The Quest for Dark Matter:update and newsAndrea De SimoneBalkan Workshop - 26 Apr 2013
A. De Simone 1OutlineStatus of Dark Matter SearchesInterpretation of New AMS-02 DataCorrelations and Predictions
A. De Simone 2Dark Matter is RealEvidences for DMCMB+LSSrotation curves of galaxiesgravitational lensing[millennium][wmap]
A. De Simone 3CandidatesWIMPaxiongravitinoaxinosterile neutrinotechni-baryon,Q-balls...(an incomplete list)neutralinominim...
A. De Simone 3CandidatesWIMPaxiongravitinoaxinosterile neutrinotechni-baryon,Q-balls...(an incomplete list)neutralinominim...
A. De Simone 4Search StrategiesCOLLIDERINDIRECT DETECTIONAMS-02, Pamela, Fermi, HESSATIC, FermiGAPS, AMS-02IceCube, Antare...
A. De Simone 5Direct Detectionpositive hints (signals)DAMA/Libra(NaI)2-4 keVTime (day)Residuals(cpd/kg/keV)DAMA/NaI (0.29 ...
A. De Simone 6Direct Detection[CDMS - 1304.4279]CDMS(Si)3 events,<3σ10 100 1000WIMP mass [GeV]10-910-810-710-610-510-410-3...
A. De Simone 7Direct Detectionnull experiments: Xenon, CDMS (Ge), Edelweisspuzzling situation: maybe it is telling us some...
A. De Simone 8Collider SearchesDifficult search, unless correlating MET with other handles(displaced vertex, ISR jets, ISR ...
A. De Simone 9Indirect DetectionKey observable: fluxes of stable particles ( )from DM annihilations/decay in galactic halo ...
A. De Simone 10Indirect DetectionDMDM−, ¯q, W−, Z, γ, . . .+, q, W+, Z, γ, . . .e±, γ, ν, ¯ν, p, ¯p, . . .primarychannelss...
A. De Simone 10Indirect DetectionDMDM−, ¯q, W−, Z, γ, . . .+, q, W+, Z, γ, . . .e±, γ, ν, ¯ν, p, ¯p, . . .primarychannelss...
A. De Simone 11Indirect Detection “Anomalies”“Anomalies” in gamma raysFermi 135 GeV lineFermi ”bubbles”“Anomaly” in charge...
A. De Simone 12Positron Fraction “anomaly”AMS-02 has recently released data of positron fraction up toenergies of ~350 GeV...
.A. De Simone 13the Dark Matter explanation of the excess is already stronglyconstrained by other measurements (e.g. gamma...
local astrophysical sources(e.g. pulsars).A. De Simone 13the Dark Matter explanation of the excess is already stronglycons...
A. De Simone 14Electroweak Correctionse+e-DMDM[Ciafaloni, Cirelli, Comelli, DS, Riotto, Urbano - 1104.2996][Ciafaloni, Com...
A. De Simone 14Electroweak Correctionspπ0π+e+µ+Zγγe+e-DMDMνµ¯νµνeThe final state of DM annihilations canradiate γ,Z,W.It is...
A. De Simone 15Correlations among DM signalsfitsignalDMDMe+, γ, ν, ¯p, . . .EW correctionse+, γ, ν, ¯p, . . .predictionsass...
A. De Simone 15Correlations among DM signalsfitsignalDMDMe+, γ, ν, ¯p, . . .EW correctionscorrelatedfluxese+, γ, ν, ¯p, . ....
A. De Simone 15Correlations among DM signalsfitsignalDMDMe+, γ, ν, ¯p, . . .EW correctionscorrelatedfluxese+, γ, ν, ¯p, . ....
A. De Simone 15Correlations among DM signalsfitsignalDMDMEW correctionscorrelatedfluxespredictions.test withcurrent/future ...
102103102101Ekin[ GeV ]e+/(e++e−)A. De Simone 16Interpretation of AMS-02 datapossible interpretation as DM,without upsetti...
A. De Simone 17before claiming any signal, bkg should be under controlsignal and background fluxes are closely related, bec...
A. De Simone 18annihilation channels?only leptonic annihilation channels are still allowedMDM [GeV ]log10(σv/cm3s−1)Einast...
1.9 0.7τ+τ−µ+µ−A. De Simone 19Interpretation of AMS-02 data: Best Fitsuse only data with E15 GeV (not affected by solar mo...
A. De Simone 20positrons-antiprotons CorrelationsMDM [GeV ]log10(σv/cm3s−1)Burkert500 1000 1500 20002524232221MDM [GeV ]lo...
A. De Simone 21Constraints from other Data-setstaking into account Fermi-LAT diffuse gamma-ray constraintsMDM [GeV ]log10(...
A. De Simone 22tension with e++e - Fermi-LAT data, showing no drop up to ~1 TeV8Dot Dashed: MΧ 2.5 TeV, ΧΧ ΦΦ 2Μ 2ΜDashed:...
A. De Simone 23ConclusionsThe current situation on DM is very confusing...Complementarity: robust conclusions on the natur...
A. De Simone 23ConclusionsThe current situation on DM is very confusing...Complementarity: robust conclusions on the natur...
For prospectivegraduate students
www.sissa.itSISSA | via Bonomea, 265 | 34136 Trieste | Italytel +39 040 3787111 | info@sissa.itA school where training mea...
AstroParticle Physics at SISSAS. Liberati(coordinator)A. De Simone P. UllioT. SotiriouC. BaccigalupiR. PercacciS. PetcovA....
AstroParticle Physics at SISSACosmologyBaryogenesisCMB, Large Scale StructuresInflationDark Universetheory and pheno of Dar...
www.sissa.itwww.sissa.it/appinfo@sissa.itFor further info:Deadline for applications: 24 JuneExams: 4-5 JulyAstroParticle P...
