Your SlideShare is downloading.
×

- 1. L. Perivolaropoulos http://leandros.physics.uoi.gr Department of Physics University of Ioannina Open page Collaborators: I. Antoniou (Ioannina) J. Bueno-Sanchez (Madrid) J. Grande (Barcelona) S. Nesseris (Madrid) A. Mariano (Lecce)
- 2. The consistency level of ΛCDM with geometrical data probes has been increasing with time during the last decade. There are some puzzling conflicts between ΛCDM predictions and dynamical data probes (bulk flows, alignment and magnitude of low CMB multipoles, Fine Structure Constant Dipole, Dark energy Dipole) Most of these puzzles are related to the existence of preferred anisotropy axes which appear to be surprisingly close to each other! The simplest mechanism that can give rise to a cosmological preferred axis is based on an off-center observer in a spherical energy inhomogeneity (dark matter or dark energy) Topological Quintessence is a simple physical mechanism that can give rise to a Hubble scale dark energy inhomogeneity.
- 3. Good Agreement with Geometric Probes! 0 0 28m . 0 1( ) 1 z w z w w z 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 w0 w1 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 w0 w1 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 w0 w1 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 w0 w1 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 w0 w1 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 w0 w1 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 w0 w1 SNLS ESSENCE GOLD06 UNION CONSTITUTION WMAP5+SDSS5 WMAP7+SDSS7 0w 1w 0w 1w UNION2 0w0w0w 0w 0w 0w J. C. Bueno Sanchez, S. Nesseris, LP, JCAP 0911:029,2009, 0908.2636
- 4. Large Scale Velocity Flows - Predicted: On scale larger than 50 h-1Mpc Dipole Flows of 110km/sec or less. - Observed: Dipole Flows of more than 400km/sec on scales 50 h-1Mpc or larger. - Probability of Consistency: 1% Anisotropy of Cosmic Accelerating Expansion - Predicted: Isotropic Rate of Accelerating Expansion - Observed: SnIa data show hints for an anisotropic acceleration fit by a Dipole - Probability of Consistency: 5% From LP, 0811.4684, I. Antoniou, LP, JCAP 1012:012, 2010, arxiv:1007.4347 R. Watkins et. al. , Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc.392:743-756,2009, 0809.4041. A. Kashlinsky et. al. Astrophys.J.686:L49-L52,2009 arXiv:0809.3734 A. Mariano, LP, , Phys.Rev. D86 (2012) 083517, Alignment of Low CMB Spectrum Multipoles - Predicted: Multipole components of CMB map should be uncorrelated. - Observed: l=2 and l=3 CMB map components are unlikely planar and close to each other. - Probability of Consistency: 1% Cosmic Spatial Dependence of the Fine Structure Constant - Predicted: The value of the Fine Structure Constant is Space-Time Independent. - Observed: There is a cosmic spatial dependence well fit by a Dipole with δα/α~10-5 - Probability of Consistency: 0.01% Webb et. al.. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 191101 (2011) M. Tegmark et. al., PRD 68, 123523 (2003), Copi et. al. Adv.Astron.2010:847541,2010.
- 5. Quasar Absorption Spectra: From absorption lines we can find both the absorber redshift and the value of the fine structure constant α=e2/hc at the time of absorption. KEK+VLT data: Webb et. al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 191101 (2011)
- 6. King et. al. , MNRAS,422, 3370, (2012) Dipole+Monopole Maximum Likelihood Fit: 295 absorbers 4 parameters l= 320o, b=-11o larger α A. Mariano, LP, , Phys.Rev. D86 (2012) 083517,
- 7. brighter SnIa smaller μ l= 309o, b=-15o
- 8. Maximize Temperature Difference between opposite pixels at various resolutions: Maximum Temperature Asymmetry Axis Correlation with the Quadrupole-Octopole Plane WMAP7 ILC Maps A. Mariano, L.P., arxiv:arXiv:1211.5915 Resolution 15o Resolution 7o Resolution 3.5o
- 9. Dark Flow Direction (3σ) Watkins et. al. MNRAS (2009) (COMPOSITE dataset) (407±81km/sec at r<107Mpc towards (l,b)=(287o±9o,8o±6o), WMAP7 CMB Map – Maximum Temperature Asymmetry (1.5 σ) (A. Mariano, LP, arXiv:1211.5915 Phys. Rev. D. 87, 043511 (2013)) α Dipole (4σ) Webb et. al. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 191101 (2011) Q1: How anomalous is this coincidence? Q2: Is there a physical model that can predict this coincidence Dark Energy Dipole (2σ) A. Mariano, LP, , Phys.Rev. D86 (2012) 083517.
