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영국 Dta

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영국 Dta

  1. 1. I. 1) , / / . , , , , , / . . 2) ‘ ’ ‘ ’ . 1 , , 2 12 .3 (HAT) (Coin Street Community Builders) ‘ ’ .4 . II. 1) (1) 1997 1997 . 1997 (Southwark) (Aylesbury Estate) (Leunig & Swa eld, 2007) . . , ‘ · ’, ‘ ’ , ,‘ ’ ‘ ’ , ,‘ ’(local), ‘2
  2. 2. ’(region), ‘ ’(national) , ,‘ ’ ‘ ’(democratic renewal) , ‘ ’, ‘ ’ (ODPM, 2006). · , , ([ 2.1]). 2) 1997 . 10 . [ 2.1] 1997 • • - New Deal for Communities • National Strategy for Neighbourhood - Education Action Zones-Sure Start Renewal (1998) - Neighbourhood Renewal Fund - New Start - Employment Zones - Health Action Zones • A Towards Urban • Richard Rogers Urban Task Force Renaissance(DETR, 1999) • • Our Towns and Cities: Delivering an • · · Urban Renaissance (DETR, 2000) • Urban Renaissance • Bring Britain Together (SEU, 2001) • National Neighbourhood Renewal Strategy • • e Sustainable Communities(2003) • , , • • • Making it Happen: e Northern • 290 Way(ODPM, 2004) • • Planning and Compulsory Purchase • Act (ODPM, 2004) • UDP Local Plan Local Development Frameworks • Structure Plan Regional Spatial Strategy • (Skill) • Egan Review(2004) • National Centre for Sustainable Community Skills3
  3. 3. • Sustainable Communities: Homes for • , , All (ODPM, 2005) , 5 • • Sustainable Communities: People, 5 Places and Prosperity(ODPM, 2005) • • State of English Cities(ODPM, • 56 ( 125,000 ) 12 2006) • . 1998 ‘Bring Britain Together: National Strategy for Neighbourhood Renewal’ 1997 ([ 2.1]). 60 90 ‘Urban Programme’, ‘Urban Development Corporations’, ‘Task Force’, ‘Single Regeneration Budget’ , , , , (Social Exclusion Unit-SEU, 1998). ‘ ’(Social Exclusion Unit) 5 18 10 ‘ ’(National Strategy for Neighbourhood Renewal) ([ 2.2]). , , , , , . (SEU, 1998).[ 2.2] 5 18 ( : : )5 18 DE DF DC MA SEU TR HTM HO EE DTI DH DSS MS FF CO • 1. (job) 2. (skills) (getting the people to work) 3. (business) 4. (neighbourhood management) 5. (housing management) 6. (neighbourhood wardens) • (getting the 7. (unpopular housing) place to work) 8. (anti-social behaviour) 9. (community self-help) 10. (arts and sports)4
  4. 4. • 11. (schools and plus) (a future for young people) 12. (young people) : ‘Bring Britain Together: A National Strategy for Neighbourhood Renewal’ (SEU, 1998) . SEU:Social Exclusion Unit, DETR:Departement of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, HMT: Her Majesty’s Treasury, HO:Home Office, DfEE:Department for Education and Employment, DTI:Department of Trade and Industry, DH:Department of Health, DSS:Departement of Social Security, DCMS;Department for Culture, Media and Sport, MAFF:Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, CO:Cabinet Office 1997 (Area-based approach) , · ‘ ’ , , , , (Voluntary sectors) .[ 2.1] 1998 ‘ ’(National Strategy for Neighbourhood Renewal) ‘Health Action Zones’, ‘Employment Zones‘, ‘Education Action Zones’ ‘ ’ . [ 2.1] 1980 20005
  5. 5. : The Contradiction of Urban Policy: the case of the Single Regeneration Budget in London (Ball, 2004) : 1997 ( ) 1997 ODPM(Office for Deputy Prime Minister) ‘ ’ (Social Exclusion Unit) . ‘Local Strategic Partnerships’ , , , ‘Local Neighbourhood Renewal Strategies’ . , ‘New Deal for Communities’(NDC) ‘ ’ , , , . NDC 10 £20 . ( ) (ODPM, 2004). , , , 23 NDC 10 £40m-£60m (ODPM, 2004)([ 2.2]). [ 2.2] New Deals for Communities : Making it happen: The Northern Way (ODPM, 2004)6
