-Integration of virtual and physical worlds
-Throughout desks, rooms, buildings, and life
-Take the data out of environment, leaving behind just an enhanced ability to act.
Ellen returns home after a long day's work. At the front door she is recognized by an intelligent surveillance camera, the door alarm is switched off, and the door unlocks and opens. When she enters the hall the house map indicates that her husband Peter is at an art fair in Paris, and that her daughter Charlotte is in the children's playroom, where she is playing with an interactive screen. The remote children surveillance service is notified that she is at home, and subsequently the on-line connection is switched off. When she enters the kitchen the family memo frame lights up to indicate that there are new messages. The shopping list that has been composed needs confirmation before it is sent to the supermarket for delivery. There is also a message notifying that the home information system has found new information on the semantic Web about economic holiday cottages with sea sight in Spain. She briefly connects to the playroom to say hello to Charlotte, and her video picture automatically appears on the flat screen that is currently used by Charlotte. Next, she connects to Peter at the art fair in Paris. He shows her through his contact lens camera some of the sculptures he intends to buy, and she confirms his choice. In the mean time she selects one of the displayed menus that indicate what can be prepared with the food that is currently available from the pantry and the refrigerator. Next, she switches to the video on demand channel to watch the latest news program. Through the 'follow me' she switches over to the flat screen in the bedroom where she is going to have her personalized workout session. Later that evening, after Peter has returned home, they are chatting with a friend in the living room with their personalized ambient lighting switched on. They watch the virtual presenter that informs them about the programs and the information that have been recorded by the home storage server earlier that day.
The Trends in Computing Technology1970s1990sLate 1990sNow and Tomorrow ?
Computers: Size + Number size number One Computer for many people Le Grand Napoleon One Computer for everyoneadapted from: F. Mattern, Dagstuhl 2002 Many Computers for everyone
Types of Computing1. Mainframe era (many people, one computer)2. PC era (one person, one computer) transition phase ( the internet, mobile computing, distributed data processing & storing , social changes , towards Information Society)3. Ubiquitous Computing (one person, many computers & many people, many computers)
Reference: Alan Daniel, Georgia Institute of Technology.http://www.cc.gatech.edu/classes/cs6751_97_fall/projects/gacha/daniels_essay.html
Related Topics: Several terms that share a common vision: Ubiquitous Computing/Pervasive Computing Ambient Intelligence Human Computer Interaction Context Awareness (Context-Aware Pervasive Systems) Wearable Computing Intelligent environments Augmented reality Sentient computing
What makes this possible ? Processing cheaper, faster, smaller, more energy efficient Storage Big, fast and small in size. Networking 1GB in Flashcard format global, local, ad-hoc, low-power, high bandwidth, low latencies Displays projection, flexible materials, power consumption
Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Cf7IL_ eZ38 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jZkHpN nXLB0 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X- GXO_urMow To be continued…
The Ubiquitous Computing Vision Mark Weiser (July 23, 1952 - April 27, 1999) Chief scientist of Xerox PARC During one of his talks, Weiser outlined a set of principles describing ubiquitous computing: The purpose of a computer is to help you do something else. The best computer is a quiet, invisible servant. The more you can do by intuition the smarter you are; the computer should extend your unconscious.
Pervasive (Ubiquitous) Computing Vision “In the 21st century the technology revolution will move into the everyday, the small and the invisible…” “The most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves into the fabrics of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it.” Mark Weiser (1952 –1999), XEROX PARC Small, cheap, mobile processors and sensors in almost all everyday objects on your body (“wearable computing”) embedded in environment (“ambient intelligence”)
Ubiquitous Computing • “Ubiquitous computing enhances computer use by making many computers available throughout the physical environment, but making them effectively invisible to the user.” • Computing capabilities, any time, any place • Machines sense users’ presence and act accordingly • Devices mostly have low power and short-range wireless communication capabilities. • Ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) integrates computation into the environment, rather than having computers which are distinct objects. • The idea of ubicomp enable people to interact with information- processing devices more naturally and casually, and in ways that suit whatever location or context they find themselves in. ~from WikiSource: Weiser, 1993a
Ubiquitous computing, pervasive computing, calm technology Weiser: Available everywhere Everything connected which ideally “weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it” “The computer of the 21st century.”, Scientific American, 1991. “…highest ideal is to make a computer so embedded , so fitting, so natural, that we use it without even thinking about it.” In Designing Calm Technology, Weiser and John Brown describe calm technology as "that which informs but doesnt demand our focus or attention".
