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Islamic perspective of education


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Islamic perspective of education

  1. 1. Islamic Perspective of Education Foundation of Education Sehar Mangi M.Phil Scholar
  2. 2. Table Of Content • Education • Man ( Learner) • Man’s Mission • Philosophy of Education • Aims of Education • Methods of Teaching • Conclusion
  3. 3. Education • The word ‘education’ in Arabic is ‘tarbiya’. • Raba means to increase the physical size of things. • It also refers to humans and animals, to mean to bring up or to honor the soul and raise it to greater positions.
  4. 4. Man
  5. 5. Man • Human being has three aspects – body, spirit and soul.
  6. 6. What makes Man unique in Allah’s all creation ?
  7. 7. • Developed Mind makes Man unique.
  8. 8. Man • The conscious self or mind has three degrees. 1. Nafs-e- Ammarah : Impulsive mind which man shares with animals. 2. Nafs-e-Lawwamah : Careful or morally conscious mind which struggles between good and evil and regretful for the evil done. 3. Nafs-e-Mutma’innah: It is the mind perfectly in tune with the divine will, the mind in peace.
  9. 9. Man’s Mission • Allah has created life and death so that He can test who among us are good in deeds. • The mission of man is to acquire the attributes of his creator as much as possible and act according to His rules. • Allah says in the Qur’an: “So set the purpose (O Muhammad) for religion as a man by nature upright – the nature (framed) of Allah, in which He hath created Man” (30:30).
  10. 10. Video CgBY
  11. 11. Man’s Mission • Allah denoted His attributes by His names, that can all be summarized under a few essential heads: • Life, Eternity, Unity, Power, Truth, Beauty, Justice, Love, Creator and Goodness. • As compared to the essence of Allah, these attributes are only finite approaches, symbols or pointers to Reality and serve as the ultimate human ideals.
  12. 12. Philosophy of Education • Three aspects which formulated the philosophy of education • Allah and His attributes Ontology/ Meta physics • Knowledge is mandatory for all men and women Epistemology • Are universal, permanent. Axiology : Concept of values in Islam
  13. 13. Ontology/ Meta physics (Reality) • The ultimate reality is Allah • As in Qur’an & Hadith: He is the sole self-subsisting, all pervading, eternal and Absolute Reality, the first and the last, the seen and unseen, beyond the limitation of time, space, and sense-content. • Universe • Allah's relation to man • Soul • Man’s Power • Death • Life after death
  14. 14. Axiology: Values 1. Life 2. Religion 3. Eternity 4. Unity 5. Power 6. Truth 7. Wisdom 8. Knowledge 9. Justice 10. Love 11.Goodness 12.Beauty
  15. 15. Epistemology : Knowledge • Islam motivates to learn all kinds of beneficial knowledge. • The main purpose of acquiring knowledge is to bring us closer to Allah, not simply for the satisfaction of the mind or the senses. • Knowledge must be linked with values and goals.
  16. 16. DEGREE OF KNOWLEDGE • It is based on actual experience (observation or experiment) of phenomena. Knowledge by inference (Ilm al-Yaqin) • It is either scientific knowledge based on experience and the study of natural phenomena which are signs of God Knowledge by perception (Ain al-Yaqin) • It is based on the inner experience of minds(anfus), Knowledge by personal experience or intuition (Haq Al-Yaqin)
  17. 17. AIMS OF EDUCATION IN ISLAM • Facilitate a student’s learning in such a way as to acquire Allah’s attributes • Teach students the fundamentals of Islam which includes: Tawheed, Iman (faith) , Ibadah (worship), Akhlaaq (morals), Shariah (Islamic Law) and Quran • Develop students knowledge of the Prophet and practice the teachings of his Sunnah. • Strengthen the connection between man and his creator.
  18. 18. AIMS OF EDUCATION IN ISLAM • Preserving life’s order. • Developing knowledge and connection with the universe. • Cultural construction. • Nurturing the righteous individuals. • Establishing justice. • Protection of religion, life, intellect and wealth.
  19. 19. CURRICULUM OF EDUCATION IN ISLAM Curriculum Curriculum (a) Subjects that will be beneficial for the satisfaction of bodily needs (b) Subjects that will be beneficial for the fulfillment of the spiritual needs
  20. 20. CURRICULUM OF EDUCATION IN ISLAM Curriculum • Literacy • Language • Science • History and Geography • Music • Food and Medicinces • Law • Music • Religious and Moral Education
  21. 21. METHODS OF TEACHING • Lecture Method • Question-Answer Method • Discussion • Group Discussion • Demonstration • Debate • Recitation
  22. 22. CONCLUSION • As the entity of human being is a combination of two different aspects, spiritual and physical, they must acquire such knowledge which will be beneficial for both the aspects. • Islam not only promotes education but also thinks it as a fundamental duty on each and everyone.
  23. 23. Thank You Any Question?
  24. 24. Reference • Sultana, Q. N. (2012). Philosophy of Education: An Islamic Perspective. Philosophy and Progress, 9- 36. • The Holy Quran

