Successfully reported this slideshow.
Your SlideShare is downloading. ×


Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …3

Check these out next

1 of 54 Ad

More Related Content

Slideshows for you (20)


Recently uploaded (20)


  1. 1. Pakistan Presented by: Sehar Mangi (B.Ed. IV)
  2. 2. Content  Introduction  CHRONOLOGY OF IMPORTANT HISTORICAL EVENTS  Geography Of Pakistan  Government of Pakistan  Natural Diversity  CLIMATE & WEATHER OF PAKISTAN  Agriculture of Pakistan  Natural Resources
  3. 3. The Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign country in South Asia.
  4. 4. CHRONOLOGY OF IMPORTANT HISTORICAL EVENTS The summary of important historical events of the subcontinent and in Pakistan.
  5. 5. Ancient Time  (3000-1600 BC) Indus Valley civilization of modern-day Pakistan, flourished  (1700s BC) Aryans invade from Central Asia.  (1500s BC) Aryans came into the Punjab region, followed a strict caste system  (600 BC) People became frustrated by caste system  (550 BC) Birth of Gautama Buddha, founding of Buddhism  (516 BC) Persians conquered sub-continent and made it part of Achaemenid Empire of Persia
  6. 6.  (327 - 325BC) Alexander the Great of Macedonia invaded, captured Taxila, Pakistan  (323 BC) Alexander the Great died, his generals divided the empire among themselves  (272 BC) Mauryan Emperor Ashoka promotes Buddhism.  (180 B.C) A.D.Saka dynasties in Indus Valley and northwest  (185 BC) Bactrian Greeks seized northwest Pakistan  (75 BC) Scythians from central Asia arrived  (20 AD) Parthians conquered northern (present day) Pakistan
  7. 7.  (60 AD) Parthians overthrown by central-Asian Kushans  (78 AD) Kushan Empire; Gandharan art flourishes  (300 AD) Kushans declined, Gupta Empire, Sassanian Empire of Persia prevailed; Classical Age in northern India  (400 AD) Kidar Kushans came into power  (445 AD) White Huns invaded Gandhara  (565 AD) Sassanians and Turks overthrew Huns  (600 – 700 AD) Turki Shahi controlled the west of Indus, included Gandhara
  8. 8. Coming Of Islam  (711 AD) Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh, Pakistan and southern Punjab in India  998-1030 Mahmud of Ghazni raids into the subcontinent from Afghanistan  (1058 AD) Soomra Dynasty ended Arab domination, established rule over Sindh  1192 Muhammad of Ghor defeats Rajputs  (1206 AD) Most of present-day Pakistan became part of the Delhi Sultanate  1398 Destruction of Delhi by Timur
  9. 9. Mughal Period  (1526 AD) Babar, a Muslim ruler from Afghanistan, invaded India, established the Mughal Empire  (1526 AD) Babur victorious in first Battle of Paniput  (1530-1556 AD) Wars of succession  1556 Akbar victorious in second Battle of Paniput  1556-1605 Reign of Akbar the Great
  10. 10.  1605-1627 Reign of Jahangir; in 1612 East India Company opens first trading center  1628-1658 Reign of Shah Jahan  1658-1707 Reign of Aurangzeb  1761 Third Battle of Panipat; an Afghan victory over a Maratha army  1707-1858 Decline of the Mughal Empire
  11. 11. British India  1740 East India Company gained political control over most of India  1784 William Pitt's India Act  1799-1839 Sikh kingdom in the Punjab under Maharaja Ranjit Singh  1830s Institution of British education and other reform measures  1838-1842 First Afghan war  1843 British annex Sindh, Hyderabad and Khairpur  1845-49 Sikh Wars; British annex the Punjab and sell Kashmir, Gilgit, and Ladakh "Package," known as Kashmir
  12. 12.  1857-1858 Uprising, variously known as the first war of independence, the Mutiny,and the Sepoy Rebellion  1858 British Raj begins  1878-1880 Second Afghan War  1885 Indian National Congress formed  1893 Durand Line established as boundary between Afghanistan and British India  1905 Partition of Bengal  1906 All-India Muslim League founded  1911 Partition of Bengal annulled  1919 Montague-Chelmsford Reforms; Third Afghan War  1935 Government of India Act of 1935  March 23, 1940 Muslim League adopts Pakistan Resolution
  13. 13. Establishment of Pakistan  August 14, 1947 Partition and independence; Mohammad Ali Jinnah becomes Governor General; Liaqauit Ali Khan becomes Prime Minister  Pakistan was comprised of two wings when it came into existence on August 14, 1947. East Pakistan and West Pakistan  East Pakistan separated in 1971.
  14. 14. Geography Of Pakistan
  15. 15. Location  Post-1971 or present day Pakistan is located in the Northwestern part of South Asian Sub-continent.  Pakistan is situated between 24.50 and 36.75 latitude north and 61 to 75.5 longitudes east  796,096 sq km, Pakistan is the world’s 36th largest country
