almond odor on the breath• Mild HCN cases – Headache – Vertigo – Nausea
  69. 69. Signs and Symptoms• Low HCN concentrations – Apprehension, dyspnea, headache, vertigo and a metallic taste are seen initially – Convulsions and coma may follow and can last for hours or days
  70. 70. Signs and Symptoms• High concentrations – Throat constriction, giddiness, confusion, decreased vision, vice-like gripping of the temples, and pain in the back of neck and chest – If unconsciousness follows, further exposure can be fatal within 2-3 minutes
  71. 71. Signs and Symptoms• Very high concentrations – Main initial symptom: hyperventilation – Loss of consciousness, convulsions, and loss of corneal reflex – Death by cardiac and/or respiratory arrest

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