  6. 6. 1999 (Urban Regeneration Companies-URCs) . (Regional Development Agencies), (local authorities) (English Partnerships) (ODPM, 2004). , . , , 12 . Walsall (ODPM, 2004)([ 2.3]). [ 2.3] : Making it happen: The Northern Way (ODPM, 2004) (Sustainable Community) . 2003 ‘Sustainable Community Plan’, 2004 ‘Making it Happen: e Northern Way’, 2005 ‘Sustainable Communities: Homes for All‘, ‘Sustainable Communities:People, Places and Prosperity’ . 2006 ‘State of e English Cities’ .7
  7. 7. 125,000 56 (Primary Urban Area) 12 1 . 12 . , . , , , (ODPM, 2006). ( ) : 3) (1) (Single Regeneration Budget) (1997 ) 1994 2004 6 . 1997 , 5 · .1. London, Manchester, Birmingham, Britsol, Cambridge, Derby, Burnley, Leicester, Leeds, Sunderland, Sheffield, Medway8
  8. 8. . . 5 200 . • 6 , (Bidding) . •5 (Area-Based Initiative) . (Indices of Deprivation)2 . • ‘ ’ , 10 1 , 0.59 . . . (2) (NRF, Neighbourhood Renewal Fund) • 1997 , (Neighbourhood Renewal Unit) 88 . • 2001 2006 19 ( 3 8 ) , 2007 5 2500 ( 1 500 ) . Working Neighbourhood Renewal Fund . • (Indices of Deprivation) . , (RDA) . • , , , , , .2. (Indices of Local Deprivation) ,9
  9. 9. , , , (LSP: Local Strategy Partnership) . NRF LSP . , . (3) (CEF: Community Empowerment Fund) • . . . • 2003 3 , 36 ( 7 ) (Community Empowerment Network) 88 . • 2004 (Community Chest), (Community Learning Chest) .10
  10. 10. • (NRF) , . , . , . , . CEF Self-help , . • . • . , , . (LSP) . CENs (GO Government O ce) . CENs . (4) (BIG Big Lottery Fund) . , (BIG) New Opproturnity national lottery fund .11
  11. 11. [ ] Big Lottery Fund , 2014 £300 - £1000 Awards for All England £300- £10,000 Awards for All Northern £500 - £10,000. Ireland , , Awards for All Scotland £500 - £10,000 Awards for All Wales £500 - £5,000 £10,000,000 Building Change Trust (10 ) . Changing Spaces: £10,000- £450,000 Community Spaces Changing Spaces: Community Sustainable £5,000- £50,000 Energy Programme Changing Spaces: £20,000- £250,000 Ecominds Community Asset £300,000- £800,000 Transfer . New Opportunities , Fair Share Fare Share £5,000 - £250,000 77 2 Heroes Return £150 - £5,500 Investing In Ideas £500 - £10,000 Like Skills Project £14,000,000 , ,12
  12. 12. People and Places £5,001 - £1,000,000 People and Places: Addressing the economic £2,000,000 downturn in Wales Reaching Communities: , £10,000 - £500,000 England 25 Young Peoples’ Fund £500 - £2,500 4) (1) Housing Action Trust (HAT) , , Housing Action Trust(HAT) (Department of the Environment) [Housing: e Government’s Proposal] 1988 Housing Act . HAT , , , 4 . HAT . (English Partnership, Homes & Community Agency ) HAT , . HAT 1988 Housing Act (Local authorities) . HAT (Non Departmental Public Body, Quango(Quasi Non-Governmental Organisation) , . HAT (Board) , (Deputy prime minister) . 1988 Housing Act 6 HAT ( 2.3] ). (2) (Local Strategy Partnership) . , , , .13
  13. 13. • . • (LAAs: Local Area Agreements) . (LAA)3 , .3. (LAA) . , , . (1) . (2) (3) . (4) . (5) .14
