Successfully reported this slideshow.

Space arch eng



Upcoming SlideShare
Space hotel eng_1
Space hotel eng_1
Loading in …3
1 of 144
1 of 144

More Related Content

Related Audiobooks

Free with a 14 day trial from Scribd

See all

Space arch eng

  1. 1. MAKAROV’S SPACE ARCHITECTURE Author: Sergey Makarov Address: Esplanades, 6 - 64, Riga, Latvia E-mail: Website: October 2014
  2. 2. In October 2012 at the invitation of the Federal University of Rostov I did in Rostov-on- Don (Russia) report, which was called "Makarov's Cable-stayed Networks for Earth and Space Architecture." During my speech one of the enthusiasts made a full video of my report, and then he put this record into internet:
  3. 3. For several months, this report was pumped to over 50 video warehouses and they showed it at the Internet as their own. Almost everywhere the report was viewed by hundreds of people and everywhere it was rated 5 stars out of five. This gave me a reason to create this presentation. In this presentation, I showed this report in the full value.
  4. 4. Report: «Makarov's Cable-stayed Networks for Earth and Space Architecture». Author: independent researcher Sergey Makarov from Latvia. I represent information, which is the fruit of many years of my individual work. My report is chock full of new ideas. In preparing this report I have tried to placed it into given to me time, so I am obliged to hold the required rate. I think that this report for someone will be difficult to understanding. However, if you will be interested in the content of the report, by the end of it you'll be able to ask me some questions.
  5. 5. In the book L.G. Dmitriev, A.V. Kasilov, «Cable-stayed roof systems», "Budyvelnik", Kiev, 1974 at the page. 32 you can read the following text: “However, creation a rational orthogonal cable-stayed network on the support contour of three and more inclined to the horizon arches, using just two families of cables through the entire surface is not possible”. On the page 31 in the same book it is written the following: “Justified... is seeking for new rational decisions for creation of cable networks, which would have all the advantages of hyperbolic-parabolic networks and will not contain hard elements, except the support contour”.
  6. 6. All my following information shows that the above-mentioned leading specialists in the creation of cable-stayed coatings were very mistaken in their forecasts. The main "raisin" of my designs is that I was the first in the world, who used the convex-concave cables to form the cable-stayed nets. This has opened up tremendous opportunities for architecture.
  7. 7. And what was before that? Earlier in the architecture were used only convex and concave cables. Convex cables were carrying a payload, concave cables were used to pre-stress and to stabilize the concave cables. So many buildings in the world were built under this scheme, in particular, the famous "Raley arena" (Raley town, USA, 1949), in which were started the using of cable-stayed saddle coverings in architecture.
  8. 8. The curvature of the coatings was clearly not sufficient to stabilize them, this required the using of special stabilizing cables placed inside the building. I decided to improve this solution and create a similar coating not on flat arches, but on the sinusoidal support contour. As a result, my expectations were fully confirmed: the curvature of the coating increased, were not the need in special cables anymore. The result of this decision, you can see on the next slide.
  9. 9. The next slide shows the new structure - "Makarov's Quartet", namely it destroyed the mislead of the experts, who considered this structure impossible. At concave zones the cables work in the usual manner, but at the convex zones they are redistributing their load to the concave zones of other cables of the net.
  10. 10. If you are interested in where I got this idea, take a look at the next slide.
  11. 11. Here you can see "chair of four crossed arms", which many people know. It is this chair, which children enjoy when bathing in the sea for throwing each other to simulate the jumping from the tower. Note the scheme of the crossing hands in this "chair": each hand arises up from under the previous one, moves up and comes to the top side on the next half. Similarly, behave and my cables in shown above structure.
  12. 12. After the "quartet" I made models “Three", “Five", “Six" and “Seven" (accordingly with the number of waves on the support contour). All these nets I have described as inventions and referred them to the Patent Institute. Correspondence with the Institute lasted three and a half years. Against my grids they put forward a variety of arguments that I successfully refuted. One day as one of the arguments in the dispute with the institution I made the structure with different high of humps: I just flexed a piece of ordinary wire for the support contour and made my network on such contour. Such model can be seen in the next slide.
