Improving Primary Education in India


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Improving Primary Education in India

  1. 1. An Social Innovation Challenge Submitted by : Nitin Bighane Seema Devi
  2. 2. Executive summary  Primary education in India started showing good signs with governments effort to increase the Gross Enrollment ratio in schools .On one hand number of students enrolled in schools are rising, infrastructure is getting improved ,government schools are getting recognized but on the other hand the overall quality of primary education haven’t improved a lot.  Although government had realized this and had taken many steps like Right to Education Bill and Sarv Shiksha Ahbhiyan, Aakansha, Make a Difference but due to high developmental and economical diversity, a single model can’t be implemented in all states. In our solution we have categorized the urban and rural areas into different tiers and had developed customized solution for each tier.  We have done primary and secondary research to identify the possible reasons for the poor quality education and then provided remedial actions to eliminate those issues  Best practices throughout the world are noted and feasible one were put in suggestions  A roadmap is developed to solve the issues related to infrastructure, quality teaching, student motivation and course content in primary schools.  It was found during Primary research that some of the rules like necessary passing has downgraded the quality of students
  3. 3. Current state of Primary Education in India(Positive side)  Proportion of government primary schools with enrollment of 60 or fewer students has increased over time, from 26.1% in 2009 to 32.1% in 2012  Pupil teacher ratio (PTR) has risen from 38.9% to 42.8%  2012, 73% of all schools had drinking water available proportion of schools with useable toilets has increased from 47.2% in 2010 to 56.5% in 2012  Midday meal was observed being served in 87.1% schools that were visited Enrollment in primary government schools in India
  4. 4. Para-teachers are wholly unprepared and poorly compensated for what they work by any standard Ref: Primary Education in India: Current status and Future Challenges by Amit Kaushik, Parth J Shah, 2009 In 2002-2003, 25% of primary-school teachers in rural India were absent on any given day national average is about 1 teacher to every 34 students about 1 in 5 primary school teachers do not have the requisite minimum academic qualification to ensure children’s right to quality learning Infrastructure Ranked 63 out of 64 in the latest Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) study The 2011 ASER stated that only 48.2% of students in the fifth grade can read at the second grade level About 50 percent of the Std 3 kids cannot even correctly recognize digits up to 100, where as they are supposed to learn two digit subtraction Dropout rates increase alarmingly in class III to V - its 50% for boys, 58% for girls Teachers Student Current state of Primary Education in India(Negative side) On average, only one in nine schools in Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur have separate toilets and one in four schools in Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand and Orissa half the schools in Arunachal Pradesh, Assam and Meghalaya do not have drinking water facilities Gross Enrolment in India (%) 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 92% 52% 12% Primary School Enrollment Variation 100% 50% 0% 92% 44% 22% Enrollment % 4%
  5. 5. Key Take Away Source: Wikipedia •Rank 2 •Managed by Ministry of Education, advises private schools •Criminal offence if parents fail to enrol students •Kindergartens for basics •Subject Based Branding, getting subjects based on their scores in a field •Primary School Leaving Exams (PSLE) to get score choose secondary schools Switzerland •Rank 3 •No tuition fees •Fully subsidised meals •Equality and excellence in education •Publically funded •Without selecting, tracking or streaming students during common basic education •Spread the schools to remotest areas •Continuous grading, no high stake tests Singapore Finland Best Practices •Rank 1 •Delegates authority of school systems to Cantens •Primary School obligatory to every child •Kindergarten not compulsory •Get to choose apprenticeship after primary education Finland: No tuition fees, without selection, equality, continuous grading Singapore: Kindergartens, criminal offence to not teach Switzerland: Obligatory primary schooling
  6. 6. Reason for the poor education standards Inadequate Teacher Qualification and Support Low Teacher Motivation and High Absenteeism Low remuneration Multiple Job Responsibilities Less Family support Child Marriage Child Labor Rural Area Flawed Teaching Methodology Low remuneration to teachers Highly bureaucratic administrative system Child Labor Less motivation Home Conditions Lack of student motivation ( no failing) Urban Area
  7. 7. • Check on attendance not kept • Teachers forced on other duties • No study environment • Prevailing drinking and abuse at home • Perception that education not important for female child Paspoli Village BMC School, Powai Mumbai Personal Interview No of students:172 No of Teachers:8 Main cause of low attendance: - Low inspiration towards education - Home conditions - Child Labour - Language problems - Child marriage BMC Urdu School, Adi Shankaracharya Marg Powai Mumbai Personal Interview No. of Student: 198 No. of teachers: 15 Main cause of low attendance - Child labour - Child marriage - Home conditions - Necessary passing degraded student quality Gk G H S S P Village School Khaparkheda Nagpur Phone Interview No. Of students: 124 No of Teachers: 8 Main Cause of low attendance: - Low inspiration - Home environment - Low education preference to female child - Kids contributing in work - Low teacher attendence • Old learning techniques • Low interest by teachers • Compulsory passing Child Labour • Forced to work • Earn for living Home Conditions • Society conditions • Prevailing perceptions • Law enforcement not proper Inspiration Female child negligence Teacher Attendance Child Marriage Primary research
  8. 8. Solution for Improving Primary Education The solution to this problem is the improvement in: Teacher training Infrastructure Increasing student motivation Better Education We can’t have one standardized model for all government schools ,so we need to divide the schools in three categories : Tier 1 Improved teaching methods • Government schools in Metropolitan cities(Mumbai,Chennai,Delhi,Banglore) Tier 2 • Government schools in of rest of the cities Tier 3 • Government schools in rural India (Village Schools) Now we need different model for all these categories Tier 1(%) Tier 2(%) Tier 3(%) Infrastructure 10 20 20 Teacher training 20 30 30 Improved teaching methods 50 40 10 Increasing student motivation 10 10 40 Relative percentage of improvement needed for a factors in a particular tier *Based on primary research
