A simplified guide to Risk Assessment in Occupational Health & Safety


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A quick presentation about simple risk assessment techniques that could be applied to daily work activities in the context of occupational health and safety management. It is also helpful to students studying for their NEBOSH IGC exam, IOSH Managing Safely and many Health & Safety certificates.

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A simplified guide to Risk Assessment in Occupational Health & Safety

  1. 1. Risk Assessment in Occupational Health & Safety Dr.WessamAtif 1 Dr. Wessam Atif
  2. 2. Risk Management •  Risk management is a business process that aims to minimize or eradicate risks by maximizing the protection of the assets of the organization in the most cost effective manner. •  It covers wider range than Risk Assessment i.e. risk assessment falls under one of the risk management strategies which is Risk Reduction. •  There are three main aspects to the role of risk management: 1. Considering the risks inherent in a business 2. Devising strategies to minimize or control these risks 3. Integrating these risk control strategies into the business framework of the company. Dr.WessamAtif 2
  3. 3. Risk  control  strategies     n  Risk Avoidance. n  Risk Retention. n  Risk Transfer. n  Risk Reduction. Dr.WessamAtif 3
  4. 4. Risk In the context of HSE, risk is defined as a measure of the probability for an incident to happen and of the potential severity of the consequences. [BS OHSAS 18001:2007] Dr.WessamAtif 4 Severity Probability
  5. 5. What is Hazard? •  Hazard •  Any object, physical condition, or physical effect which has the potential to cause harm. •  Hazard Categories may include but are not limited to: Dr.WessamAtif 5 o  Land Transport o  Air Transport o  Water Transport o  Electrical o  Fire/Flammable o  Temperature o  Explosives o  Radiation o  Pressure ¨  Potential Energy (stepping, handling.. etc.) ¨  Machinery/Equipment/Hand Tools ¨  Toxic/Corrosive/Hazardous Substances ¨  Nuisance/Noise ¨  Vibration ¨  Drugs/Alcohol ¨  Natural Phenomena ¨  Human (security, crime) ¨  Biological Hazard/Illness
  6. 6. •  Incident:  Work  related  event(s)  in  which  an  injury  or  ill   health  (regardless  of  severity)  or  fatality  occurred,  or  could   have  occurred   •  Note  1:  An  accident  is  an  incident,  which  has  given  rise  to   injury,  ill  health  or  fatality.     •  Note  2:  An  incident  where  no  injury,  ill  health,  or  fatality   occurs  may  also  be  referred  to  as  a  “near-­‐miss”,  “near-­‐hit”,   “close  call”  or  “dangerous  occurrence”.   •  Note  3:  An  emergency  situaFon  is  a  parFcular  type  of   incident.   Dr.WessamAtif 6
  7. 7. Dr.WessamAtif 7 5 simple steps for Risk Assessment: Hierarchy of Control measures for removing or reducing a hazard: 1.  Look for the hazard 2.  Decide WHO might be harmed and how 3.  Evaluate / Estimate the RISK and decide whether existing precautions are adequate or more action should be done 4.  Record your findings 5.  Review your assessment and revise it if necessary
  8. 8. Who should do Risk Assessment? •  Team with experience and training in hazard identification and risk assessment. •  Knowledge of the process or activity. •  Good communication and reporting skills. •  Ability to interpret legislation and guidance. •  Attention to detail. •  Managerial influence to implement change. Dr.WessamAtif 8
  9. 9. How to look for hazards? •  Task observation. •  Accident, ill health or near miss data. •  Workplace inspections. •  Job safety analysis. •  Legal standards. •  Guidance; ILO, OSHA, ISO, HSE ..etc. •  Consultation. Dr.WessamAtif 9
  10. 10. Whom might get harmed? •  Employees. •  Maintenance workers. •  Cleaners. •  Contractors. •  Visitors. •  Public. •  Vulnerable groups (young, inexperienced, pregnant, disabled .. Etc). Dr.WessamAtif 10
  11. 11. Risk evaluation Matrix   A] Probability or Likelihood of Harm Occurring Highly Unlikely1 Reasonably Likely2 Even Chance3 Highly Likely4 Almost Certain5 Dr. Wessam Atif 11
  12. 12. Risk evaluation Matrix   B] Consequences or Severity of Harm Minor Injury: Cuts and abrasions, minor skin or eye irritations, etc. 1 Injury requiring first aid: Any injury that requires first aid.2 Injury or industrial disease requiring medical treatment: Deep wounds, fractures, scalds, burns, eye injuries, respiratory infections, temporary blindness or hearing loss, etc. 3 Serious injury or long term medical effects (industrial disease): Loss of fingers, toes, damage to eyes, serious medical effects. 4 Major Injury or Fatality: Loss of limbs, sight, hearing, long term illness or death. 5 12
  13. 13. Table of Risk Rating 13
  14. 14. Dr.WessamAtif 14 •  Elimination: completely removing the hazard Substitution: with a less hazardous substance •  Engineering controls, design and Isolation •  Administrative controls; Job rotation, Instructions and Supervision, safe system of work, etc. •  General tidiness and good housekeeping •  Supplying personal protective equipment www.hse.gov.uk Hierarchy of Control measures for removing or reducing a hazard: --------------------------------------------------------------------
  15. 15. • Potential Risk: The original risk with no control measures in place or with inadequate existing controls. Dr.WessamAtif 15 • Residual Risk: The remaining risk after all adequate, actual and planned control measures. • Prevention controls: Proactive control measures which help prevent accidents before happening. • Mitigation controls: Control measures which help in reducing the severity & consequences of accidents after occurrence.
  16. 16. Blank Risk Assessment sheet Dr.WessamAtif 16
  17. 17. Why record it? •  Accident Investigation. •  Future reference. •  Audits and training purposes. •  Duty of care / Legal requirements. -------------------------------------------------------------- Dr.WessamAtif 17 When to review it? n  In cases of accidents. n  Periodically. n  Change in legal requirements. n  After Audits. n  New Activities / equipment / personnel. n  New info available / New technologies.
  18. 18. RA has to be “Suitable” & “Sufficient” •  All aspects of work activity to be reviewed. •  Routine and Non Routine operations. •  Identify significant hazards and risks. •  Evaluate the risks. •  Identify control measures in place and planned / prevention and mitigation. •  Take account of risks to public. •  Ensure the risk assessment is valid for a reasonable time. Dr.WessamAtif 18
  19. 19. Special cases for a risk assessment! • Pregnant / Nursing mothers • Young workers • Disabled employees “To be discussed with participants as a group activity” Dr.WessamAtif 19
  20. 20. References •  ILO 2001 ILO-OSH: Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health Management Systems. •  BS – OHSAS 18001:2007 Occupational Health & Safety Assessment Series. •  OHSAS 18002 : Guidelines for the implementation of OHSAS 18001. •  HSE 2003 HSG 65: Successful Health & Safety Management. •  HSE 1994 INDG 163: Five Steps to Risk Assessment. •  The Egyptian Law of Labor. •  www.hse.gov.uk Dr.WessamAtif 20
  21. 21. Any Questions? Thanks, Dr. Wessam Atif Dr.WessamAtif 21