  13. 13. Patent Institute was so pleased by this model, that namely it was used as the main image in the issued me an inventor's certificate, which is shown on the next slide.
  14. 14. When I received a certificate of authorship, I decided to meet with one of the authors of the above-mentioned book - Alexander Vasilyevich Kasilov, which essentially was my main opponent. I arrived to Kharkov and secured his audience, waiting for him to tell me what he think about my designs. To my surprise, he did not say about my designs virtually nothing. Apparently, appearance of my designs was so unexpected for him, that he simply not found for me any "decent words." Unfortunately, at the present time Alexander Vasilyevich Kasilov is no longer alive. And now look, please, at the next slide.
  15. 15. Some experts had doubts that curved in three ways cables can withstand severe pressure. Above was shown my “Quartet", which was braided by me 25 years ago. The fact that the bearing ability of the network is very high, each man can see at these two pictures shown: deformation of the network from the iron anvil is so small that it simply impossible to note. At the next slide from the side of one of the humps of the support contour is shown the quasiorthogonal network spanned at the support contour with the three sine waves.
  16. 16. On the next slide you can see a similar network spanned by the support contour consisting of five waves of a sine wave.
  17. 17. The next slide shows a quasiorthogonal net on seven waves of a sine wave. Support contour was created from thin copper pipe. It is not difficult to see that this construction has no any thrust: all the efforts from the cable network are entirely extinguished by support contour. With the construction of such a structure on the ground we do not need any external quickdraws, which often were used in the construction of cable-stayed structures based on the hyperbolic paraboloid with two humps.
  18. 18. I want to note: for each of the shown networks I re-invented the scheme of weaving. After "Seven" I created the "Eight" and "Nine", and then I got the afflatus and discovered a law for the formation of networks of such type. I opened a law, which covers a range of cable-stayed networks with the number of waves on the contour from four to infinity. This law is very important discovery, I think. Nothing like this discovery previously not existed nor in engineering, nor in architectural design. Previously, every structure was the result of process of the solely single product creation.
  19. 19. Now let us turn to the cosmos. My structures have no thrust. This allows you to use them to create a wide variety of structures in outer space. Have long was voiced the idea of c reating in space some confined spaces, such, for example, as Dyson spheres. While creating the Dyson sphere around a planet, we can create an atmosphere inside the sphere and make this planet habitable for humans. To create the hermetic shell inside the sphere we can use, for example, a special self-hardening in space resin by firm "Hughes".
  20. 20. The next slide shows an embodiment of blocking together two modules of the "Six". Such blocking may be needed for the Dyson Sphere creation and for building in outer space of others necessary to mankind facilities.
  21. 21. There is an idea: to create a structure at low- Earth orbit that would act like a conventional mirror (reflector). Reflecting sunlight to Earth such a structure would allow to work at the cornfield, build the objects and make some other works at night with very good lighting. To solve this problem may well be applied and my structures. The next slide shows the initial stage of the creation a space reflector from my "Six" . Reflecting surface of the reflector can be collected from the individual reflective petals, each of which must be "stitched" to the existing cable-stayed network.
  22. 22. The next slide idea of p lacing at low-Earth orbit space reflectors has been further developed. Here, one reflector is connected to the second one. Developing this idea, we can go on and lock together several my "Sixes" to get in the needed area of t he Earth's surface a very high level of illumination.
  23. 23. The next slide shows the option to create the space laboratory, for example. The outer concave surface of such laboratory may be, for example, a space reflector. One such reflector may be in use, but the opposite reflector may be used, for example, for repair work or maintenance work.
