Where Business Analysis Ends 4101


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Where Business Analysis Ends 4101

  1. 1. Where Business Analysis Ends Tuesday, May 15, 2007 Robin Grace Principal Consultant
  2. 2. What I am Not talking about <ul><li>Business Analysts’ and System Analysts’ Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Business Analysis techniques or methods </li></ul><ul><li>Business Process management, re-engineering, </li></ul><ul><li>Politics, which team will win the super 14, should Ramp Models be so thin, BEE, Crime, the plight of the whales, global warming, evolution, the Da Vinci code, the oscars, mini bus taxi drivers, mercury poisoning, rap music, Thai food, red meat, avian flu, gay marriages, Iraq, President Bush, Zimbabwe, Dafour, The Gautrain, cell phone cost, the cost of ASDL, Pollution, Carbon Emissions, The independence of the Basque region, Plastic Surgery, Canned Hunting, Vegetarianism, The best Yorkershire Pudding Recipe, Butter Vs Margarine and anything else that anybody has strong feeling about… </li></ul>
  3. 3. What I would Rather be Talking About Fly-Fishing … but they only gave me 30 minutes
  4. 4. Back To the Topic <ul><li>Where Business Analysis Stops and Systems Analysis Begins </li></ul>Long ago in a galaxy far far away
  5. 5. Business Analysis Definition <ul><li>Business analysis helps an organization to improve how it conducts its functions and activities in order to reduce overall costs, provide more efficient use of scarce resources, and better support customers. It introduces the notion of process orientation, of concentrating on and rethinking end-to-end activities that create value for customers, while removing unnecessary, non-value added work. The person who carries out this task is called a business analyst or BA . </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><li>In other words documenting the Processes </li></ul><ul><li>within the business </li></ul>
  6. 6. Business Process Definition <ul><li>“ A process is thus a specific ordering of work activities across time and space, with a beginning and an end, and clearly defined inputs and outputs : a structure for action.” </li></ul><ul><li>Davenport, Thomas (1993), Process Innovation: Reengineering work through information technology, Harvard Business School Press, Boston </li></ul><ul><li>“ a collection of activities that takes one or more kinds of input and creates an output that is of value to the customer “ </li></ul><ul><li>Hammer, Michael and Champy, James (1993), Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for Business Revolution, Harper Business </li></ul><ul><li>“ a business process is a series of steps designed to produce a product or service” </li></ul><ul><li>Rummler & Brache (1995), Improving Performance: How to manage the white space on the organizational chart, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco </li></ul><ul><li>“ a set of linked activities that take an input and transform it to create an output. Ideally, the transformation that occurs in the process should add value to the input and create an output that is more useful and effective to the recipient either upstream or downstream.” </li></ul><ul><li> Johansson, Henry J. et.al. (1993), Business Process Reengineering: BreakPoint Strategies for Market Dominance, John Wiley & Sons </li></ul>
  7. 7. Important Commonality Business Process Output Value Input
  8. 8. Further Definition <ul><li>A business process can be decomposed into several sub-processes, which have their own attributes, but also contribute to achieving the goal of the super-process. The analysis of business processes typically includes the mapping of processes and sub-processes down to activity level. </li></ul><ul><li>Activities are parts of the business process that do not include any decision making and thus are not worth decomposing (although decomposition would be possible), such as &quot;Answer the phone&quot;, &quot;produce an invoice&quot;. </li></ul>Super Process Sub Process <ul><li>Sub Process </li></ul><ul><li>Sub Process </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Big Question <ul><li>When do you stop breaking the </li></ul><ul><li>processes into sub processes? </li></ul><ul><li>When it has no longer has any business meaning to do so </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>When the resultant sub-process no longer adds business value. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Business Process Defined <ul><li>An Elementary Process is the lowest level of work that can be performed with business meaning . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Having started it must be completed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once completed all business information is in a consistent state. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are triggered by something in the business be it outside, inside or temporal (Time) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Elementary Processes Properties <ul><li>Describe what is done not how </li></ul><ul><li>Are technology independent </li></ul><ul><li>Should not be decomposed any further </li></ul><ul><li>Have Inputs, and will have a result Output of value to the business </li></ul><ul><li>Often require access to Business Information </li></ul><ul><li>Will have a trigger (Business Event or Time) </li></ul><ul><li>Whether a process is elementary or not is solely dependant on the way business is done. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Elementary Process Example NOT ? Whether a process is elementary or not is solely dependant on the way business is done.