BACK-UP SLIDES
A. De SimoneFluxesFluxes of cosmic rays received at Earth:where the number density is the solution of the transport eq.:en...
A. De SimoneHalo Profiles103102101 1 10 102103102101110102103104r kpcΡDMGeVcm3BurkertEinastoNFW rΡρ(r) =ρs(1 + r/rs)(...
A. De SimonePropagation MethodsMethod 1✘ fluxes of different species are treated as uncorrelated;✓ deal with astrophys. unc...
A. De Simone100101102103106104102Ekin(GeV)Φ(¯p)[GeV−1m−2s−1sr−1]100101102104103Ekin(GeV)¯p/pPropagation MethodsFits of our...
A. De SimoneImportance of EW correctionsEW corrections to DM annihilations are important in 3 cases:1. when the low-energy...
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A. De Simone: The Quest for Dark Matter: Update and News

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Balkan Workshop BW2013
Beyond the Standard Models
25 – 29 April, 2013, Vrnjačka Banja, Serbia

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A. De Simone: The Quest for Dark Matter: Update and News

  1. 1. The Quest for Dark Matter:update and newsAndrea De SimoneBalkan Workshop - 26 Apr 2013
  2. 2. A. De Simone 1OutlineStatus of Dark Matter SearchesInterpretation of New AMS-02 DataCorrelations and Predictions
  3. 3. A. De Simone 2Dark Matter is RealEvidences for DMCMB+LSSrotation curves of galaxiesgravitational lensing[millennium][wmap]
  4. 4. A. De Simone 3CandidatesWIMPaxiongravitinoaxinosterile neutrinotechni-baryon,Q-balls...(an incomplete list)neutralinominimal DMheavy neutrinoinert Higgs doubletLKPLTP...non-WIMP
  5. 5. A. De Simone 3CandidatesWIMPaxiongravitinoaxinosterile neutrinotechni-baryon,Q-balls...(an incomplete list)neutralinominimal DMheavy neutrinoinert Higgs doubletLKPLTP...non-WIMP
  6. 6. A. De Simone 4Search StrategiesCOLLIDERINDIRECT DETECTIONAMS-02, Pamela, Fermi, HESSATIC, FermiGAPS, AMS-02IceCube, Antares, Km3Netγe+, ¯p¯dνLHCDIRECT DETECTIONXenon, CDMS, CRESST,CoGeNT, Edelweiss...p p → DM + XDM DM → e+e−, . . .DM Nucleus → DM Nucleus
  7. 7. A. De Simone 5Direct Detectionpositive hints (signals)DAMA/Libra(NaI)2-4 keVTime (day)Residuals(cpd/kg/keV)DAMA/NaI (0.29 ton!yr)(target mass = 87.3 kg)DAMA/LIBRA (0.53 ton!yr)(target mass = 232.8 kg)2-5 keVTime (day)Residuals(cpd/kg/keV)DAMA/NaI (0.29 ton!yr)(target mass = 87.3 kg)DAMA/LIBRA (0.53 ton!yr)(target mass = 232.8 kg)2-6 keV(cpd/kg/keV)DAMA/NaI (0.29 ton!yr)(target mass = 87.3 kg)DAMA/LIBRA (0.53 ton!yr)(target mass = 232.8 kg)[DAMA Coll - 0804.2741]8σ observation ofannual modulationCoGeNT(Ge)2.7σ annualmodulationDirect Detection: hintsAnnual modulation seen ( ):8σDAMA Coll., 0804.2741, 2008DAMA/Libra CoGeNT‘irreducible excess of bulkevents below 3 KeVee’CoGeNT coll., 1106.0650GFIG. 4: Rate vs. time in several energy regions (the lastspans 8 days). A dotted line denotes the best-fit modulatA solid line indicates a prediction for a 7 GeV/c2WIM[CoGeNT Coll - 1106.0650]
  8. 8. A. De Simone 6Direct Detection[CDMS - 1304.4279]CDMS(Si)3 events,<3σ10 100 1000WIMP mass [GeV]10-910-810-710-610-510-410-3WIMP-nucleoncrosssection[pb]CRESST 1σCRESST 2σCRESST 2009EDELWEISS-IICDMS-IIXENON100DAMA chan.DAMACoGeNTM2M1[CRESST - 1109.0702]CRESST(CaWO4)gloher et al.: Results from 730 kg days of the CRESST-II Dark Matter Search 9d information of the individualr to clarify the contributions ofources to the total background.t the result is compatible withe limiting cases given here.of the neutron background con-ecoil energy spectrum. Withinrgy range, the energy spectras of neutron events are foundrding to the calibration datactrum can be parametrized byn/dE ∝ exp (−E/Edec). WeEdec from a fit to the spec-Be neutron calibration run. Inn 12 keV to 40 keV we obtainpectra induced by neutrons fromrces (in agreement with Montehow the Pb/Cu shielding sur-ill moderate an incoming neu-rigin. The primary spectrum oft by inelastic scatterings in thepports our use of the results ofo estimate the effects of a gen-The only exception to this ar-on-producing contamination intors. In this case, we would ex-aching to much higher energiesven number of coincidences. Inof our above calibration resultse neutron background estimate.undl background from 210Po decay,et of a different detector mod-Fig. 8. (Color online) The data of detector module Ch51,shown in the light yield vs. recoil energy plane. Again, theshaded areas indicate the bands, where alpha (yellow), oxygen(violet), and tungsten (gray) recoil events are expected. Ad-ditionally highlighted are the acceptance region (orange), theregion where lead recoils with energies between 40 and 90 keVare expected (green), and the events observed in these regions.The highlighted lead recoil region (green) serves as a referenceregion for estimating the 206Pb recoil background.module nPbrefCh05 17Ch20 6Ch29 14Ch33 6Ch43 12Ch45 15Ch47 7Ch51 12total 89ion seen ( ):8σDAMA Coll., 0804.2741, 2008CRESST-II CaWO4CRESST-II Coll., 1109.070267 events seen on