  24. 24. The next slide shows the idea of u sing, for example, "Six" for the construction of multi-storey facilities on the Moon or any other planet. Because the force of gravity on the Moon is very small, number of storeys of such structures can be quite large. The main thing - the initial idea, but further we'll see…
  25. 25. Intuition tells me that in outer space will be most in demand my "Trojka", "Quartet", "Five" and "Six". Corresponding models are shown on the next slide.
  26. 26. The next slide shows the schemes of cables for "Trojka", "Quartet", "Five" and "Six". In these schemes the concave zones of networks are marked with black dots, the cables going along the bottom of the network are dashed, but the cables, which are on top of the network, are shown by solid lines. On the left halves of schemes are shown corners occupied by zones, which are clearly raised up or clearly omitted down. Angles "phi" (see the right halves of schemes) show the sectors of the same orientation of cables.
  27. 27. It is seen that while the number of humps on the support contour becomes more and more, number of sectors with the same relative orientation of cables getting bigger. Not difficult to notice that due to the using of convex-concave cables the whole network consists from an interlocked individual zones of the gipar-type that previously thought impossible without the using of harsh elements. In this case one area of net succinctly goes into the next area. The same cable in one area of its path have the carrying function, but in another area it is already strained cable, etc.
  28. 28. I have often thought that the cable-stayed networks created by me on the sinusoidal wave-like support contours look very succinctly. It can not be that such undulating surfaces are not met before in the history of mankind. I spent a lot of time on trying to find somewhere in the history of something like my surfaces. And I did it.
  29. 29. Take a look at the next slide. It shows a picture that I found on the Internet. My predecessor in a similar simulation was Dutch scientist Frits Zernike, winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1953. Zernike was engaged mainly in optics. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for the development of phase-contrast microscope.
  30. 30. As about the shown surface, this surface is a three-dimensional graph of one of the functions, which all the world now call "Zernike polynomials." Without going into deep math, I note the following: although the Zernike and had nothing with the cable-stayed structures, he created for optics an interesting family of orthogonal polynomials. It is possible to apply such polynomials for the mathematical description of the surfaces of my cable-stayed networks. Limited time just does not allow me to delve more into this topic.
  31. 31. One of the space problems is the task of creation of cosmic multifunctional platforms. This problem can be solved with the using of cable-stayed networks. It turned out that my networks can successfully be formed for support contours that are composed of straight elements. After creating a network the structure can be assembled to the center. As a result, we get a ready platform with the full operational readiness. One embodiment of such a platform is shown on the next slide.
  32. 32. The next slide is also devoted to space platform. Unlike from the preceding platform this platform, for example, has a two-layer network. Such a network would be certainly tougher. With the help of such kind of network were formed additional hangars around all the outer contour. These hangars can be used, for example, in military aims to place there some kind of defensive missile systems.
  33. 33. The next slide shows the further development of the theme of space platforms. Here you can see the folding cosmic hangar. On the top zigzag contour is spanned the first network. At the bottom zigzag contour is spanned the second network. As a result, was created some internal space, which can become hermetically closed volume for creation in it some kind of research laboratory.
  34. 34. The next slide shows the same hangar folded. In this form it can be easy delivered from the plant to the near-Earth orbit, and then we can make its opening and perform additional installation works and of encapsulation.
  35. 35. Space platform does not have to be a simple flat surface. Take a look at the next slide. Here is shown the structure, which can be, for example, a cosmic reflector or cosmic radio antenna. The peculiarity of this construction is that the joint point for assembling of pair of contour elements was moved so that ratio of one its shoulder to the other was 2:1. Due to this, when opening the contour, arises the effect of the structure opening like a lily.
  36. 36. Below, the same structure is shown in half-folded state.
  37. 37. The next slide shows another space platform, or more precisely - its mathematical model. This platform has a support contour of thirty-two cruciform elements. Due to this, it can be unfolded to cover a very large area.
