Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Human right

3,103 views

Published on

First year First Sem

  • Be the first to comment

Human right

  1. 1. Group 7 Human Rights and Islam MUHAMMAD NABIL BIN AHMAD NADRI [1010625] NIK MUHAMMAD BIN NIK SOH [1122631] AINA MARDHIAH BINTI KAMARUDDIN [1216270] SITI AMNAH BT MOHAMAD AZHAR [1227914] NUR SHARMIMI BINTI BAKRI [1310340] FASIHA BINTI BUSTAMI [1318146]
  2. 2. DEFINITION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
  3. 3. DEFINITION OF HUMAN RIGHTS • : Rights ( as freedom from unlawful imprisonment, torture and execution) regarded as belonging fundamentally to all persons • - The basic rights and freedom to which all humans are entitled, often held to include the right to life and liberty, freedom of thought and expression, and equality before the law • - Belong to individual as a consequence of being human • - This term is wide use after World War II, replacing earlier phrase, “natural rights” • - Main source of contemporary conception of human rights is come from Universal Declaration of Human Rights(United Nation, 1948) • - There is 30 Articles stated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by UN
  4. 4. CATEGORISATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
  5. 5. 1. First Generation Rights ( Civil and Political Rights ) Right to life, freedom of assembly and association, freedom of expression, freedom of religion, freedom from torture, cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment, right to fair hearing, dignity, equality and privacy, freedom from slavery and forced labour and freedom of movement. 2. Second Generation Rights ( Economic, Social and Cultural Rights ) Rights to be employed, adequate housing, adequate standard of living, education, and social security. Despite of that, the rights of children, women, minorities and person with disabilities also fall under this category too. 3. Third Generation Rights ( Collective Human Rights ) Right to self-determination, right to economic and social development, right to natural resources, right to communicate and communication rights, right to cultural heritage, right to intergenerational equity and sustainability.
  6. 6. UNIVERSALITY AND CULTURAL RELATIVISM OF HUMAN RIGHTS
  7. 7. UNIVERSALITY AND CULTURAL RELATIVISM OF HUMAN RIGHT Universality to promote human security, the way forward is therefore to work on a better and more impartial implementation of human right rather than leaving it to governments to judge which culture is worth protecting and which elements of a culture can be legitimately oppressed. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood Cultural relativism the idea that one’s beliefs, morals, ethics and customs are relative to the social context within which one lives. The United Nations Department of Public Information defines cultural relativism as, “the assertion that human values, far from being universal, vary a great deal according to different cultural perspectives. Cultural relativism maintains that there is an irreducible diversity among cultures because each culture is a unique whole with parts that none of them can be understood or evaluated without reference to the other parts and to the cultural whole, the so-called pattern of culture’’ (Lawson, 1998). *according to cultural relativist view, human rights are culturally relative rather than universal.
  8. 8. HUMAN RIGHTS IN ISLAM
  9. 9. Basic human rights -to all human being -live in justice, equality and free from any fear -help a needy person -respect each other Rights of citizens in an Islamic state -security of life and property -have the right to think out loud -form an association -choose their own religion Rights of enemies at war -non combatants: cannot kill them without any reason -combatants : don’t declare the war : cannot tied a person to be killed, using fire and attack wounded soldiers : respect dead body and return the corpses to the enemy
  10. 10. INTERNATIONAL VERSUS ISLAMIC HUMAN RIGHTS
  11. 11. INTERNATIONAL VERSUS ISLAMIC HUMAN RIGHTS INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS: •All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. •No one shall be held in slavery or servitude •Everyone charged with any penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial •The right to have freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state. •The right of thought, conscience and religion or belief • Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. •Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.
  12. 12. ISLAMIC HUMAN RIGHTS: • Rights of Enemies at War 1. Right of the non-combatants - concerned such as women, children, old and infirm 2. Rights of the combatants - torture with fire - protection of the wounded - the prisoner of the War should not be Slain - no one should be tied to be killed - rules about declaration of war
  13. 13. Malaysian Opinions On the Issue of LGBT
  14. 14. •Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Trasverstites (LGBT) culture already existed in this region since antiquity such as Hikayat Panji (Farish A. Noor, 2009) •However, never formed into a society or community organization such happened of post WWII •Westernization policies of early modern Malaysia shape the conflict with existing values, religions, customs, political perspectives, etc.
  15. 15. • Malaysia classified LGBT culture as a crime according to National Constitution: Civil Law- 'Malaysia‘s’ Penal Code of Section 377A' did prohibits carnal intercourse against the order of nature, which includes oral and anal sex. While, according to Section 377B of the same, offenders can be punished with up to twenty years in prison and also liable to whipping.
  16. 16. • Syariah Law - 'Syariah Criminal Offences Act (Federal Territories)1997(Act 559) also states that those found guilty of sodomy(liwat) or lesbian relations(musahaqah) are liable to be fine of up to RM 5000, imprisonment for up to three years, whipping not exceeding six strokes, or any combination thereof.
  17. 17. • However groups supporting LGBT such as SUHAKAM, SUARAM, Sister in Islam (SIS), Seksualiti Merdeka (SM), etc. argued the acts against British commonwealth and UNHCR policies and principles. • Malaysia government stresses their autonomous right in shaping the constitutional acts. • Supporting group argued about Clause 1 of Article 8 which some translated as applicable to the social minorities of LGBT including Interssexuals, transvestites however refuted back by figures stressing the matter as referring to sex of gender not of sexual orientation.
  18. 18. • Political agendas shaped the perspective of human right over LGBT societies • 1998 Sodomy Trials of Anwar Ibrahim sparked pros and cons of stands over the position of LGBT in societies. • The notion arisen later became worsen and vile enough to breach optimum human rights of LGBT-practising citizens however popular among partisans arguments – problem unsolved
  19. 19. • LGBT society subjects to drastic and inquisitional measures by government as well as traditional-mass societies such as:  Public arrest Barred from mass-media (e.g. TV and radio broadcastings, internet, blogs, FB, theater, movie-making industries) Urge to stratified normal-abnormal education by ministry Illegal satus of organisation or clubs Subject to family or society torments and banishments.
  20. 20. • Problem unsolved though existed since 50-60 years ago. • No proper studies conducted- if ever only involved patches and not holistic efforts. • Much data relying on commonwealth, un-indigenous studies which irrelevant. • Yet, dialogue or much bigger-scale proggramme to look into this matter still barred and illegalized by government
  21. 21. CONCLUSION
  22. 22. CONCLUSION EVERY HUMAN BEINGS HAS HIS OWN HUMAN RIGHTS AND THAT RIGHTS HAVE EVEN MORE STRENGTH WITH SUPPORTS FROM GOVERNMENT OR STATES. IT IS INTERNATIONAL NORMS THAT HELP TO PROTECT ALL PEOPLE EVERYWHERE AROUND THE WORLD FROM WHATEVER REASON OF SEVERE POLITICAL , LEGAL AND SOCIAL ISSUES . HOWEVER, THERE IS STILL COUNTRIES THAT STILL NOT COMPLY OR LOOK DOWN THE HUMAN RIGHTS. WE SHOULD CONSIDER THIS RIGHTS AS A MOTIVATION FOR US TO DO GOOD DEEDs AND HELP OTHERS, WHILE WE STILL HAVE IT.

×