Oxygen,twice the exp’d backgroundtungstenoxygenalphasignalregiontoo energetic, cannot be recoilPTEDMANUSCRIPTACCEPTED MANUSCRIPTcomposite target like CaWO4, the total scattering rate is dominated by recoils of tungsten. However,in a real experiment with a finite energy threshold other nuclei can be relevant, as tungsten recoilsmay not be energetic enough to be detected. Fig. 1 shows the contribution of the three types of nucleiin CaWO4 to a recoil spectrum measured in the energy interval from 10 to 40 keV. WIMPs with amass below 10 GeV would not be able to produce visible tungsten recoils above threshold, most of theobservable recoils would be on oxygen and some on Ca. For a small range of WIMP masses above 10GeV, Ca is most important while for WIMP masses above 20 GeV tungsten recoils dominate.Figure 1: Relative contribution of the three types of recoil nuclei in CaWO4 as a function of the WIMPmass. The calculation assumes that recoils above 10 keV can be measured.2 Detection Principle and SetupThe low-temperature calorimeters consist of a target crystal with a superconducting phase transitionthermometer on its surface. The thermometer is made of a tungsten film evaporated onto the targetcrystal. Its temperature is stabilized within the transition from the superconducting to the normalconducting state, which occurs at temperatures of about 10 mK. A typical width of the transition isabout 1 mK. A small temperature rise, e.g. from a WIMP–nucleus scattering event, of typically someµK, leads to an increase of resistance of some µΩ, which is measured with a SQUID (SuperconductingQuantum Interference Device). A weak thermal coupling of the thermometer to the heat bath restoresthe equilibrium temperature again after an interaction. In CRESST-II, 300 g scintillating CaWO4crystals are used as target. In these crystals a particle interaction creates mostly phonons which are67 events, ~4σPS: CDMS-Si 2013CDMS3 events seen on Si,with 0.41 exp’d background(a bit less than 3!)Si4timing that are transformed so that the WIMP accep-tance regions of all detectors coincide.After unblinding, extensive checks of the three candi-date events revealed no data quality or analysis issuesthat would invalidate them as WIMP candidates. Thesignal-to-noise on the ionization channel for the threeevents (ordered in increasing recoil energy) was measuredto be 6.7σ, 4.9σ, and 5.1σ, while the charge thresholdhad been set at 4.5σ from the noise. A study on pos-sible leakage into the signal band due to 206Pb recoilsfrom 210Po decays found the expected leakage to be neg-ligible with an upper limit of < 0.08 events at the 90%confidence level. The energy distribution of the 206Pbbackground was constructed using events in which a co-incident α was detected in a detector adjacent to oneof the 8 Si detectors used in this analysis. Further-more, as in the Ge analysis, we developed a Bayesianestimate of the rate of misidentified surface events basedupon the performance of the phonon timing cut mea-sured using events near the WIMP-search signal region[22]. Classical confidence intervals provided similar esti-mates [23]. Multiple-scatter events below the electron-recoil ionization-yield region from both 133Ba calibrationFIG. 4. Experimental upper limits (90% confidence level) forthe WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section as a func-CoGeNTXenon100positive hints (signals)
  9. 9. A. De Simone 7Direct Detectionnull experiments: Xenon, CDMS (Ge), Edelweisspuzzling situation: maybe it is telling us something about theWIMP-nuclei interactions or the structure of the DM halo4sformed so that the WIMP accep-etectors coincide.extensive checks of the three candi-no data quality or analysis issuese them as WIMP candidates. Thee ionization channel for the threereasing recoil energy) was measuredd 5.1σ, while the charge thresholdfrom the noise. A study on pos-e signal band due to 206Pb recoilsund the expected leakage to be neg-limit of < 0.08 events at the 90%e energy distribution of the 206Pbtructed using events in which a co-cted in a detector adjacent to ones used in this analysis. Further-analysis, we developed a Bayesianf misidentified surface events basedce of the phonon timing cut mea-ear the WIMP-search signal regionence intervals provided similar esti--scatter events below the electron-region from both 133Ba calibrationta were used as inputs to this model.icts an updated surface-event leak-+0.20−0.08(stat.)+0.28−0.24(syst.) misidentifiedeight Si detectors.ains the available parameter spaceer models. We compute upper lim-cleon scattering cross section usingFIG. 4. Experimental upper limits (90% confidence level) forthe WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section as a func-tion of WIMP mass. We show the limit obtained from the ex-posure analyzed in this work alone (black dots), and combinedwith the CDMS II Si data set reported in [22] (blue solid line).Also shown are limits from the CDMS II Ge standard [11] andlow-threshold [27] analysis (dark and light dashed red), EDEL-WEISS low-threshold [28] (orange diamonds), XENON10 S2-only [29] (light dash-dotted green), and XENON100 [30] (darkCoGeNTXenon100[CDMS - 1304.4279]CRESSTDAMACDMS (Ge)Edelweiss