  9. 9. Actions to be taken for all these categories Developing Baal Vikas school replacing the exsisting Anganwadi system(3-5 yrs) • Transforming the Anganwadi system with better Infrastructure and new teaching styles • Teaching kids through plays, Developing child interest towards learning in the early age • Evaluating the output and then replicating the model Improved teaching methods by collaborating with private schools to give training to government school teachers Giving incentives to private school teachers to guide teachers in rural areas in terms of better teaching methods Giving incentives to teachers on the combined score of group and individual performance in teaching Government should promote group teaching incentive schemes in addition to the individual incentives ,so that teachers will focus on combined improvement in the student learning as well Creating innovation centre at national level to develop new curricular which is more interactive and application oriented Then implementing it in all schools through video conferencing or pool teacher training Motivating corporates to spend some percentage of CSR fund in developing the school infrastructure Government should try to Develop all primary School up to the same level of standard and has to develop competition Between these schools. Example : Centrally sponsored Kendriya Vidyalaya’s are know for their competitiveness and Quality education Government schools Should also be made Accountable to the Parents as happens In private schools Ref: Primary Education in India: Current status and Future Challenges b Amit Kaushik, Parth J Shah, 2009
  10. 10. Solution for Tier 1 Category Features of these categories Government Intervention Government Partnership •Better salary structure •Incentive based pay structure •More autonomy should be given to the school administration to implement improved teaching methods •Provide Facilities and support to special educators and NGOs in primary education* •Improved teaching methods by collaborating with private schools to train government school teachers •Leadership lectures by achievers and motivators to increase enthusiasm •Special need children must be given special attention for Inclusive education* Private Organizations •Involving private players like coaching institutes in developing analytical skills in the students by providing teaching material and video lectures •Direct recruitment of female candidates for some posts so that parents are motivated to let their children attend schools** • • • • This category includes Metropolitan cities (Mumbai, Chennai, Delhi, Bangalore) Infrastructure facilities are sufficient in these schools like drinking water, Toilets etc. Teacher issues like absentees, less number of teachers is also not there Better teaching methods and more student motivation can bring better results *Ref: Usage of selected resources for Inclusive education in Mainstream Primary Schools by Buehere and Oheieng Pamela, Vol8 – Problems of Management in 21st Century 2013 **Ref: Priorities for primary education policy in India’s 12th Five-year plan, Karthik Muralidharan, NCAER-Brookings India Policy Forum, Apr 2013
  11. 11. Routine inspection to check if the school administration is adhering to the rules or not Teachers should be motivated to give more emphasis on application oriented learning rather than marks oriented learning Government Partnership Government Intervention Improvement in Infrastructure facilities Guide children towards the development of social and interactive skills by collaborating with private schools to give these students opportunity to interact with private school students and learn from them Government should open leadership programs to develop leaders who can take sole responsibility of these government schools and can deliver the desired results Private Organizations Solution for Tier 2 Category Private companies should organize events such as sports days, celebration of national days, drawing competitions and crafts sessions to enhance motivation in government school children Build partnership to deliver quality health and physical education for overall development* Motivate higher secondary students of private schools to teach students of primary government school Features of these categories • • • All cities in India are included in this category except from the Tier 1 cities Basic infrastructure facilities are available here but the rules and regulations are not followed properly Better administration is required to implement the rules and regulation *Ref: Community collaboration through sport: Bringing schools together by Lynch, Timothy Monash University Australian and International Journal of Rural Education Vol 23 Apr 2013
  12. 12. Solution for Tier 3 Category Government Intervention Government Partnership Private Organizations • Improvements in school governance • system of continuous and comprehensive evaluation • Involving Childs in creative works and then paying them for the work they do like painting etc. • Using better teaching methods like games to make school a fun place to motivate children • Leadership development of head of the primary schools through leadership programs • Better Infrastructure • Cash prizes based on attendance • Providing financial assistance to entrepreneurs to come up with new start up in education sector specially in rural area • Student rotation program: merit base student transfer to the private schools • Compulsory Guest Lectures by private school teachers • Rebates to Private players to open schools in rural areas • Build partnership to deliver quality health and physical education for overall development* Features of this category • • • • • • All the rural areas of India are included in this category There are many issues with this category like less interest among teachers to teach, poor Infrastructure, low pay scale, child labor, livelihood issue The main issue is of livelihood Parents don’t send there children to school for the sake of earnings from them Need to develop programs that captures their creativity and pay them accordingly So that they don't become forced child labor *Ref: Community collaboration through sport: Bringing schools together by Lynch, Timothy Monash University Australian and International Journal of Rural Education Vol 23 Apr 2013
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