  16. 16. Government of Pakistan
  17. 17. Federal Parliamentary Republic
  18. 18. Legislative Branch
  19. 19. Executive Branch
  20. 20. Judicial Branch  Legal arm of the government  Constitution provides for the “separation of judiciary from the executive” and the “independence of judiciary”  Entrusts the superior courts with an obligation to “preserve, protect and defend” the Constitution  Consists of  Supreme Court  High Courts  Federal Shariat Court  Subordinate Judiciary
  21. 21. ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION  Four provinces (Punjab , Sindh , Balouchistan , Khyber pakhtoonkhuwan)  One capital territory ( Islamabad)  Federally Administrated Tribal Areas  Federally Administrated Northern Areas (the Pakistani- administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region includes Azad Kashmir)
  22. 22. Natural Diversity
  23. 23. Lakes  Saif-al-Maluk  Dadi patsar  Ansu Jheel  Attabad Lake  Hanna Lake
  24. 24. Valleys:  Chitral valley  Kaghan valley  Swat Kalam Valley  Skardu
  25. 25. Deserts:  The Kharan Desert (Located in Kharan District)  The Thal (Located between Indus & Jehlum)  The Cholistan (Spans an area of 16000 square kilometer)  The Thar (It is the seventh largest desert of the world and third )
  26. 26. Rivers & Sea:  The Indus  The Sutlej  The Ravi  The Jehlum  The Chenab  The Kabul  Arabian Sea at extreme South
  27. 27. Mountains:  K-2 , the second-highest peak of the world.  The Himalaya Range  The Karakoram Range  The Hindu Kush  The Suleman Range
  29. 29. CLIMATE DEVISIONS OF PAKISTAN  HIGHLAND: Northern areas (cold winters, mild summers and rainfall in all seasons)  LOWLAND: Punjab (cool winters, hot summers, monsoon rainfall)  Coastal: Makran and Surrounding areas (mild winters and warm summers.  Arid: Desert areas(Mild winter, hot summers and extreme aridity)
  30. 30. Agriculture of Pakistan
  31. 31.  About 57% of Pakistan's total land area is under cultivation and is watered by one of the largest irrigation systems in the world.  The most important crops are cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, corn, pulses, oil seeds, barley, fruits and vegetables.  50 percent of population is directly engaged in farming or agro-based activities.  In Punjab and Sindh plains are very large. There are irrigated farmlands.  Two major crops are yielded in a year (a) RABI: Sown in October-November and produce is obtained in April-May. Important produces are Wheat, Gram, Oil seeds. (b) KHARIF: Sown in May-June and produce is obtained in October-November. Important crops are Rice, Sugar Cane, Cotton etc.
  32. 32. Natural Resources
  33. 33. Pakistan is rich in natural resources  Coal: Huge reserves of coal are found in Sindh & Balochistan.  Natutral Gas: There is a large number of Gas fields in Balochistan esp. in SUI Balochistan  Salt mines: Khewra is the largest salt mine in the world. Other two salt mines are warcha & Kalabagh.  Gold & precious metals: Gold deposits are found in Reko dik Balochistan. Furthermore, copper manganese & iron is also found there.
  34. 34. National things of Pakistan
  35. 35. National Flag of Pakistan  Pakistan's National Flag comprises dark green colour with Crescent and Star in it and a vertical white stripe. Green part shows the majority of Muslims and white stripe represents minorities of Pakistan. Syed Amir ud Din Kidwai designed this flag based on the flag of All India Muslim League. It was approved by Constituent Assembly on 11 August, 1947.
  36. 36. National Emblem/ Logo of Pakistan  Below is national emblem of Pakistan. It was adopted in 1954. Its colour is green. Crescent and Star is at the top while Urdu version of Quaid's Motto Faith, Unity and Discipline ( ‫ایمان‬'‫اتحاد‬'‫تنظیم‬) are written at bottom. In the centre, four major crops of that time (cotton, wheat, tea and jute) are shown in a form of shield and signify the importance of agriculture. This shield is surrounded with beautiful floral design.
  37. 37. National Anthem of Pakistan  Pak Sarzamee Shad Baad...." is the national anthem of Pakistan in Persian.  Ahmed Ghulam Ali Chagla created the composition without lyrics.  Later on., Abu Al Asar Hafeez Jullandhri wrote its lyrics.  National Anthem was first time broadcast on Radio Pakistan on 13 August, 1954 while formally announced by government on 16 August 1954 followed by a performance of 11 singers including Ahmed Rushdi.