  10. 10. A. De Simone 8Collider SearchesDifficult search, unless correlating MET with other handles(displaced vertex, ISR jets, ISR photons...)• 2#$34#5"$.$),0%1)-:+*"7;+77+-:<$#-7*"$7""-"$:=84• @&)<)-78)$A"<7($);#:60)-9%#-B"$#,+#<",($);C0#$38)$;)-)A"<9.6074>?4q¯qFigure 1: Dark matter production in association3.1. Comparing Various MDark matter pair production through a diagramfor dark matter searches at hadron colliders [3, 4]. Tof jets plus missing energy (j + /ET ) events over the Smainly of (Z → νν) + j and (W → invν) + j final statlost, as indicated by the superscript “inv”. Experimenperformed by CDF [22], CMS [23] and ATLAS [24, 25]Our analysis will, for the most part, be based on thjets in 1 fb−1 of data, although we will also compare t36 pb−1 of integrated luminosity. The ATLAS searchsuccessively harder pT cuts, the major selection criteanalysis are given below.3LowPT Selection requires /ET 120 GeV, one jet withare vetoed if they contain a second jet with pT (HighPT Selection requires /ET 220 GeV, one jet witare vetoed if there is a second jet with |η(j2)|∆φ(j2, /ET ) 0.5. Any further jets with |η(j2)|veryHighPT Selection requires /ET 300 GeV, one jevents are vetoed if there is a second jet with |η4q¯qχ¯χFigure 1: Dark matter production in association with a single jet in a hadron collider.3.1. Comparing Various Mono-Jet AnalysesDark matter pair production through a diagram like figure 1 is one of the leading channelsfor dark matter searches at hadron colliders [3, 4]. The signal would manifest itself as an excessof jets plus missing energy (j + /ET ) events over the Standard Model background, which consistsmainly of (Z → νν) + j and (W → invν) + j final states. In the latter case the charged lepton islost, as indicated by the superscript “inv”. Experimental studies of j + /ET final states have beenperformed by CDF [22], CMS [23] and ATLAS [24, 25], mostly in the context of Extra Dimensions.Our analysis will, for the most part, be based on the ATLAS search [25] which looked for mono-jets in 1 fb−1 of data, although we will also compare to the earlier CMS analysis [23], which used36 pb−1 of integrated luminosity. The ATLAS search contains three separate analyses based onsuccessively harder pT cuts, the major selection criteria from each analysis that we apply in ouranalysis are given below.3LowPT Selection requires /ET 120 GeV, one jet with pT (j1) 120 GeV, |η(j1)| 2, and eventsare vetoed if they contain a second jet with pT (j2) 30 GeV and |η(j2)| 4.5.HighPT Selection requires /ET 220 GeV, one jet with pT (j1) 250 GeV, |η(j1)| 2, and eventsare vetoed if there is a second jet with |η(j2)| 4.5 and with either pT (j2) 60 GeV or∆φ(j2, /ET ) 0.5. Any further jets with |η(j2)| 4.5 must have pT (j3) 30 GeV.veryHighPT Selection requires /ET 300 GeV, one jet with pT (j1) 350 GeV, |η(j1)| 2, andevents are vetoed if there is a second jet with |η(j2)| 4.5 and with either pT (j2) 60 GeVDirect Detection (t-channel) Collider Searches (sMonophoton + MET Monojet + ME• 2#$34#5$.$),0%1)-:+*7;+77+-:$#-7*$7-$:=84?9• @))-78)$A7($);#:60)-9%#-B$#,+#,($);C0#$37D:+*+-:8)$;)-)A9.6074?4q¯qχ¯χFigure 1: Dark matter production in association with a single3.1. Comparing Various Mono-Jet AnDark matter pair production through a diagram like figure 1for dark matter searches at hadron colliders [3, 4]. The signal woof jets plus missing energy (j + /ET ) events over the Standard Momainly of (Z → νν) + j and (W → invν) + j final states. In the lalost, as indicated by the superscript “inv”. Experimental studiesperformed by CDF [22], CMS [23] and ATLAS [24, 25], mostly in tOur analysis will, for the most part, be based on the ATLAS sejets in 1 fb−1 of data, although we will also compare to the earlie36 pb−1 of integrated luminosity. The ATLAS search contains thsuccessively harder pT cuts, the major selection criteria from eacanalysis are given below.3LowPT Selection requires /ET 120 GeV, one jet with pT (j1) 1are vetoed if they contain a second jet with pT (j2) 30 GeHighPT Selection requires /ET 220 GeV, one jet with pT (j1) 2are vetoed if there is a second jet with |η(j2)| 4.5 and w∆φ(j2, /ET ) 0.5. Any further jets with |η(j2)| 4.5 mustveryHighPT Selection requires /ET 300 GeV, one jet with pT (jevents are vetoed if there is a second jet with |η(j2)| 4.5 a4q¯qχ¯χFigure 1: Dark matter production in association with a single jet in a hadron collider.3.1. Comparing Various Mono-Jet AnalysesDark matter pair production through a diagram like figure 1 is one of the leading channelsfor dark matter searches at hadron colliders [3, 4]. The signal would manifest