  13. 13. Elementary Process Example Placed Order Value Statement Order Information Output Customer Trigger Input Customer Info Product Info Quantity Business Information Required Product Information Customer Information Take Customer Order
  14. 14. Take Customer Order Placed Order Customer Customer Places Order Product Information R Order Information C Customer Information R From Customer The Orders department This process allows the order clerk to capture the order from the based on the customers input A customer must have an account with us to buy from us When a customer opens an account we need his phone number and address Adapted from B2T Training Requirements Pack A IIBA Endorsed Education Provider Process ID: Process Name: Detailed Description: External Agents Involved: What causes the process to occur? What happens after the process is complete? Business rules: Data (attributes): CRUD Source Additional notes: Information source: Functional Requirement – AS IS List the group(s) that currently perform this process.
  15. 15. Elementary Process Example Placed Order Order Information Customer Customer Info Product Info Quantity Product Information Customer Information Take Customer Order <ul><li>We also need to document what in the business will prevent it from happening </li></ul><ul><li>The Business’s way of doing business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- in other words… the Business Rules </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Business Rules <ul><li>Nothing to do with a system but rather the way a business does business </li></ul><ul><li>For Example </li></ul><ul><li>How does the packer decide what to put in which bag at a supermarket till and has it changed since we started paying for the bags </li></ul>
  17. 17. Types Business Rules <ul><li>Term </li></ul><ul><li>Fact </li></ul><ul><li>Mandatory Constraint </li></ul><ul><li>Guideline </li></ul><ul><li>Computation </li></ul><ul><li>Action Enabler </li></ul><ul><li>Inference </li></ul><ul><li>Business Rules Applied Barbara von Halle </li></ul><ul><li>John Wiley & Sons 2002 </li></ul>
  18. 18. Documenting Business Rules <ul><li>In a text format, with a mind to the test case </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attached to the Business Process for which it is valid </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>In the Entity Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Diagram </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of Business Rules </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Business Information Rules Diagram Aka ERD <ul><li>A customer must have an account with us to buy from us </li></ul><ul><li>When a customer opens an account we need his phone number and address </li></ul>It reflect the Business Rules, not a database design or technology <ul><li>So we can tell our different products apart easily they have the own product number </li></ul><ul><li>Customers do not always have orders with us </li></ul><ul><li>Products aren’t always on order </li></ul><ul><li>An order can be for many different products with different quantities </li></ul><ul><li>Discount is given for the whole order </li></ul>Customer Order Product Order Item Places Number Address (M) Contact Person Delivery address Credit Rating Phone Number (M) Number Date Discount Line Item number Quantity (M) Number Description Dimension Units
  20. 20. Business Analysis and BPM <ul><li>Same Information is required </li></ul><ul><li>Record information for “AS IS” and “TO BE” </li></ul><ul><li>The Elementary Processes will need to be reflected in a process flow </li></ul><ul><li>Additional Information required, especially if you intend to do simulation </li></ul><ul><li>Metrics How long </li></ul><ul><li>How many </li></ul><ul><li>Etc……… </li></ul>
  21. 21. Elementary Process Example Customer Business Service Boundary Presentation Layer Independent Placed Order Customer Info Product Info Quantity
  22. 22. Business vs. Functional vs. Technical Requirements <ul><li>What </li></ul><ul><li>– Business Activities or Functions (Processes) </li></ul><ul><li>How </li></ul><ul><li>– Functional Requirement </li></ul><ul><li>With which technology </li></ul><ul><li>– Technical Requirement </li></ul>
  23. 23. Business Analysis and Use Cases Business initiative System The scope includes all elementary processes The scope includes only processes that will be automated by the System
  24. 24. Business Analysis Ends When <ul><li>You have fully documented the business requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Defined all the Elementary Business Processes via their </li></ul><ul><li>Inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Value Statements </li></ul><ul><li>Triggers </li></ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Business Information required </li></ul><ul><li>Supported by Logical Data model </li></ul><ul><li>Business Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Text </li></ul><ul><li>Logical Data Model </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Where Business Analysis Ends </li></ul><ul><li>And </li></ul><ul><li>System’s Analysis Begins </li></ul><ul><li>It’s Elementary My Dear Watson </li></ul><ul><li>Thank You </li></ul>