Collapse of the Roman and Han            Empires      Historical Comparisons
Long-Distance Travel in the Ancient                World• Lack of police enforcement outside of  established settlements• ...
Trade Networks Develop• Dramatic increase in trade due to Greek  colonization• Maintenance of roads, bridges• Discovery of...
The Silk Roads• Named for principal commodity from China• Dependent on imperial stability• Overland trade routes from Chin...
The Silk Roads, 200 B.C.E.-300 C.E.          ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.                                       ...
Organization of Long-Distance Trade• Divided into small segments  – Trade done in stages• Sea trade  – Malay and Indian ma...
Cultural Trade: Buddhism and                Hinduism• Merchants carry religious ideas along silk  routes• India through ce...
The Spread of Buddhism, Hinduism, and    Christianity, 200 B.C.E.-400 C.E.           ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc...
The Spread of Epidemic Disease• Role of trade routes in spread of pathogens• Limited data, but trends in demographics  rea...
Epidemics in the Han and Roman            Empires         ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.                          ...
Internal Decay of the Han State• Court intrigue• Problem of land distribution  – Large landholders develop private armies•...
Sinicization of Nomadic Peoples• Social and cultural changes to a Chinese way  of life• Adapted to the Chinese environment...
Popularity of Buddhism and Daoism• Disintegration of political order casts doubt on  Confucian doctrines• Buddhism, Daoism...
Fall of the Roman Empire:              Internal Factors• The “barracks emperors”• 235-284 C.E., twenty-six claimants to th...
Diocletian (r. 284-305 C.E.)• Divided empire into two administrative  districts• Co-emperors, dual lieutenants  – “Tetrarc...
Fall of the Roman Empire:              External Factors• Visigoths, influenced by Roman  law, Christianity  – Formerly buf...
Germanic Invasions and the Fall of theWestern Roman Empire, 450-476 C.E.           ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ...
Cultural Change in the Roman Empire• Growth of Christianity  – Constantine’s vision, 312 C.E.  – Promulgates Edict of Mila...
The Fall of RomeFor centuries after the rule of its firstemperor, begun in 27 B.C., the Roman Empirewas the most powerful ...
Many factors cause the decline of              RomeBy the second century, the Roman Empire seemedindestructible. Yet, by t...
The Fall of RomeInternal Forces      External Forces3 Main Categories:- Political          - Invaders, also called- Econom...
Political     • Corruption in government     • Plebeians had no rights     • Empire too large to       control     • Emper...
Economic•   Slavery•   Unemployment•   Welfare system•   Taxation•   Forced labor•   Decrease in trade
Social   • Christianity   • Loss of citizen’s     confidence and loyalty   • Population declines   • Hierarchical classes ...
External ForcesInvaders, also called barbarians, began to invade inthe 3rd century. Germanic tribes from northernEurope cr...
Diocletian
Constantine
Attila the Hun
The Fall of RomeOnce the Roman army could no longer defendits borders, Germanic tribes began pouringinto Europe. One Roman...
Alexander hellenistic mauryan gupta  india present
Alexander hellenistic mauryan gupta  india present
Alexander hellenistic mauryan gupta  india present
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Alexander hellenistic mauryan gupta india present

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Alexander hellenistic mauryan gupta india present