itself as an excessof jets plus missing energy (j + /ET ) events over the Standard Model background, which consistsmainly of (Z → νν) + j and (W → invν) + j final states. In the latter case the charged lepton islost, as indicated by the superscript “inv”. Experimental studies of j + /ET final states have beenperformed by CDF [22], CMS [23] and ATLAS [24, 25], mostly in the context of Extra Dimensions.Our analysis will, for the most part, be based on the ATLAS search [25] which looked for mono-jets in 1 fb−1 of data, although we will also compare to the earlier CMS analysis [23], which used36 pb−1 of integrated luminosity. The ATLAS search contains three separate analyses based onsuccessively harder pT cuts, the major selection criteria from each analysis that we apply in ouranalysis are given below.3LowPT Selection requires /ET 120 GeV, one jet with pT (j1) 120 GeV, |η(j1)| 2, and eventsare vetoed if they contain a second jet with pT (j2) 30 GeV and |η(j2)| 4.5.HighPT Selection requires /ET 220 GeV, one jet with pT (j1) 250 GeV, |η(j1)| 2, and eventsare vetoed if there is a second jet with |η(j2)| 4.5 and with either pT (j2) 60 GeV or∆φ(j2, /ET ) 0.5. Any further jets with |η(j2)| 4.5 must have pT (j3) 30 GeV.veryHighPT Selection requires /ET 300 GeV, one jet with pT (j1) 350 GeV, |η(j1)| 2, andevents are vetoed if there is a second jet with |η(j2)| 4.5 and with either pT (j2) 60 GeVDirect Detection (t-channel) Collider Searches (s-channeMonophoton + MET Monojet + MET14 References]2[GeV/c!M1 10210310]2-NucleonCrossSection[cm!-4610-4410-4210-4010-3810-3610-3410-3210-3010-2810-2710CMS 2012 Axial VectorCMS 2011 Axial VectorCDF 2012SIMPLE 2012CDMSII 2011COUPP 2012-W+Super-K W-W+IceCube WCMS Preliminary= 8 TeVs-1L dt = 19.5 fbSpin Dependent2#q)5$µ$q)(!5$µ$!(]2[GeV/c!M1 10210310]2-NucleonCrossSection[cm!-4610-4410-4210-4010-3810-3610-3410-3210-3010-2810-2710CMS 2012 VectorCMS 2011 VectorCDF 2012XENON100 2012COUPP 2012SIMPLE 2012CoGeNT 2011CDMSII 2011CDMSII 2010CMS Preliminary= 8 TeVsSpin Independent-1L dt = 19.5 fb2#q)µ$q)(!µ$!(Figure 7: Comparison of CMS 90% CL upper limits on the dark matter-nucleon cross sectionversus dark matter mass for the vector operator with CDF [54], SIMPLE [55], CDMS [21],COUPP [56], Super-K [26] and IceCube [25] and for the axial-vector operator with CDF [54],[CMS PAS EXO-12-048]in LHC we trust...constrain DM-quarks interactionsand translate into limits onscattering cross-sectioncomplementary/competitive withdirect detection.no astrophysicaluncertainty.
  11. 11. A. De Simone 9Indirect DetectionKey observable: fluxes of stable particles ( )from DM annihilations/decay in galactic halo or centerγ, ν, ¯p, e+8 kpc20 kpc
  12. 12. A. De Simone 10Indirect DetectionDMDM−, ¯q, W−, Z, γ, . . .+, q, W+, Z, γ, . . .e±, γ, ν, ¯ν, p, ¯p, . . .primarychannelsstablespeciesSMevolutionastrophysicalpropagationfluxesat detectione±, γ, ν, ¯ν, p, ¯p, . . .DM annihilations ingalactic halo/center
  13. 13. A. De Simone 10Indirect DetectionDMDM−, ¯q, W−, Z, γ, . . .+, q, W+, Z, γ, . . .e±, γ, ν, ¯ν, p, ¯p, . . .primarychannelsstablespeciesSMevolutionparticle physicsradiation/hadronization/decay(QCD, QED, EW)model for DM interactions(L)fluxesat detectionastrophysicalpropagatione±, γ, ν, ¯ν, p, ¯p, . . .DM annihilations ingalactic halo/center
  14. 14. A. De Simone 11Indirect Detection “Anomalies”“Anomalies” in gamma raysFermi 135 GeV lineFermi ”bubbles”“Anomaly” in charged cosmic rays (positron fraction e+/(e++e-) )see Zaharijasʼ talk laterWhat if a signal of DM is already hiddenin Fermi diffuse data?γFigure 4. Upper sub-panels: the measured events with statistical errors are plotted in black. Thehorizontal bars show the best-fit models with (red) and without DM (green), the blue dotted lineindicates the corresponding line flux alone. In the lower sub-panel we show residuals after subtractingthe model with line contribution. Note that we rebinned the data to fewer bins after performing theFigure 1. Left panel: The black lines show the target regions that are used in the prcase of the SOURCE event class (the ULTRACLEAN regions are very similar). Frothey are respectively optimized for the cored isothermal, the NFW (with α = 1), thecontracted (with α = 1.15, 1.3) DM profiles. The colors indicate the signal-to-backgarbitrary but common normalization; in Reg2 to Reg5 they are respectively down(1.6, 3.0, 4.3, 18.8) for better visibility.Right panel: From top to bottom, the panels show the 20–300 GeV gamma-rayspectra as observed in Reg1 to Reg5 with statistical error bars. The SOURCE andevents are shown in black and magenta, respectively. Dotted lines show power-laws wslopes; dashed lines show the EGBG + residual CRs. The vertical gray line indicatesCh. Wen1204.23Fermi 80 E 100 GeV180 90 0 -90 -18000-90-4504590000.00.51.01.52.02.50.00.51.01.52.02.5keVcm-2s-1sr-1Fermi 100 E 120 GeV180 90 0 -90 -18000-90-4504590000.00.51.01.52.02.50.00.51.01.52.02.5keVcm-2s-1sr-1Fermi 120 E 140 GeV180 90 0 -90 -18000-90-4504590000.00.51.01.52.02.50.00.51.01.52.02.5keVcm-2s-1sr-1Fermi 140 E 160 GeV180 90 0 -90 -18000-90-4504590000.00.51.01.52.02.50.00.51.01.52.02.5keVcm-2s-1sr-1Fermi 160 E 180 GeV180 90 0 -90 -18000-90-4504590000.00.51.01.52.02.50.00.51.01.52.02.5keVcm-2s-1sr-1Residual map180 90 0 -90 -18000-90-450459000-1.0-0.50.00.51.01.52.02.5-1.0-0.50.00.51.01.52.02.5keVcm-2s-1sr-1Fig. 3.