  38. 38. The idea of its application in space is as follows: field formed by its mesh surface, can be effectively used as the site for the construction on it of various habitable sealed modules. In short, we create a space platform and build on it a "community." To live in such a community would be much better than, for example, in the isolated capsule that hangs alone in the cosmos. At the same time all navigation issues and mutual assistance in such community could be resolved much more efficiently.
  39. 39. The next slide shows the design that I would call "artificial planet". The shown above structures of the "double layer platform" type (three copies) are integrated in such a way that together they form a rigid three dimensional structure. To imagine her structure, let's think about the three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system. Three above-mentioned two-layer space platforms are placed into three mutually intersecting planes of the system.
  40. 40. The next slide shows the possible development of the theme of creation in the open space artificial planet. For its creation, applied two series of inclined rigid elements (in this my structure is similar to the famous tower of Shukhov). One group of rigid elements is tilted to the right. Another series of the similar elements is tilted to the left. My networks could be created on such obtained zigzag support contours.
  41. 41. In this case, you can create multiple "floors" for their using in different needs. The most interesting thing is that all the forces of cable networks perceives only one rope, which is at the center of design and pulls the two poles as shown on this picture.
  42. 42. As I mentioned earlier, the modules on the basis of a regular hexagon very conveniently could be blocked to each other into a structure like a honeycomb. The next slide shows a module, which I have modeled in the program «Wolfram Mathematica».
  43. 43. Variant of blocking such modules in the horizontal direction is shown on the next slide.
  44. 44. After horizontal blocking of such modules they may be coupled and vertically too. This give us high-rise buildings, which can be implemented on the surfaces of other planets, and in outer space. Such vertical structure is shown on the next slide.
  45. 45. To implement the idea of a multi-storey building you can use not only hexagonal, but also any other module. The next slide shows the option to create a cosmic multi-storey building on the basis of three octagonal space platforms.
  46. 46. Having found that the program «Wolfram Mathematica» is very convenient for me to construct the necessary objects, I began to widely use it in my work. The following series of pictures - is the result of my exercises with this program. The following image shows how the above-described "construction field" could be used to host the series of residential space modules.
  47. 47. After placing on the specified field several housing units, we can build at the top of them the second floor as is shown on the next slide.
  48. 48. But for what we need a second floor? On this floor you can place another series of inhabited residential units. And it is possible to use the upper floor as a landing site for the space shuttle.
  49. 49. Much has been said and written about the future creation of a "space hotels". Even several private companies have such plans. I see a similar hotel consisting of the above-described series of airtight units that are, namely, "residental modules". These modules are mounted on a space platform of the cables. Several such platforms are blocked in the vertical direction. The upper platform serves as the landing site for the space shuttle that brings guests and then returns them to the Earth. The following slide also shows us a possible variant of the "space hotel" organization.
  50. 50. I want to note: you can build the residential floors as many as you need. The moving between them will provide you a space elevator, or even a simple rope. I think that for many will be interested in the following: the shown in the upper and lower slides space shuttle was also created by me mathematically in the program «Wolfram Mathematica». At the same time I can "put" it on any of my structures and show you from all sides and at any angle.
  51. 51. Graphene - a new material with a thickness of one carbon atom. Its hexagonal cells formed by the carbon atoms are blocked to each other like a honeycomb. Now imagine several layers of such cells, which are arranged in tiers, having some vertical communication. Such construction is shown on the next slide. This slide demonstrates the spatial structure of the graphite. Graphite is very known to us, because it is used in all ordinary pencils. Hope that this structure reminds you of something else. Namely such manner we can place our residential cells in our outer construction.
  52. 52. Suppose that we need to build a Dyson sphere around some of the space objects. The scheme of a possible solution of such a problem is shown on the next slide.
  53. 53. Let's develop this theme further. I recently opened a new direction of space architecture and called it "cosmic nanoarchitecture." My idea is that for the construction of space structures is reasonable to apply the constructive schemes that have already been created by nature in microcosm. Presented at the next slide fullerene C60 shows my vision in establishing a closed shell around any space object. The series of modules such as "Makarov's Five " and "Makarov's Six" in my Dyson sphere are consistently combined with each other to create a completely closed sphere.