  14. 14. [ 2.3] HAT HAT (£) North Hull HAT 1991 - 1999 3 5 - - Waltham Forest 1 6 2002 4 - - HAT( ) • 1960 1970 • ( ) Tower Hamlets 1 2 3 • 1,000 , 1995 - 2004 6 (Index of Local HAT( ) 150 Deprivation, 2000) • Tower Hamlets 3 • 34 • 2,275 , 32 • 9,000 60 Castle Vale HAT 1993 - 2005 3 3 • 1,464 , 1333 ( ) • 3,786 30 . • 1,461 • 67 5,332 HAT . Liverpool HAT 1993 -2005 9 3 • 1996 - 54 13 Stonebridge HAT 1994 - 2007 8 - - - ( ) : Housign Policy (Balchin, 1995) English Partnerships 6 HAT III. 1) (1) (Waterloo Bridge) (Blackfriars Bridge) (South Bank) . . , , , 1970 ‘ ’(Greater London Council)( Greater London Authority:GLA ) . ,15
  15. 15. . , ‘Coin Street Action Group’ . , Coin Street Action Group . ‘Coin Street Community Builder’(CSCB) . CSCB . CSCB 1984 13 . (Mulberry) (Gabriel’s Wharf )(1988), , (Palm)(1994), (Oxo Tower)(1995), (Iroko) 59 (2001) . CSCB . [ 3.1] 1987 , ( ) ( ) : Lain Tuckett (1988)16
  16. 16. : Waterloo Community Development Group (2) ‘Coin Street Community Builders’(CSCB) CSCB 1984 ‘Coin Street Action Group’ . 13 , ‘ ’(Social Enterprize) . CSCB CSCB (Board) , . , . CSCB , 1987 ‘Coin Street Secondary Housing Co-operative’(CSS) . (Housing Corporation) (Housing Association) , CSS . CSS , , . CSCB ,17
  17. 17. . CSCB . [ 3.2] (1979) : Iain Tuckett (1988) CSCB ‘Coin Street Secondary Housing Co-operative’ ‘Coin Street Centre Trust’ . . (Housing co-operatives) : ‘ ’(South Bank) . ,18
  18. 18. . . CSCB Coin Street Secondary Housing Co-operative Coin Street Secondary Housing Co-operative (3) CSCB CSCB 13 . (co-operative homes)4 , , , , , , , , , , , , . [ 3.1] CSCB ‘South Bank Management Service Ltd’ (CSCB ) , OXO Tower, Gabriel’s Wharf, Bernie Spain Gardens, . CSCB , , , , CSCB , , , (quantity surveyor) .4. (Coin Street) 4 Housing Co-operatives Iroko, Mulberry, Palm, Redwood .19
  19. 19. [ 3.1] • 1988 • Gabriel’s Wharf • , , • OXO Tower • 1997 • (Flat) (Maisonettes) 59 Iroko Housing 32 Co-operative • . • 56 •1 4 . Mulberry Housing • (2 Co-operative ) • 1990 . • 1994 • 27 (10 ,5 2 , Palm Housing 10 1 ) Co-operative • • (eg. RIBA National Housing Design Award 1995) • 1995 Redwood Housing • 78 (OXO Tower ) Co-operative • 1 220
  20. 20. • 1996 • CBCS • OXO Beef Cube (Liebig Extract of Meat Company) • 1930 1970 OXO Tower • 1990 CSCB .2 . • , CSCB , , (Housing Corporation) . • , , . , • • CSCB , , , Coin Street • , , , Neighbourhood , Centre , • (London Development Agency), (Single Regeneration Budget), (Government Children Programme) . • 1980 Public Park • , , (Bernie Spain Gardens) • CSCB . • • CSCB Bernie Spain GardenRiverside Walkways • , ,21
  21. 21. • 2005 • CSCB (social enterprise) (charity) • , , • , , , • (Lambeth) Colombo Street (Southwark) Community & • 50 Sports Centre (London Marathan Charitable Trust), e Big Lottery, (CSSC) 106 , (Single Regneration Fund) . •4 (Pitch) . • CSCB . • . • CSCB CSSC ‘ ’(Healthy Living Programme) . : Coin Street Home Page OXO Tower CSCB ‘OXO Tower’ , , , . CSCB ( ) OXO Tower CSCB . CSCB OXO Tower ‘ ’ · ‘ ’ . Coin Street Neighbourhood Centre CSCB 2006 / , . , , 9 4 , CSCB (5 11 ), (Single Regneration Budget)(2 5 ), (London Development Agency)(1 5 ), SureStart Programme(74 ) . , , , CSCB .22
  22. 22. [ 3.3] (CSCB) : (2009) [ 3.4] Coin Street Neighbourhood Centre : Coin Street Community Builder (2006) (4) CSCB CSCB . • - CSCB (housing co-operatives) ‘Coin Street Centre Trust’ - : Lambeth, Southwark - : , (Lodon Development Agency) - : Cabinet O ce, Department for Children Schools and Families23