— All-sky CLEAN 3.7 year maps in 5 energy bins, and a residual map (lower right). The residual map is the 120 − 140 GeV mapminus a background estimate, taken to be the average of the other 4 maps where the average is computed in E2dN/dE units. This simplebackground estimate is sufficient to remove the Galactic plane and most of the large-scale diffuse structures and even bright point sources.A cuspy structure toward the Galactic center is revealed as the only significant structure in the residual gamma-ray map. All of the mapsare smoothed with a Gaussian kernel of FWHM = 10◦ without source subtraction.are available on the Internet, and it is from these filesthat we build our maps.The point spread function (PSF) is about 0.8◦for 68%the Fermi Cicerone5. We also exclude some time in-tervals, primarily while Fermi passes through the SouthAtlantic Anomaly.Su,Finkbeiner,1206.1616The excess is only in the GC(actually, a bit off-set)Figure 1. Map at 120-140 GeV showing regions with positive and negative excesses around the background.Three most significant regions from [2] are shown with white circles, the remaining regions from [2] areshown with green circles.Region Power law parameters χ2 Prominent SignificanceFeatures σREG 1 Γ = 3.4 ± 0.4; N100 = 4.3 ± 0.6 0.98 Line at 115 GeV 3.86REG 2(overall) Γ = 2.2 ± 0.2; N100 = 7.1 ± 0.6 0.94 –REG 2(60–110 GeV) Γ = 1.4 ± 0.8; N100 = 8.0 ± 2.0 2.12 Dip at 95 GeV -4.7REG 2(110–200 GeV) Γ = 2.7 ± 0.5; N100 = 7.8 ± 1.4 0.29 –REG 3 Γ = 3.6 ± 0.5; N100 = 2.3 ± 0.4 0.79 Line at 80 GeV 2.86Table 1. Continuum fits for regions REG 1, REG 3, REG 2. We fit the background at overall (60-200 GeV)or specified energy band using the power law (N(E) = N100(E/100 GeV−Γ) and show the most prominentfeature above this background together with its formal significance.Similar excesses found elsewhere(fluctuation?)Boyarsky,Malyshev,Ruchayskyi,1205.47004.6σ (3.3σ wσvχχ→γγ1.3 · 10−27c(large!)And there might b111 GeV, 129Simulation: GALPROP Template FittingbubblesResidual map (ellipse region excludedfrom fit)Bubble template obtained frResidual map after including bubbletemplate in all sky fitDifferent GALPROP model used in fit than in simulationSpectra |b|10deg
  15. 15. A. De Simone 12Positron Fraction “anomaly”AMS-02 has recently released data of positron fraction up toenergies of ~350 GeV.Excess over “known” bkg, confirming previous PAMELA andFermi-LAT measurements.e+/(e++e-)[AMS-02 Coll - PRL 110,141102 (2013)]
  16. 16. .A. De Simone 13the Dark Matter explanation of the excess is already stronglyconstrained by other measurements (e.g. gamma-rays)so the astrophysical explanations look very likely.where can positronscome from?.local astrophysical sources(e.g. pulsars)Dark Matterannihilations/decayPositron Fraction “anomaly”
  17. 17. local astrophysical sources(e.g. pulsars).A. De Simone 13the Dark Matter explanation of the excess is already stronglyconstrained by other measurements (e.g. gamma-rays)so the astrophysical explanations look very likelyI want to insist on the DM interpretation andsee how far we can get.where can positronscome from?.Dark Matterannihilations/decayPositron Fraction “anomaly”
  18. 18. A. De Simone 14Electroweak Correctionse+e-DMDM[Ciafaloni, Cirelli, Comelli, DS, Riotto, Urbano - 1104.2996][Ciafaloni, Comelli, DS, Riotto, Urbano - 1202.0692][DS, Monin, Thamm, Urbano - 1301.1486][Ciafaloni, Comelli, Riotto, Sala, Strumia, Urbano, 1009.0224]
  19. 19. A. De Simone 14Electroweak Correctionspπ0π+e+µ+Zγγe+e-DMDMνµ¯νµνeThe final state of DM annihilations canradiate γ,Z,W.It is a SM effect, affecting the finalfluxes importantly.EW interactions connect all SM particlesall species will be present in the final state 104103102101 11041031021011x Ekin MDMdNdlnxDM DM ΜΜ, MDM 1000 GeVpΓe[Ciafaloni, Cirelli, Comelli, DS, Riotto, Urbano - 1104.2996][Ciafaloni, Comelli, DS, Riotto, Urbano - 1202.0692][DS, Monin, Thamm, Urbano - 1301.1486][Ciafaloni, Comelli, Riotto, Sala, Strumia, Urbano, 1009.0224]
  20. 20. A. De Simone 15Correlations among DM signalsfitsignalDMDMe+, γ, ν, ¯p, . . .EW correctionse+, γ, ν, ¯p, . . .predictionsassume DMinterpretation
  21. 21. A. De Simone 15Correlations among DM signalsfitsignalDMDMe+, γ, ν, ¯p, . . .EW correctionscorrelatedfluxese+, γ, ν, ¯p, . . .predictions.test withcurrent/future dataassume DMinterpretationverify/rejectinitialhypothesis