  54. 54. The next slide shows the space nanotube. All that is said above for the fullerene C60 applies to it too. With the rotating such a tube around its axis, we will get inside the tube artificial gravity. Of course, in the open space dimensions of such a tube may be very large, which allows a person to comfortably live on inner side of its surface.
  55. 55. For some specific purpose, we may need and not closed "nanotube". One possible solution of this problem is shown on the next slide.
  56. 56. I want to draw your attention to the fact that all three-dimensional objects, which I presented above, contain a closed shell, inside of which is already possible to create a sealed volume and create the atmosphere. However, to meet some tasks we can need the presence of some "windows" in our shell. The following slide shows an embodiment of the organization of these windows: when installing the elementary modules, some of them we can just do not mount.
  57. 57. You may ask: what tasks will require such tricks? My answer: while you mount the "nanotubes" one to other, you may need to organize some passes from one tube into the next one. By making some transitions from the tube into the tube you can create an "integrated laboratory" of the individual tubes, which is shown on the next slide.
  58. 58. I am waiting the question: and what about the space cold? Not cold will be in our cosmic home with such a "single-layer glazing”? The answer is: yes, our "single-layer glazing" will not give us the necessary protection from the cold of space. Take a look at the next slide. What prevents us to create our cosmic home from several concentric coaxial space "nanotubes"?
  59. 59. If we thus will create a transparent coverage sealed to the inner surface of each of the illustrated coaxial "nanotubes", then inside the innermost tube will be not simply heat. There you will can even "walk naked" because the sun itself will deliver to you the necessary energy for heating your cosmic home.
  60. 60. And now let's turn our attention to the Moon. As it turned out, on the Moon there are many natural wells, which are called "lava tubes". Many organizations are engaged in study of options of using these lava tubes as the space inhabited by man. The next slide shows my option to create a lunar inhabited settlement with the construction at the top of lava tube some double dome, mounted into the concrete ring. The space between the domes must be filled by the air that will protect people from large temperature changes.
  61. 61. All objects of space nanoarchitecture need only two types of modules - "Five" and "Six". The next slide shows not "mathematical model", but real "Makarov's Five", which really exists (hangs on the wall of my flat). Network of "Makarov's Five" was braided exactly by my law.
  62. 62. The next slide shows actually existing "Makarov's Six". Its network was also braided according to my law. Thus, the effective preparation of the "cosmic space capture" with the objects of my "space nanoarchitecture" I theoretically already have prepared.
  63. 63. The next slide shows us the real blocking of actually existing modules. I hope that I showed the whole theory of the question fully honestly and transparently in the literal and figurative sense: for manufacturing of my "Five" and "Six", I used transparent plexiglass.
  64. 64. Objects of nanoarchitecture - are not only fullerene C60 (on the scheme of which are based, by the way, the model of most modern sports balls). This may be, for example, and such sphere (see below).
  65. 65. Some number of possible nano-spheres are shown on the next slide. Keep in mind that the larger will be the object, around which you create a Dyson sphere, the greater (in quantity of used cells) will be the figure, what you need. This is due to the fact that each person is more convenient to work with objects of moderate size. It is unlikely that someone will be interested in assembling Dyson sphere, if the size of one elementary module ("Five" or "Six") will be a few kilometers broadwise.
  66. 66. Recently was published my article "Space Globe Architecture." In this article I stated another new direction in space architecture. Take a look to the globe of the Earth. It is divided by the parallels and meridians on a series of dissimilar triangular and quadrilateral cells. If on a convex figure is possible to create such a grid, then further this object can be collected in space using a series of modules such as "Three" and "Four“ (“Trojka” and “Quartet”).
  67. 67. Actually existing "Makarov's Trojka" we have - let's look it at the next slide. I draw your attention to the fact that virtually all of the modules "Three", which we will need for the particular sphere construction, will have the same shape and the same size, which allows us to establish their mass production.