  38. 38. National Language of Pakistan  Urdu is national language of Pakistan while English is official language of Pakistan. Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto, Balochi, Seraiki and many other regional languages are also spoken.
  39. 39. Great Leader / Father of the Pakistani Nation  Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah is the founder of Pakistan. He is regarded as father of the nation. Baba e Qaum and Quaid-e-Azam are his titles. He was a lawyer by profession. Muhammad Ali Jinnah served the All India Muslim League from 1913 till 14 August 1947. He was the first Governor General of Pakistan. He died 11 September 1948 at the age of 71 years.
  40. 40. Mother of the Pakistani Nation  Fatima Jinnah is regarded as the mother of Pakistani nation and known as Madr-i-Millat. She was the younger sister of Quaid-e-Azam. She was a dental surgeon by profession. She actively participated in independence movement with his brother. After independence, she participated in politics of Pakistan. She died on 9 July 1967 at the age of 73 years.
  41. 41. National Poet of Pakistan  Allama Muhammad Iqbal is the national poet of Pakistan. He was a great poet, philosophy, scholar and leader of Pakistan Movement. He was poet of Urdu and Persian languages. He was born in Sialkot. He gave the idea of Pakistan and Pakistanis also known him as Musawar-e-Pakistan.
  42. 42. National Masjid of Pakistan  Faisal Masjid Islamabad is the national masjid of Pakistan. It is the largest masjid in Pakistan. It was designed by a Turkish Architect Vedat Dalokay in the form of a desert tent. It is named after the late king of Saudi Arabia, Shah Faisal bin Abdul Aziz. Faisal Masjid was completed in 1986. It has 4 minarets of 90m height, 5000 sq. meters is covered area. It has capacity of 74,000 persons in main areas while another 200,000 persons in adjoining grounds.
  43. 43. National Monuments of Pakistan  Pakistan Monument Islamabad and Bab-e-Pakistan Lahore are two national monuments of Pakistan.  National Monument Islamabad was completed in 2007. It represents four provinces and three territories of Pakistan. It is located on Shakar Parian Hills of Islamabad.  Bab-e-Pakistan (Gateway to Pakistan) is built on the site of a major refugee camp at the time of dependence.
  44. 44. National Library of Pakistan  National Library of Pakistan is located at Constitution Avenue, Islamabad. It was inaugurated in 1993. It also serves as cultural centre of Islamabad and a working place for Scholars and students.
  45. 45. National Mausoleum of Pakistan  Mazar-e-Quaid is regarded as national mausoleum of Pakistan. Tomb of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah is at this place in Karachi.
  46. 46. National Dress of Pakistan  Shalwar Kameez is the national dress of Pakistan. It has some variation for men and women.
  47. 47. National Sports of Pakistan  Field Hockey (or simply Hockey) is the national sport of Pakistan. However Cricket is most popular sport in Pakistan. Squash, Badminton, Boxing, Volley Ball and Kabadi are also played in Pakistan.
  48. 48. National Animal of Pakistan  Markhor is the national animal of Pakistan. It usually found on mountains. Its height is about 26 to 45 inches and weight is about 40 to 100 kg. Its colour is tan while sometimes it has white and black shades too. These have corkscrew shaped horns; up to 65 inches long in males and up to 10 inches in females.
  49. 49. National Bird of Pakistan  Chukar is the national bird of Pakistan. It is a beautiful bird with light brown back, grey chest and buff belly. Its face is white with black border. Its sound is very nice to listen.
  50. 50. National Flower of Pakistan  Jasmine or Gardenia is the national flower of Pakistan. It belongs to the coffee family of plants and has about 250 species of flower plants.
  51. 51. National Tree of Pakistan  Deodar or Cedrus Deodara is the national tree of Pakistan. Its height is about 40 to 60m long and its trunk may be of up to 3m diameter.
  52. 52. National Fruit of Pakistan  Mango is the national fruit of Pakistan. Mango is indigenous to sub-continent. There are different kinds and varieties of mangoes.
  53. 53. National Drink of Pakistan  Sugarcane Juice is national drink of Pakistan. It is called "Roh" in Pakistan. In summer season, you can easily find a vendor selling fresh sugarcane juice in Pakistan.
  54. 54. Thank You