  22. 22. A. De Simone 15Correlations among DM signalsfitsignalDMDMe+, γ, ν, ¯p, . . .EW correctionscorrelatedfluxese+, γ, ν, ¯p, . . .predictions.test withcurrent/future dataassume DMinterpretationverify/rejectinitialhypothesis✓ robust✓ timely
  23. 23. A. De Simone 15Correlations among DM signalsfitsignalDMDMEW correctionscorrelatedfluxespredictions.test withcurrent/future AMS dataassume DMinterpretationverify/rejectinitialhypothesise+¯p
  24. 24. 102103102101Ekin[ GeV ]e+/(e++e−)A. De Simone 16Interpretation of AMS-02 datapossible interpretation as DM,without upsetting the anti-p fluxDM DM → τ+τ−100101102107106105104103102101Ekin[ GeV ]Φ(¯p)[GeV−1m−2s−1sr−1]PAMELAanti-p dataAMSe+ dataMDM = 1 TeVσannv = 2.5 × 10−23cm3s−1positron fraction anti-protons[DS, Riotto, Xue - 1304.1336]
  25. 25. A. De Simone 17before claiming any signal, bkg should be under controlsignal and background fluxes are closely related, because theypropagate from source to detection within the same environmentcosmic-ray propagation is a very complex phenomenon, affectedby several uncertaintiescrucial to use consistently the same propagation setup for bothsignal and background (and for all particle species)The Importance of Being Propagated
  26. 26. A. De Simone 18annihilation channels?only leptonic annihilation channels are still allowedMDM [GeV ]log10(σv/cm3s−1)Einasto2000 4000 6000 8000 100002524232221MDM [GeV ]log10(σv/cm3s−1)Einasto2000 4000 6000 8000 100002524232221DM DM → b¯b DM DM → W+W−ALL channels produce hadrons (due to EW corrections)can easily upset anti-p dataInterpretation of AMS-02 data: channelsDM DM → q¯q, +−, W+W−, ZZ, hh, . . .Ex.exclusion byPAMELA anti-p dataModel-independent analysis of AMS-02 data
  27. 27. 1.9 0.7τ+τ−µ+µ−A. De Simone 19Interpretation of AMS-02 data: Best Fitsuse only data with E15 GeV (not affected by solar modulation)number of dof: 36-6=30e+e- gives even higher χ2102103104050100150MDM [GeV ]χ2µ+µ−τ+τ−χ2min/dof.only good fit to AMS-02:DM of ~ 1 TeVannihilating into taus
  28. 28. A. De Simone 20positrons-antiprotons CorrelationsMDM [GeV ]log10(σv/cm3s−1)Burkert500 1000 1500 20002524232221MDM [GeV ]log10(σv/cm3s−1)Einasto500 1000 1500 20002524232221MDM [GeV ]log10(σv/cm3s−1)NFW500 1000 1500 200025242322211 year3 yearswe simulated projected (mock) data for anti-p, consistent withunderstanding of detector features from outside the collaboration3 years of AMS-02 anti-p data would be enough to rule outalmost competely the DM interpretation of the positron rise3σ best-fit contours for DM DM → τ+τ−
  29. 29. A. De Simone 21Constraints from other Data-setstaking into account Fermi-LAT diffuse gamma-ray constraintsMDM [GeV ]log10(σv/cm3s−1)Burkert500 1000 1500 20002524232221best-fit regions for other halo profiles are mostly excluded3σ5σ[Fermi-LAT Coll.- 1205.6474]
  30. 30. A. De Simone 22tension with e++e - Fermi-LAT data, showing no drop up to ~1 TeV8Dot Dashed: MΧ 2.5 TeV, ΧΧ ΦΦ 2Μ 2ΜDashed: MΧ 3.0 TeV, ΧΧ ΦΦ 2Π 2ΠSolid: MΧ 1.6 TeV, ΧΧ ΦΦ 2e , 2Μ , 2Π at 1:1:21 5 10 50 1000.020.050.100.200.501.00E GeVeeeDot Dashed: MΧ 2.5 TeV, ΧΧ ΦΦ 2Μ 2ΜDashed: MΧ 3.0 TeV, ΧΧ ΦΦ 2Π 2ΠSolid: MΧ 1.6 TeV, ΧΧ ΦΦ 2e , 2Μ , 2Π at 1:1:21 10 100 10001510501005001000E GeVeeE3xdiff.fluxGeV2m2ssr1FIG. 6: The same as in Figs. 1, 2, 4 and 5 but for a diffusion zone half-width of L = 8 kpc, and for broken power-law spectrumof electrons injected from cosmic ray sources (dNe− /dEe− ∝ E−2.65e below 100 GeV and dNe− /dEe− ∝ E−2.3e above 100GeV). The cross sections are the same as given in the caption of Fig. 5. With this cosmic ray background, the dark mattermodels shown can simultaneously accommodate the measurements of the cosmic ray positron fraction and the overall leptonicspectrum.All Milky Way pulsarsΑ 1.55, Ec 600 GeV0.501.00All Milky Way pulsarsΑ 1.55, Ec 600 GeV50010002ssr1[Cholis,Hooper - 1304.1840]need somewhat exotic annihilation channels ( ),perhaps with a break in the injection spectrum of primary electronsDM DM → φφ → 2µ+2µ−Constraints from other Data-sets[Cirelli et al. - 0809.2409v2]positron fraction e++e -
  31. 31. A. De Simone 23ConclusionsThe current situation on DM is very confusing...Complementarity: robust conclusions on the nature of DM shouldcome from correlations of different signatures among different expts.(crucial role played by EW corrections)Interpretation of AMS-02 recent results on positron fractionwe are on the verge of ruling out, once for all,the DM origin of the positron excess.
  32. 32. A. De Simone 23ConclusionsThe current situation on DM is very confusing...Complementarity: robust conclusions on the nature of DM shouldcome from correlations of different signatures among different expts.(crucial role played by EW corrections)Interpretation of AMS-02 recent results on positron fractionhuge and diverse efforts to detect signals of DMdiscovery in 5-10 years, or forget about the WIMPs...we are on the verge of ruling out, once for all,the DM origin of the positron excess.Golden Age of Dark Matter searches.
