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Obesity and Overweight
known as adiposity
by
Dr. Seema Kohli
Head, Pharmacy, KN Polytechnic College, Jabalpur
Content
• Introduction
• Overweight and Obesity
• Body Mass Index (BMI)
• Some stats about overweight and obesity
• Common Consequences of Overweight and Obesity
• Co-existing under-nutrition and obesity
• Yes: Overweight and obesity can be reduced
• WHO’s role
• India: The Third Most Obese Nation in the World
• Effective Weight Management (EWM)
Introduction
• Globally, there are more than 1 billion overweight adults, at least
300 million of them obese.
• Obesity and overweight pose a major risk for chronic diseases,
including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and
stroke, and certain forms of cancer.
• The key causes are increased consumption of energy-dense foods
high in saturated fats and sugars, and reduced physical activity.
Obesity and Overweight
Overweight and Obesity
are defined as excessive fat accumulation that may impair health.
• Body mass index (BMI) is a simple index of weight-for-height that is
commonly used to classify overweight and obesity in adults.
For adults, WHO defines overweight and obesity as:
• overweight is a BMI greater than or equal to 25; and
• obesity is a BMI greater than or equal to 30.
BMI-most useful measure of overweight and obesity.
However, it should be considered a rough guide.
BMI
Overweight and Obesity
Some stats about overweight
and obesity
Some recent WHO global estimates shows:
• In 2016, more than 1.9 billion adults aged 18 years and older were
overweight. Of these over 650 million adults were obese.
• In 2016, 39% of adults aged 18 years and over (39% of men and 40%
of women) were overweight.
• Overall, about 13% of the world’s adult population (11% of men and
15% of women) were obese in 2016.
• Worldwide obesity nearly tripled between 1975 and 2016.
Some indications on
Overweight and Obesity
Common Consequences of
Overweight and Obesity
Raised BMI is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases such as:
• cardiovascular diseases (mainly heart disease and stroke), which were the
leading cause of death in 2012; diabetes;
• musculoskeletal disorders (especially osteoarthritis – a highly disabling
degenerative disease of the joints);
• some cancers (including endometrial, breast, ovarian, prostate, liver,
gallbladder, kidney, and colon).
The risk for these non-communicable diseases increases, with increase in
BMI.
Obesity Vs Overweight
Common Consequences of
Overweight and Obesity
• Childhood obesity is associated with a higher chance of obesity,
premature death and disability in adulthood.
• But in addition to increased future risks, obese children experience
breathing difficulties, increased risk of fractures, hypertension, early
markers of cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and
psychological effects.
Consequences of Overweight and Obesity
Co-existing under-nutrition and
obesity
Many low- and middle-income countries are now facing a "double
burden" of disease.
• These countries continue facing problems of infectious diseases and
undernutrition.
• They also experience a rapid upsurge in non-communicable disease
risk factors such as obesity and overweight, particularly in urban.
• It is common to find undernutrition and obesity co-existing within the
same country, the same community and the same household.
Co-existing under-nutrition and
obesity
• Children in low- and middle-income countries are more vulnerable to
inadequate pre-natal, infant, and young child nutrition.
• These children are exposed to high-fat, high-sugar, high-salt, energy-
dense, and micronutrient-poor foods.
• These dietary patterns, in conjunction with lower levels of physical
activity, result in sharp increases in childhood obesity while
undernutrition issues remain unsolved.
fat and slim-friends
Yes: Overweight and obesity
can be reduced
Overweight, obesity and related non-communicable diseases, are largely
preventable.
• Supportive environments: by making the choice of healthier foods and regular
physical activity the easiest choice.
• thereby preventing overweight and obesity.
At the individual level, people can:
• limit energy intake from total fats and sugars;
• increase consumption of fruit & vegetables, and legumes, whole grains & nuts;
• engage in regular physical activity.
Yes: Overweight and obesity
can be reduced
• Individual responsibility can only have its full effect where people
have access to a healthy lifestyle.
• Therefore, regular physical activity and healthier dietary choices
available, affordable and easily accessible to everyone, particularly to
the poorest individuals.
• An example is a tax on sugar sweetened beverages.
Yes: Overweight and obesity
can be reduced
Food industry can play a significant role in promoting healthy diets by:
• reducing the fat, sugar and salt content of processed foods;
• ensuring that healthy and nutritious choices are available and
affordable to all consumers;
• restricting marketing of foods high in sugars, salt and fats; and
• ensuring the availability of healthy food choices and supporting
regular physical activity practice in the workplace.
WHO’s role
"WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health”
Accordingly, actions needed
• to support healthy diets and regular physical activity.
• to improve diets and physical activity patterns at the population level.
• to reduce unhealthy diet and physical inactivity.
WHO also developed "Global Action Plan for the Prevention and
Control of Non-communicable Diseases 2013-2020"
I think, I have little less
India: The Third Most Obese
Nation in the World
Effective Weight Management
(EWM)
Effective weight management for individuals and groups at risk of developing
obesity involves a range of long-term strategies.
• These include prevention, weight maintenance, management of co-
morbidities and weight loss.
• They should be part of an integrated, multi-sectoral, population-based
approach, which includes environmental support for healthy diets and
regular physical activity.
Key elements of EWM:
• Creating supportive environment that promote the availability and
accessibility of a variety of low-fat, high-fibre foods, and that provide
opportunities for physical activity
EWM
Promoting healthy behaviours to encourage, motivate and enable individuals
to lose weight by:
• eating more fruit and vegetables, as well as nuts and whole grains;
• engaging in daily moderate physical activity for at least 30 minutes;
• cutting the amount of fatty, sugary foods in the diet;
• moving from saturated animal-based fats to unsaturated vegetable-oil
based fats.