  23. 23. - (South Bank) (Bankside) : Development Trust Association, Social Enterprise Coalition, Social Enterprise London, South Bank Employers’ Group - : City of Londo School for Boys, Colombo Street Community & Sport Centre, Guy’s & St omas’ NHS Foundation, e ames Festival Trust 2) (1) Castle Vale • 1964-1969 (Castle Bromwich Air eld) . (Clearance Programme) , 30 . • (Birmingham City Council) , 1988 Housing Act Housing Action Trust(HAT) . (75% ) HAT . • HAT · · . • 34 , , 27 (Mezzonet), 2,700 , (Radburn) , . • · 50% , , ( ) ( 55% , 44% ), ( , , , , ) . Housing Action Trust (HAT) • · · HAT .24
  24. 24. [ 3.5] : www.cvcha.co.uk [ 3.6] HAT : Adam Monement (2005) • HAT (Board) 10 , (O ce for Deputy Prime Minister:ODPM DCLG ) . 3 4 , 3 . Tenants and Resident Alliance(TRA) Castle Vale Community Housing Association(CVCHA) 2 , . • 1999 6 , HAT 325
  25. 25. , . • 4 (Housing), (Development), (Economic & Community Development), (Finance) (Corporate Team) , . [ 3.7] : Adam Monement(2005) (2) HAT HAT , , . 2,275 32 1,464 1,333 . (Eden Court Medical Practice), 3 5 (Sainsbury) 400 , ,3 4 44 · , (Healthy Living Centre: Santuray) , , .26
  26. 26. [ 3.2]HAT Castle Vale : Castle Vale Housing Action Trust(2004) HAT ‘ ’ ‘ ’ . 55% 8% . . (Training programme) , , , . Sainsbury ( Jaguar ) . HAT (1993-2005) 1,461 3,415 . (6.9%) 7.4%(2004) . HAT · · . HAT . HAT ‘ ’ (Multi Agency Approach) . (Empowerment) , , , · · , .27
  27. 27. [ 3.3] • HAT 1. . • HAT • , , 5 . 2005 HAT 2. • Health Village, , · , , , , • HAT (Anti- Social behaviour orders) • , CCTV , · , , 3. (Community Action Tackling Crime and Harrassment), (Zero Tolerance Campaign), , , , . • (Greening Operations) 4. . ‘Castle Vale Community Environment Trust’ . • · · , , 5. · · , • / , Vale FM, (Castle Vale Repertory 6. Entertainment Workshops) , , (3) HAT HAT HAT , . . HAT Castle Vale Community Housing Association (CVCHA), Merlin Venture Ltd(a Community Development Trust for Castle Vale), Castle Vale Community Care Partnership (CVCCP), Castle Vale Community Fund, Castle Vale Credit Union, Castle Vale Community Environmental Trust (CVCET), Tenants & Residents Alliance(TRA), Castle Vale FM ([ 3.4] ).28
  28. 28. [ 3.8] HAT (Voluntary group) (Charitable organisation) ‘Sanctuary’ : Adam Monement(2005) [ 3.4] • 1997 1. Castle Vale • (Housing Association) HAT 2,000 Community Housing • 16 TRA Association (CVCHA) • 70 • 2004 HAT 98% (2% ) • TRA HAT • ‘ ’(employment) ‘ ’(training)• 2. Merlin Venture TRA Ltd (a Community • Development Trust for . Castle Vale) • : ‘Tiggy Winkles Day Nurse’ ( ), ‘Vale Scape’ ( ), ‘Community Bus Service’( ), ‘Tenant Decorator Service’( ) • 1999 3. Castle Vale • CVCCP ‘Sanctuary’ Community Care Partnership (CVCCP) • CVCHA ‘Sanctuary’29
  29. 29. • • 74 (47,440 ) • : - Alarm Project: . - Pinnacle Sports: . - Health Visitor: , . 4. Castle Vale - Castle Vale Allotments: (Rotavator) . Community Fund - Youth Day: . - Vale FM: . - Birmingham Centre Swimming Club: . - Got What it Takes: . - St Cuthberts: . - Chivenor School: • . • HAT , , Birmingham Credit Union Development Agency(BCUDA) 5. Castle Vale Credit . Union(CVCU) • CVCU 281 380 3 . 6. Castle Vale Community • 1999 • . Environmental Trust (CVCET) • 30 7. Tenants & Residents • Alliance(TRA) • HAT 8. Castle Vale FM • , , , Vale Mail , : Castle Vale Housing Action Trust · HAT (Castle Vale Community Housing Association) . . 1) 8,000 · , Property Maintenance Team . 6 ( ) . , Community Housing Team Walk and Talk ( ) .30