  33. 33. For prospectivegraduate students
  34. 34. www.sissa.itSISSA | via Bonomea, 265 | 34136 Trieste | Italytel +39 040 3787111 | info@sissa.itA school where training means researchThe International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), founded in 1978, was thefirst institution in Italy to promote postgraduate courses to get a Doctor Philosophiae(or PhD) degree. SISSA is a centre of excellence in the Italian and international universitycontext. It encompasses around 65 teachers, 100 post docs and 245 PhD students, and islocated in Trieste, in an over 100,000 square-metre large campus with a wonderful viewon the Gulf of Trieste.Established as a high-level training school and as a centre for theoretical researchin mathematics and physics, since the 1990s SISSA broadened its interests toinclude new cutting-edge disciplines, such as cognitive neuroscience and neurobiology.Today its PhD courses provide original and innovative post-graduate curricula that areconsidered a reference model in the international scientific scenario under every respect,comparable to few other research and teaching institutes worldwide.SISSA is characterized by a very high-ranking, large and multidisciplinary scientificproduction. All scientific papers produced by its researchers are published in highimpact factor, well-known international journals, and in many cases in the world’s mostprestigious scientific journals such as Nature and Science. Over 1000 students have so farstarted their careers in the field of mathematics, physics and neuroscience research atSISSA.Trieste
  35. 35. AstroParticle Physics at SISSAS. Liberati(coordinator)A. De Simone P. UllioT. SotiriouC. BaccigalupiR. PercacciS. PetcovA. RomaninoP. SalucciP. Creminelli (ICTP)R. Sheth (ICTP)M. Viel (OATS)Who we are+ several post-docs+ other SISSA staff + staff fromother institutions
  36. 36. AstroParticle Physics at SISSACosmologyBaryogenesisCMB, Large Scale StructuresInflationDark Universetheory and pheno of Dark Energy and Dark MatterGravitation Theoryalternative theories of gravityQFT in curved space-timesQuantum GravityParticle Astrophysicsastrophysical neutrinosdirect and indirect Dark Matter detectionWhat we doResearch at the interface ofastrophysics, cosmology, gravity and particle physics
  37. 37. www.sissa.itwww.sissa.it/appinfo@sissa.itFor further info:Deadline for applications: 24 JuneExams: 4-5 JulyAstroParticle Physics at SISSAHow to Join usAdvanced courses,offered in EnglishResearch in close contactwith the supervisorHighly stimulating andinteracting environment
  38. 38. BACK-UP SLIDES
  39. 39. A. De SimoneFluxesFluxes of cosmic rays received at Earth:where the number density is the solution of the transport eq.:energy spectrumof stable particle i∂ni∂t= Q(r, z, p) source+∇ ·D∇ni diffusion− Vcni convection+∂∂pp2Dpp∂∂p1p2ni−∂∂p˙pni −p3(∇ · Vc) ni−1τspni spallation−1τfni fragmentationhalo profiledΦi/dE ≡ βini/(4π)ni(r, z, p)Q(r, z, E) ∝ [ρDM(r, z)]2σannvdNidE.Particle Physics enters into:energy spectrumcross section.Astrophysics enters into:propagation parameters;DM halo profile. σannvdNi/dE
  40. 40. A. De SimoneHalo Profiles103102101 1 10 102103102101110102103104r kpcΡDMGeVcm3BurkertEinastoNFW rΡρ(r) =ρs(1 + r/rs)(1 + (r/rs)2)−1, rs = 12.67 kpc, ρs = 0.712 GeV/cm3, (Burkert)ρs exp− 20.17(r/rs)0.17− 1, rs = 28.44 kpc, ρs = 0.033 GeV/cm3, (Einasto)ρs(rs/r) (1 + r/rs)−2, rs = 24.42 kpc, ρs = 0.184 GeV/cm3, (NFW)
  41. 41. A. De SimonePropagation MethodsMethod 1✘ fluxes of different species are treated as uncorrelated;✓ deal with astrophys. uncert. in a simple and conservative way.Method 2then marginalize over A, p parameters.✘ not generic;✓ consistent propagation of all species, for both signal and bkg.Propagate signal and bkg with our own propagation model,which provides a good fit to several data-sets(electron+positron, anti-p, Boron-to-Carbon ratio).(i = e+, e−, ¯p)Φbkgi (E, Ai, pi) = Ai Epi[Φbkgi (E)]referenceSignal: propagate with “MED” propagation modelBkg: reference one with floating normalizations and slopes
  42. 42. A. De Simone100101102103106104102Ekin(GeV)Φ(¯p)[GeV−1m−2s−1sr−1]100101102104103Ekin(GeV)¯p/pPropagation MethodsFits of our reference propagation model to anti-p PAMELA datasolid/dashed = with/without correcting for solar modulation
  43. 43. A. De SimoneImportance of EW correctionsEW corrections to DM annihilations are important in 3 cases:1. when the low-energy regions of the spectra, which are largely populatedby the decay products of the emitted gauge bosons, are the onescontributing the most to the observed fluxes;2. when some species are absent without EW corrections(e.g. antiprotons from );3. when σ(2 →3), with soft gauge boson emission, is comparable or evendominant with respect to σ(2 →2):DM Majorana fermion/real scalar and SM singlet;DM Majorana fermion/real scalar in an SU(2)L-multiplet.χχ → +−[Ciafaloni, Cirelli, Comelli, DS, Riotto, Urbano - 1107.4453][Ciafaloni, Cirelli, Comelli, DS, Riotto, Urbano - 1104.2996][Ciafaloni, Comelli, DS, Riotto, Urbano - 1202.0692][DS, Monin, Thamm, Urbano - 1301.1486][Ciafaloni, Comelli, Riotto, Sala, Strumia, Urbano, 1009.0224]

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