Managing existing burden of obesity and associated conditions through
clinical programmes to ensure to lose weight or avoid further weight gain.
additional dose for you
thank you for listening
without tension
References
• http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/
• http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/media/en/gsfs_obesity.pdf
• https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/obe

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Voppt by dr seema kohli obesity and overweight-rev1

  • 1. Obesity and Overweight known as adiposity by Dr. Seema Kohli Head, Pharmacy, KN Polytechnic College, Jabalpur
  • 2. Content • Introduction • Overweight and Obesity • Body Mass Index (BMI) • Some stats about overweight and obesity • Common Consequences of Overweight and Obesity • Co-existing under-nutrition and obesity • Yes: Overweight and obesity can be reduced • WHO’s role • India: The Third Most Obese Nation in the World • Effective Weight Management (EWM)
  • 3. Introduction • Globally, there are more than 1 billion overweight adults, at least 300 million of them obese. • Obesity and overweight pose a major risk for chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and stroke, and certain forms of cancer. • The key causes are increased consumption of energy-dense foods high in saturated fats and sugars, and reduced physical activity.
  • 5. Overweight and Obesity are defined as excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. • Body mass index (BMI) is a simple index of weight-for-height that is commonly used to classify overweight and obesity in adults. For adults, WHO defines overweight and obesity as: • overweight is a BMI greater than or equal to 25; and • obesity is a BMI greater than or equal to 30. BMI-most useful measure of overweight and obesity. However, it should be considered a rough guide.
  • 6. BMI
  • 8. Some stats about overweight and obesity Some recent WHO global estimates shows: • In 2016, more than 1.9 billion adults aged 18 years and older were overweight. Of these over 650 million adults were obese. • In 2016, 39% of adults aged 18 years and over (39% of men and 40% of women) were overweight. • Overall, about 13% of the world’s adult population (11% of men and 15% of women) were obese in 2016. • Worldwide obesity nearly tripled between 1975 and 2016.
  • 10. Common Consequences of Overweight and Obesity Raised BMI is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases such as: • cardiovascular diseases (mainly heart disease and stroke), which were the leading cause of death in 2012; diabetes; • musculoskeletal disorders (especially osteoarthritis – a highly disabling degenerative disease of the joints); • some cancers (including endometrial, breast, ovarian, prostate, liver, gallbladder, kidney, and colon). The risk for these non-communicable diseases increases, with increase in BMI.
  • 12. Common Consequences of Overweight and Obesity • Childhood obesity is associated with a higher chance of obesity, premature death and disability in adulthood. • But in addition to increased future risks, obese children experience breathing difficulties, increased risk of fractures, hypertension, early markers of cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and psychological effects.
  • 14. Co-existing under-nutrition and obesity Many low- and middle-income countries are now facing a "double burden" of disease. • These countries continue facing problems of infectious diseases and undernutrition. • They also experience a rapid upsurge in non-communicable disease risk factors such as obesity and overweight, particularly in urban. • It is common to find undernutrition and obesity co-existing within the same country, the same community and the same household.
  • 15. Co-existing under-nutrition and obesity • Children in low- and middle-income countries are more vulnerable to inadequate pre-natal, infant, and young child nutrition. • These children are exposed to high-fat, high-sugar, high-salt, energy- dense, and micronutrient-poor foods. • These dietary patterns, in conjunction with lower levels of physical activity, result in sharp increases in childhood obesity while undernutrition issues remain unsolved.
  • 17. Yes: Overweight and obesity can be reduced Overweight, obesity and related non-communicable diseases, are largely preventable. • Supportive environments: by making the choice of healthier foods and regular physical activity the easiest choice. • thereby preventing overweight and obesity. At the individual level, people can: • limit energy intake from total fats and sugars; • increase consumption of fruit & vegetables, and legumes, whole grains & nuts; • engage in regular physical activity.
  • 18. Yes: Overweight and obesity can be reduced • Individual responsibility can only have its full effect where people have access to a healthy lifestyle. • Therefore, regular physical activity and healthier dietary choices available, affordable and easily accessible to everyone, particularly to the poorest individuals. • An example is a tax on sugar sweetened beverages.
  • 19. Yes: Overweight and obesity can be reduced Food industry can play a significant role in promoting healthy diets by: • reducing the fat, sugar and salt content of processed foods; • ensuring that healthy and nutritious choices are available and affordable to all consumers; • restricting marketing of foods high in sugars, salt and fats; and • ensuring the availability of healthy food choices and supporting regular physical activity practice in the workplace.
  • 20. WHO’s role "WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health” Accordingly, actions needed • to support healthy diets and regular physical activity. • to improve diets and physical activity patterns at the population level. • to reduce unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. WHO also developed "Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases 2013-2020"
  • 21. I think, I have little less
  • 22. India: The Third Most Obese Nation in the World
  • 23. Effective Weight Management (EWM) Effective weight management for individuals and groups at risk of developing obesity involves a range of long-term strategies. • These include prevention, weight maintenance, management of co- morbidities and weight loss. • They should be part of an integrated, multi-sectoral, population-based approach, which includes environmental support for healthy diets and regular physical activity. Key elements of EWM: • Creating supportive environment that promote the availability and accessibility of a variety of low-fat, high-fibre foods, and that provide opportunities for physical activity
  • 24. EWM Promoting healthy behaviours to encourage, motivate and enable individuals to lose weight by: • eating more fruit and vegetables, as well as nuts and whole grains; • engaging in daily moderate physical activity for at least 30 minutes; • cutting the amount of fatty, sugary foods in the diet; • moving from saturated animal-based fats to unsaturated vegetable-oil based fats. Managing existing burden of obesity and associated conditions through clinical programmes to ensure to lose weight or avoid further weight gain.
  • 26. thank you for listening without tension