  1. 1. Collapse of the Roman and Han Empires Historical Comparisons
  2. 2. Long-Distance Travel in the Ancient World• Lack of police enforcement outside of established settlements• Changed in classical period – Improvement of infrastructure – Development of empires ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2 All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. Trade Networks Develop• Dramatic increase in trade due to Greek colonization• Maintenance of roads, bridges• Discovery of monsoon wind patterns• Increased tariff revenues used to maintain open routes ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 3 All Rights Reserved.
  4. 4. The Silk Roads• Named for principal commodity from China• Dependent on imperial stability• Overland trade routes from China to Roman empire• Sea lanes and maritime trade as well ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 4 All Rights Reserved.
  5. 5. The Silk Roads, 200 B.C.E.-300 C.E. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 5 All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6. Organization of Long-Distance Trade• Divided into small segments – Trade done in stages• Sea trade – Malay and Indian mariners – Persian, Egyptian, Greek ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 6 All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7. Cultural Trade: Buddhism and Hinduism• Merchants carry religious ideas along silk routes• India through central Asia to east Asia• Cosmopolitan centers promote development of monasteries to shelter traveling merchants• Buddhism becomes dominant faith of silk roads, 200 B.C.E.-1000 C.E. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 7 All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8. The Spread of Buddhism, Hinduism, and Christianity, 200 B.C.E.-400 C.E. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 8 All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9. The Spread of Epidemic Disease• Role of trade routes in spread of pathogens• Limited data, but trends in demographics reasonably clear• Smallpox, measles, bubonic plague• Effect: economic slowdown, move to regional self-sufficiency ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 9 All Rights Reserved.
  10. 10. Epidemics in the Han and Roman Empires ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 10 All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. Internal Decay of the Han State• Court intrigue• Problem of land distribution – Large landholders develop private armies• Epidemics• Peasant rebellions – 184 C.E., Yellow Turban uprising ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 11 All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12. Sinicization of Nomadic Peoples• Social and cultural changes to a Chinese way of life• Adapted to the Chinese environment – Agriculture• Adoption of Chinese names, dress, intermarriage ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 12 All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13. Popularity of Buddhism and Daoism• Disintegration of political order casts doubt on Confucian doctrines• Buddhism, Daoism gain popularity• Religions of salvation ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 13 All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14. Fall of the Roman Empire: Internal Factors• The “barracks emperors”• 235-284 C.E., twenty-six claimants to the throne, all but one killed in power struggles• Epidemics• Disintegration of imperial economy in favor of local and regional self-sufficient economies ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 14 All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15. Diocletian (r. 284-305 C.E.)• Divided empire into two administrative districts• Co-emperors, dual lieutenants – “Tetrarchs”• Currency, budget reform• Relative stability disappears after Diocletians death, civil war follows• Constantine emerges victorious ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 15 All Rights Reserved.
  16. 16. Fall of the Roman Empire: External Factors• Visigoths, influenced by Roman law, Christianity – Formerly buffer states for Roman empire• Attacked by Huns under Attila in fifth century C.E.• Massive migration of Germanic peoples into Roman empire• Sacked Rome in 410 C.E., established Germanic emperor in 476 C.E. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 16 All Rights Reserved.
  17. 17. Germanic Invasions and the Fall of theWestern Roman Empire, 450-476 C.E. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 17 All Rights Reserved.
  18. 18. Cultural Change in the Roman Empire• Growth of Christianity – Constantine’s vision, 312 C.E. – Promulgates Edict of Milan, allows Christian practice – Converts to Christianity• 380 C.E., Emperor Theodosius proclaims Christianity official religion of Roman empire ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 18 All Rights Reserved.
  19. 19. The Fall of RomeFor centuries after the rule of its firstemperor, begun in 27 B.C., the Roman Empirewas the most powerful state in the ancientworld. Rome continued to expand to include 3continents: Asia, Europe, and Africa.
  20. 20. Many factors cause the decline of RomeBy the second century, the Roman Empire seemedindestructible. Yet, by the end of the fifth century ithad collapsed. Rome did not fall instantly.Instead the empire went through a longslow decline. Many conditions caused the fall ofRome including internal (inside) and external(outside) forces.
  21. 21. The Fall of RomeInternal Forces External Forces3 Main Categories:- Political - Invaders, also called- Economic barbarians- Social
  22. 22. Political • Corruption in government • Plebeians had no rights • Empire too large to control • Emperors plotted against each other for control instead of uniting • Civil wars • Government lost loyalty as patricians moved to villas and stopped caring about government • Army deteriorates
  23. 23. Economic• Slavery• Unemployment• Welfare system• Taxation• Forced labor• Decrease in trade
  24. 24. Social • Christianity • Loss of citizen’s confidence and loyalty • Population declines • Hierarchical classes • Too many cultures • Bread and circuses • Plague
  25. 25. External ForcesInvaders, also called barbarians, began to invade inthe 3rd century. Germanic tribes from northernEurope crossed the Roman frontier and invadedGreece, Italy, Spain, and coastal areas of Asia Minor.The warmer climate, rich farmlands, and wealth ofthe Roman lands attracted the Germanic tribes. Bythe 5th century, the Roman Empire was overrun bybarbarians.
  26. 26. Diocletian
  27. 27. Constantine
  28. 28. Attila the Hun
  29. 29. The Fall of RomeOnce the Roman army could no longer defendits borders, Germanic tribes began pouringinto Europe. One Roman province fell afteranother. In 476 A.D., the Western Romanemperor was overthrown. Odoacer was thenproclaimed king of Italy. The ancient worldwas drawing to a close.

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