Editor's Notes

  • This was the first instruction that came to Prophet Muhammad from Allah.
    Beside this verse, in a number of other Verses Allah has asked human beings to read, study and acquire knowledge and
    And from these one can easily understand the place and importance of education in Islam.
  • This presentation is a humble endeavour to explain education from Islamic perspective based mainly on Al-Qur’an and Sunnah.
  • The Islamic perspective regarding education may be found in the Holy Qur’an.
    It comes from the Arabic root words raba and rabba.
    The word rabba, on the other hand, refers to humans and animals to mean to bring up or to honour the soul and raise it to greater positions.
    Therefore, the word tarbiya in Arabic, which is a synonym for education, means to help someone in improving gradually in attaining perfection in all the aspects of growth.

  • Allah created the first man Adam and from him his mate hawa and form the them produced men and women in large numbers.
    After creating the body of Adam with clay he breathed into him spirit.

    Allah mentions this through different verses of Al- Qur’an. As for example,
  • Now we may examine the nature of man, for whom the education is meant.
    The body is very obvious if you go look into the mirror that part that you see is the body
    Soul is mental, emotional part l it can be define as emotions conscience, will, motivation mind.
    If some one touch your body you can feel it. I can also touch you by words and it can touch your emotions.
    So the body and soul are areas that everyone of us are in touch.
    But the spirit part is totally different matter, Spirit is way god communicate with us.
    The body serves the soul,
    Soul serves the spirit
    Spirit serves God…
    That is why Allah asks us to take good and proper diet, take medicine if needed and keep the body fit.
  • Animals have only the bodily desires with no or very insignificant quantity of mental ability.
    All living organisms have soul, but of course, there is much difference between an animal soul and a human soul.
  • Animals don’t the capacity to do either right or wrong. The Farishta or Angels have neither bodily desires nor reason.
    Man is between these two extremes.
    He has bodily desires.
    He also has the capacity to know the truth through spiritual and rational faculties. He has his own self which is responsible for all of his actions.

    One part of the soul is associated with and responsible for all the bodily desires and passions which is somewhat same as of animals but with an additional feature of developed mind.
    developed mind is responsible for intellectual activities and human feelings.
    We may call this part as rational part.
  • It seems that Allah wants to see whether and how much can human beings control their appetite and choose the right discarding the wrong application of reason.
  • Now, what is the purpose of creating such a being with complex nature with bodily needs and desires like animals
    In the Holy Qur’an it is said that Allah has created life and death so that He can test who among us are good in deeds.

    This rational part of the soul has the capacity to attain the qualities of Allah.
  • Regarding the attributes of Allah which human beings are to acquire could be found in the 99 beautiful names of Allah
    These names portray the different attributes of Allah.
    Would you like to summarized the His attributes of Allah under a few essential heads:
    Life, Eternity, Unity, Power, Truth, Beauty, Justice, Love, Creator and Goodness.