- 10. Dark Flow Direction (3σ) Kashlinsky et. al. ApJL (2010) (kSZ effct on CMB) (800±200km/sec at r<600Mpc towards (l,b)=(296o±13o,14o±13o), WMAP7 CMB Map – Maximum Temperature Asymmetry (1.5 σ) (A. Mariano, LP, arXiv:1211.5915 Phys. Rev. D. 87, 043511 (2013)) α Dipole (4σ) Webb et. al. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 191101 (2011) Q1: How anomalous is this coincidence? Q2: Is there a physical model that can predict this coincidence Dark Energy Dipole (2σ) A. Mariano, LP, , Phys.Rev. D86 (2012) 083517.
- 11. Dark Flow Direction (2σ) Turnbull et. al. Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc. 420 (2012) (249±76km/sec at r<190Mpc towards (l,b)=(319o±18o,7o±14o), (245 SneIa) WMAP7 CMB Map – Maximum Temperature Asymmetry (1.5 σ) (A. Mariano, LP, arXiv:1211.5915 Phys. Rev. D. 87, 043511 (2013)) α Dipole (4σ) Webb et. al. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 191101 (2011) Q1: How anomalous is this coincidence? Q2: Is there a physical model that can predict this coincidence Dark Energy Dipole (2σ) A. Mariano, LP, , Phys.Rev. D86 (2012) 083517.
- 12. A: The probability that the combined quasar absorber and SnIa data are obtained in the context of a homogeneous and isotropic cosmology is less than one part in 106. Q: What is the probability to produce the observed combination of just the two dipoles in a homogeneous-isotropic cosmological model?
- 13. Probability to obtain as large (or larger) dipole magnitudes with the observed alignment in an isotropic cosmological model: The fraction of isotropic Monte Carlo Keck+VLT datasets that can reproduce the obverved dipole magnitude is less than 0.01% The fraction of isotropic Monte Carlo Union2 datasets that can reproduce the obverved dipole magnitude and the observed alignment with Keck+VLT dipole is less than 1% 0.01% x 1% = 0.0001% 0.01% 1% Monte-Carlo of Isotropic quasar absorber datasets (quasar positions fixed) Monte-Carlo of Isotropic SnIa Uniot2 datasets (SnIa positions fixed)
- 14. 1. The data are flawed due to systematics. 2. The data are unlikely statistical fluctuations in the context of isotropic ΛCDM. 3. The data are correct and a new theoretical model is needed. Assume case 3 A: There is a simple physical model based on a Hubble scale topological defect (inhomogeneous dark energy) non-minimally coupled to electromagnetism that has the potential to explain the observed aligned dipoles. Q: What physical model has the potential to predict the existence of the above combined dipoles? Most probable but also most boring Least probable but also most interesting
- 15. Coincidence Problem: Why Now? Time Dependent Dark Energy Alternatively: Why Here? Inhomogeneous Dark Energy Standard Model (ΛCDM): 1. Homogeneous - Isotropic Dark and Baryonic Matter. 2. Homogeneous-Isotropic-Constant Dark Energy (Cosmological Constant) 3. General Relativity Consider Because: 1. New generic generalization of ΛCDM (breaks homogeneity of dark energy). Includes ΛCDM as special case. 2. Natural emergence of preferred axis (off – center observers) 3. Well defined physical mechanism (topological quintessence with Hubble scale global monopoles). J. Grande, L.P., Phys. Rev. D 84, 023514 (2011). J. B. Sanchez, LP, Phys.Rev. D84 (2011) 123516
- 16. Global Monopole with Hubble scale Core 0 General Metric with Spherical Symmetry: Energy – Momentum Tensor: V 2 S
- 17. Global Monopole: Field Direction in Space and Energy Density Off-center Observer Variation of expansion rate due to dark energy density variation Variation of α?
- 18. Global Monopole Configuration: Non-minimally coupled scalar field Fine Structure Constant: Fine Structure Constant Spatial Variation:
- 19. Global Monopole: Field Direction in Space and Energy Density Off-center Observer Variation of α due to field variation Great Repulser Variation of expansion rate due to dark energy density variation
- 20. Initial-Boundary ConditionsEnergy-Momentum Conservation Static Monopole Profile (Φ=f(r) ) Homogeneous, Flat Matter Dominated (A=B=1)
- 21. 1. Monopole energy density slowly shrinks and dominates at late times in the core. 2. Matter develops underdensity at the core.
- 22. η=0.1 Mpl η=0.6 Mpl η=0.1 Mpl η=0.6 Mpl Accelerating Expansion at the core. r=0 r=0.5 r=5
- 23. Early hints for deviation from the cosmological principle and statistical isotropy are being accumulated. This appears to be one of the most likely directions which may lead to new fundamental physics in the coming years. A simple mechanism that can give rise to a cosmological preferred axis is based on an off-center observer in a spherical energy dark energy inhomogeneity. Such a mechanism can also give rise to a Dark Energy Dipole, Large Scale Velocity Flows, Fine Structure Constant Dipole and a CMB Temperature Asymmetry. Other interesting effects may occur (quasar polarization alignment etc). Topological Quintessence constitutes a physical mechanism to produce Hubble scale dark energy inhomogeneities.