  68. 68. Actually existing "Makarov's Quartet" is also available - let's look at the next slide. A series of blocked in vertical direction "Quartets" will be collected from the modules of different sizes: the closer to the equator of the globe the larger will be module. However, each circular tier of our globe will be constructed with the belts of “Quartets", which have the same shape and the same size.
  69. 69. Now back to the Earth architecture. In the article "Tensegrity - a new direction in architecture" I announced the discovery of a new trend in architecture that uses in coatings of buildings and structures tense cable-stayed designs without any thrust. Such structures are already available in architectural practice. However, only with the appearance of an infinite series of "Makarov's networks" we can speak, namely, about the new direction in architecture.
  70. 70. "Trojka", which is shown on the next slide, I have collected from three flat arches. Previously, such a structure was considered as impossible. For lack of time, I can not now explain to you why each plane arch, which is "pulling in one direction only“, does not fall to the center of the structure. However, it is so. Those who are strongly interested in this issue, will be able to read about it in my article "About hunting bows and arches of support contour" (in Russian), which is located at the St. Petersburg architectural portal «Art to Build».
  71. 71. On the following slide is shown the interesting "Makarov's Five," in which, among other things, was used a vertical shift. Such a solution can be used, for example, in the construction of buildings on a mountainside.
  72. 72. The next slide shows the proposal of the architect Alexey Karachinsky to create mobile theater. This project uses the "Makarov's Quartet," which has an inflatable support contour. Inflatable structures are characterized by the fact that they can be fairly quickly and easily installed and removed. Such operations do not require large expenditures.
  73. 73. The next slide shows the same project proposal of Alexey Karachinsky when you are looking at the building from the ground. Also there is shown the option of arranging of internal space of theater.
  74. 74. Below you can also see the said mobile theater of Karachinsky when you look at it from the side. I want to note that this theater has a good interesting form. When theater is operating in the summer it does not require any heating. If desired, such a theater you can do even without exterior walls.
  75. 75. The following four slides are about my participation in the international architectural competition for the reconstruction of the cinema "Pushkinsky" in Moscow. For this project, I have used four flat arches. The following slide shows an actual skeleton of these arches and the network. I draw your attention to the fact that the arches do not fall to the center. Model stands just on the sheet of paper. Thrust of the network is fully repaid by the support contour.
  76. 76. Below slide shows the same support contour from the front. Contour is installed in the design position - on headroom of vertical columns.
  77. 77. The next slide shows the same frame after mounting a waterproof coating on it. To reflect the sun's rays the coating has a silver surface, which protects the building from overheating.
  78. 78. I would like to inform you that this international competition received over 1,000 projects. My project was not ranked among the winners. However, such my structure have never been used in the world. The following slide shows a general view of the cinema "Pushkinsky" after its possible reconstruction by the proposed by me project. I think you'll agree that this building acquired expressive modern form and well fit into the surrounding historical buildings.
  79. 79. I hope that a series of new designs, which are presented in my report, did not leave you indifferent. I mentioned earlier about made by me discovery - "law compatibility of quasi-orthogonal tangentially-undulated cable-stayed networks." All shown by me networks were built on this law. In this regard, I think it is not acceptable not show the text of the law in this report. Full text of my law is shown in the next slide.
  80. 80.
  81. 81. On the upper slide are shown three hyperlinks. The first line of this slide shows the internet address of the personal English-Russian website of the author. There you can find all additional information that you may need. The second line shows the site address "Space Architecture" of English encyclopedia "Wikipedia", where you will find my several works. The third line shows the address of "Space Architecture" of English encyclopedia "Wikimedia Commons".
  82. 82. I note that the page "Space Architecture" in the encyclopedia "Wikimedia Commons" I personally created about a year ago and administration agreed with me. At this moment the presentation of my report can be considered to be finished. If you have any questions for me, I will try to answer them. Thank you for your attention!