Goals of Pervasive (Ubiquitous) Computing• Ultimate goal: – Invisible technology – Integration of virtual and physical worlds – Throughout desks, rooms, buildings, and life – Take the data out of environment, leaving behind just an enhanced ability to act
Advantages of Pervasive Computing: Quick,efficient and effortless. It supports a new class of intelligent and portable appliances or "smart devices" . It gives people convenient access to relevant information . It removes the complexity of new technologies.
Applications: Remote computers will monitor our heath statistics Cars will use the Internet to find an open parking space or the nearest vegetarian restaurant for their owners Used in Digi-tickers or implanted heart monitors In development of Smart Clothes.
Where do we currently stand? Ubiquitous devices (always “at hand”): Mobile phones, Personal Digital Assistants, Laptops, etc. Ubiquitous networks (always available): (W)LAN/MAN (Ethernet & IEEE 802.11) GSM/GPRS/3G PANs (Bluetooth, IrDA, AudioNet etc.) Ubiquitous services Currently mostly “location-based”
Related areas Wearable computing Intelligent environments Augmented reality All will be referred to by umbrella term of Ubiquitous Computing (ubicomp)
General Ubicomp Features (GUF) There are three general features that are shared across a wide variety of ubicomp applications. These features are : 1. the ability to provide transparent interfaces 2. the ability to automatically adapt the behavior of a program based on knowledge of the context of its use, 3. the ability to automate the capture of live experiences for later recall.
GUF - (1) TRANSPARENT INTERFACES Unicom Vision: “pervasive computation without intrusion.” Remove the physical barrier between user and computational device Keyboard and mouse are still the most commonly used interfaces !! Need: flexible interfaces Varied interfaces that can provide similar functionality
GUF - (2) CONTEXT AWARENESS Context – information about the environment in which the application operates and reacts accordingly. LOCATION and TIME are simple examples of context ! Context aware application: is one which can capture the context assign meaning to it change behavior accordingly Need: Applications that are context aware and allow rapid personalization of their services.
GUF - (3) AUTOMATED CAPTURE Capture everyday experiences and make the records available for later use. Constraints: Multiple streams of information Their time synchronization Their correlation and integration Need: Automated tools that support capture, integration and future access of info.
Pervasive computing provides an attractive vision for the future of computing Computational power will be available everywhere through mobile and stationary devices Three key features for Ubiquitous Computing 1. Transparent Interface 2. Context Awareness 3. Automated Capture When Edison finally found a filament that would burn, did he see the possibility of silent but pervasive electrical current flowing throughout our homes, cars and communities?
References Grand Challenges http://www-se.doc.ic.ac.uk/Projects/UbiNet/GC/index.html http://indus.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page http://www.cc.gatech.edu/fce/pubs/icse99/final.html Mark Weiser. "The world is not a desktop". Interactions; January 1997; pp. 7-8. Mark Weiser, "Hot Topics: Ubiquitous Computing" IEEE Computer, October 1999. Mark Weiser, "Some Computer Science Problems in Ubiquitous Computing," Communications of the ACM, July 1997. (reprinted as "Ubiquitous Computing". Nikkei Electronics; December 6, 1997; pp. 137-143.) Mark Weiser, "The Computer for the Twenty-First Century," Scientific American, pp. 94-10, September 1991