L. Perivolaropoulos, Is There a Fundamental Cosmic Dipole?
L. Perivolaropouloshttp://leandros.physics.uoi.grDepartment of PhysicsUniversity of IoanninaOpen pageCollaborators:I. Antoniou (Ioannina)J. Bueno-Sanchez (Madrid)J. Grande (Barcelona)S. Nesseris (Madrid)A. Mariano (Lecce)
The consistency level of ΛCDM with geometrical data probes has beenincreasing with time during the last decade.There are some puzzling conflicts between ΛCDM predictions anddynamical data probes(bulk flows, alignment and magnitude of low CMB multipoles,Fine Structure Constant Dipole, Dark energy Dipole)Most of these puzzles are related to the existence of preferred anisotropy axeswhich appear to be surprisingly close to each other!The simplest mechanism that can give rise to acosmological preferred axis is based on an off-center observerin a spherical energy inhomogeneity (dark matter or dark energy)Topological Quintessence is a simple physical mechanism that can giverise to a Hubble scale dark energy inhomogeneity.
Large Scale Velocity Flows- Predicted: On scale larger than 50 h-1Mpc Dipole Flows of 110km/sec or less.- Observed: Dipole Flows of more than 400km/sec on scales 50 h-1Mpc or larger.- Probability of Consistency: 1%Anisotropy of Cosmic Accelerating Expansion- Predicted: Isotropic Rate of Accelerating Expansion- Observed: SnIa data show hints for an anisotropic acceleration fit by a Dipole- Probability of Consistency: 5%From LP, 0811.4684,I. Antoniou, LP, JCAP 1012:012,2010, arxiv:1007.4347R. Watkins et. al. , Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc.392:743-756,2009, 0809.4041.A. Kashlinsky et. al. Astrophys.J.686:L49-L52,2009 arXiv:0809.3734A. Mariano, LP, , Phys.Rev. D86 (2012) 083517,Alignment of Low CMB Spectrum Multipoles- Predicted: Multipole components of CMB map should be uncorrelated.- Observed: l=2 and l=3 CMB map components are unlikely planar and close to each other.- Probability of Consistency: 1%Cosmic Spatial Dependence of the Fine Structure Constant- Predicted: The value of the Fine Structure Constant is Space-Time Independent.- Observed: There is a cosmic spatial dependence well fit by a Dipole with δα/α~10-5- Probability of Consistency: 0.01%Webb et. al.. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 107,191101 (2011)M. Tegmark et. al., PRD 68, 123523 (2003),Copi et. al. Adv.Astron.2010:847541,2010.
Quasar Absorption Spectra:From absorption lines we can find both the absorber redshift and thevalue of the fine structure constant α=e2/hc at the time of absorption.KEK+VLT data: Webb et. al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 191101 (2011)
Maximize Temperature Difference betweenopposite pixels at various resolutions:Maximum Temperature Asymmetry AxisCorrelation with the Quadrupole-Octopole PlaneWMAP7 ILC MapsA. Mariano, L.P., arxiv:arXiv:1211.5915Resolution 15oResolution 7oResolution 3.5o
Dark Flow Direction (3σ)Watkins et. al. MNRAS (2009) (COMPOSITE dataset)(407±81km/sec at r<107Mpctowards (l,b)=(287o±9o,8o±6o),WMAP7 CMB Map –Maximum Temperature Asymmetry (1.5 σ)(A. Mariano, LP, arXiv:1211.5915Phys. Rev. D. 87, 043511 (2013))α Dipole (4σ)Webb et. al. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 191101 (2011)Q1: How anomalous is this coincidence? Q2: Is there a physical model that can predict thiscoincidenceDark Energy Dipole (2σ)A. Mariano, LP, , Phys.Rev. D86 (2012) 083517.
Dark Flow Direction (3σ)Kashlinsky et. al. ApJL (2010) (kSZ effct on CMB)(800±200km/sec at r<600Mpctowards (l,b)=(296o±13o,14o±13o),WMAP7 CMB Map –Maximum Temperature Asymmetry (1.5 σ)(A. Mariano, LP, arXiv:1211.5915Phys. Rev. D. 87, 043511 (2013))α Dipole (4σ)Webb et. al. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 191101 (2011)Q1: How anomalous is this coincidence? Q2: Is there a physical model that can predict thiscoincidenceDark Energy Dipole (2σ)A. Mariano, LP, , Phys.Rev. D86 (2012) 083517.