  • A person may not be able to acquire all the attributes of Allah, though in a miniature form, still one should try to acquire as much as he can in order to become a true vicegerent of Allah.
    As for example, Allah is just, so human beings have to practice justice. Allah is the creator and man also should try to create something, according to his capacity.
    That means human beings should embody Allah’s attributes and act accordingly.
  • Before we start exploring what is education from Islamic point of view or what is the nature of Islamic philosophy of
    Education, would you like to share few words about the meaning of the expression ‘Philosophy of Education’ as understood by
    Western philosophers.
  • What is reality in general?
    In everyday usage , means the state of things as they actually exist.
    In islam the ultimate reality is Allah.
    Death has been decreed by Allah. Every soul shall be given a taste of death.
    For everyone after death there shall be an interval lasting till the Day of Judgement . On that day all the dead shall be raised up again.  All shall fully remember their past deeds.
    WORLD/UNIVERSE He, the Creator, who began the process of creation and adds to creation as He pleases..
    ALLAH’S RELATION TO MAN Allah is always near man nearer than his jugular vein. SOUL The soul of man is of divine origin because Allah has breathed a bit of His own spirit into him.
    MAN’S POWER Allah has subjected for the use of man, everything in the heavens and the earth –
    DEATH Death of the body has been decreed by Allah to be the common group of mankind.
    LIFE AFTER DEATH For everyone after death there shall be an interval lasting till the Day of Resurrection.
  • Values: Those things that are important to or valued by someone, some society or organization.
    Values determine what is right and what is wrong.
    According to Islamic philosophy values are universal, permanent and not relative and should be protect or at least to respect .
    LIFE Allah is living one Himself and gives life to others.
    RELIGION Religion is considered as a basic value or fundamental right of every individual.
    ETERNITY (TIME WITHOUT END) This attribute in its fullness is exclusively Allah’s. Man is created within time for a stated term; yet, he has within himself a deep desire of eternity and for a kingdom that never fails or ends. The way is open for the finite and temporal man to attain life everlasting.
    UNITY The greatest emphasis in the Quran is on the unity of Allah.
    TRUTH OR WISDOM Wisdom as a human ideal stands for man’s search for knowledge or truth. It is something which is distinguished form conjecture or imperfect knowledge and mere believe. 1
    KNOWLEDGE God is all knowledge. He is the Truth. He witnesses all things. Really, nothing on the earth or in the heavens is hidden from Him, not even as much as the weight of an atom.
    JUSTICE Allah is the best to judge and is never unjust. He does not deal unjustly with man; it is man that wrongs his own soul.
    LOVE Islam emphasized on the basic values of love. God is loving and He exercises His love in creating, sustaining, nourishing, sheltering, helping, and guiding GOODNESS “.Goodness is an attribute of Allah and therefore, it becomes the duty of every person to obey his own impulse to good. He should do good as Allah has been good to all and love those who do good.
    BEAUTY Inner beauty has more weightage than the apparent beauty alone. Man is created in the best of moulds and is given a most beautiful shape. Allah created the universe with beauty 
  • Knowledge can be defined as “the state of knowing the fact.”
     Superiority of Adam to angles & their bowing down to Adam because of his knowledge.
  • Knowledge can be gained by three degrees:
    1. Knowledge by inference (Ilm al-Yaqin) Detective one  It is based on actual experience (observation or experiment) of phenomena.
    2. Knowledge by perception (Ain al-Yaqin ) Observatory  It is either scientific knowledge based on experience and the study of natural phenomena which are signs of God & symbols of the Ultimate Reality or historical knowledge based on trustworthy reports.
    3. Knowledge by personal experience or intuition (Haq Al-Yaqin) Empirical one
     It is based on the inner experience of minds(anfus), because Allah reveals His signs through inner experience of the people too.
  • Aim of Education is to help or
    facilitate a child’s learning in such a way as to acquire Allah’s
    attributes according to one’s ability (rabat) so that one can act
    accordingly, after being helped in developing physically
  • On the onset subject matters of the curriculum could be divided
    into two broad divisions: (a) subjects that will be beneficial for
    the satisfaction of bodily needs, (b) subjects that will be
    beneficial for the fulfillment of the spiritual needs. Of course,
    there are some which are for both. There are a number of
    verses in Al Quran that gives the indications as to what are the
    most important field of investigation or study. We may
    highlight some of them here.
  • According to Islamic philosophy and the history of Islamic Education these are Method of Teaching:  Lecture Method (Khutba-e- Hajjatul Wida & Khutba before Prayer of Juma)  Question-Answer Method (Questions of villagers & holy companions related to religion, management, administration etc.)  Discussion (the discussion of As’hab-e- Suffa)
    27.  Group Discussion (Group discussion of Imam Azam’s pupils in his class)  Demonstration (Hazrat Ali’s [r.a.] performing Wazu and other practices)  Debate (Debates among the pupils of Imam Azam [r.a.] on varios topic like time table of prayers etc)