Dark Flow Direction (2σ)Turnbull et. al. Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc. 420 (2012)(249±76km/sec at r<190Mpctowards (l,b)=(319o±18o,7o±14o), (245 SneIa)WMAP7 CMB Map –Maximum Temperature Asymmetry (1.5 σ)(A. Mariano, LP, arXiv:1211.5915Phys. Rev. D. 87, 043511 (2013))α Dipole (4σ)Webb et. al. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 191101 (2011)Q1: How anomalous is this coincidence? Q2: Is there a physical model that can predict thiscoincidenceDark Energy Dipole (2σ)A. Mariano, LP, , Phys.Rev. D86 (2012) 083517.
A: The probability that the combined quasar absorber and SnIa data areobtained in the context of a homogeneous and isotropic cosmology is lessthan one part in 106.Q: What is the probability to produce the observed combination of justthe two dipoles in a homogeneous-isotropic cosmological model?
Probability to obtain as large (or larger) dipole magnitudes with theobserved alignment in an isotropic cosmological model:The fraction of isotropic Monte CarloKeck+VLT datasets that can reproduce theobverved dipole magnitude is less than 0.01%The fraction of isotropic Monte Carlo Union2 datasets thatcan reproduce the obverved dipole magnitude and theobserved alignment with Keck+VLT dipole is less than 1%0.01% x 1% =0.0001%0.01%1%Monte-Carlo of Isotropic quasar absorber datasets (quasar positions fixed)Monte-Carlo of Isotropic SnIa Uniot2 datasets (SnIa positions fixed)
1. The data are flawed due to systematics.2. The data are unlikely statistical fluctuations in the context ofisotropic ΛCDM.3. The data are correct and a new theoretical model is needed.Assume case 3A: There is a simple physical model based on a Hubble scale topological defect(inhomogeneous dark energy) non-minimally coupled to electromagnetism thathas the potential to explain the observed aligned dipoles.Q: What physical model has the potential to predict the existence of theabove combined dipoles?Most probable butalso most boringLeast probable but also mostinteresting
Coincidence Problem:Why Now? Time Dependent Dark EnergyAlternatively:Why Here? Inhomogeneous Dark EnergyStandard Model (ΛCDM):1. Homogeneous - Isotropic Dark and Baryonic Matter.2. Homogeneous-Isotropic-Constant Dark Energy(Cosmological Constant)3. General RelativityConsider Because:1. New generic generalization of ΛCDM (breakshomogeneity of dark energy). Includes ΛCDM asspecial case.2. Natural emergence of preferred axis (off –center observers)3. Well defined physical mechanism (topologicalquintessence with Hubble scale globalmonopoles).J. Grande, L.P., Phys. Rev. D 84, 023514 (2011).J. B. Sanchez, LP, Phys.Rev. D84 (2011) 123516
Global Monopole with Hubble scale Core0General Metric with Spherical Symmetry:Energy – Momentum Tensor:V2S
Global Monopole: Field Direction in Space and Energy DensityOff-center ObserverVariation of expansion rate due to darkenergy density variationVariation of α?
1. Monopole energy density slowly shrinksand dominates at late times in the core.2. Matter develops underdensity at the core.
η=0.1 Mplη=0.6 Mplη=0.1 Mplη=0.6 MplAccelerating Expansion at the core.r=0r=0.5r=5
Early hints for deviation from the cosmological principle and statisticalisotropy are being accumulated. This appears to be one of the most likelydirections which may lead to new fundamental physics in the coming years.A simple mechanism that can give rise to acosmological preferred axis is based on an off-center observerin a spherical energy dark energy inhomogeneity.Such a mechanism can also give rise to a Dark Energy Dipole, LargeScale Velocity Flows, Fine Structure Constant Dipole and a CMBTemperature Asymmetry. Other interesting effects may occur (quasarpolarization alignment etc).Topological Quintessence constitutes a physical mechanism to produceHubble scale dark energy inhomogeneities.