  30. 30. Income and Debt Recovery , . Team . Older Persons Team , ( ) (Olders Persons Forum) . 2) , Community Safety Strategy . , ( ) Community Safety Forum . CVCHA Neighbourhood Warden Team , , ( ) . . , CCTV , Tenancy Enforcement Team . Vale Wath Team CVCHA, , (Vale ) , . Youth Youth Team Council( ) ( ) . Effectiveness Overall contract compliance 97% 97% 95% K % of service-users that feel their participation has had Impact monitoring 75% 75% a positive impact upon their health under development % of sustained tenancies as a result of resident support service intervention 85% 85% 100%  % of clients moving from worklessness into training, employment or volunteering 50% 25% 20% K % of resident issues dealt with via Reachout service 75% 75% 100%  % of young people achieving accredited qualification 10% 5% 1% K % of neighbourhood/agency outcomes met as a result of consultancy services 75% 75% 100%  Overall Satisfaction with CVCRS services 85% 85% 95% 31
  31. 31. CVCHA , . . 3 (1) (2) (3) . 100 , 1000 ( )= (950 )+ (50 ) CVCHA CVCHA Neighbourhood Partnership . Neighbourhood Partnership CVCHA Merlin Venture , . . CVCRS , , (E ciency) (E ectiveness) . (1) (2) (3) (4) Sanctuary( ) (5) , . K   , , IV. 1) 3 . . (Communities in control: real people, real power - White Paper )32
  32. 32. 3 . 2 UnLtd level 1 500 - 5,000 level 2 10,000 - 20,000 2,000 Scarman 2,000 , , , Asmee Fairbaim Foundation Lloyds/TSB Foundation Lloyds/TSB Foundation Scottish Land Use Reform Fund Scottish Land Use Reform Fund Natwest Natwest Triodos Triodos Unity Unity ICOF ICOF Prince’s Fund Prince’s Fund Adventure Capital Fund Future Builders , Venturesome Fund Charaties Aid Foundation Ethical share issues Ethical share issues British Business Angels Association British Business Angels Association (1) the Office of the 3rdsector(OTS) 2006 5 Cabinet O ce 3 (OTS) 3 .33
  33. 33. , , , 3 5 . , , . . (1) (2) (3) , , (4) 3 , 3 . 3 (cross-government action) . 3 , 3 . 3 . OTS (Adventure Capital Fund) . (Futurebuilders programme) , (Social Investment Business) (Futurebuilders England), Real help for Communites: Modernization Fund, (Social enterprise Investment Fund) (Communitybuilder) . , , 5 (Futurebuilders England) Real help for Communites: 3 50 Modernization Fund5. , 3 (voluntary groups), (Community Group), (social enterprises), (Charities), (Cooperatives) : the Office of the 3rd Sector34
  34. 34. , (SEIF: Social 5 enterprise Investment Fund) . . , 2 , 1 7 5 (Communitybuilder) , 5 2 . (2) Adventure Capital Fund 2002 12 Adventure Capital Fund 3 (Community Enterprise) (Venture capitalist-style) . . , , . , , (Community enterprise) 2 . , ACF 9 . , . . (Financial and social return) .35
  35. 35. . 5 75 . Main Investment Fund . . . . 3 . : . e Managed Workspace Fund . , . , . . e Business Development ,5 Fund . (Support Pack) . Business Development Grant 5 . . (1) (Pre-o er support)Main Investment Fund . ACF , . Main Investment and Managed (2) (Post-o er support) Workspace . . (3) (Post-investment support) . 1 2 , . . . • . (company limited by guarantee), . 1 .36
  36. 36. • ( , , ) . • . • . . . • . • . . , . . (Number) . • . . • . • 1 . . • (Community Anchor)6 • • • • (3) Communitybuilders Programme 2009 6 . 3 Communities and Local Government 7 ( 1200 ) . 2003 , 5 . 2008 10 Community & local Government 3 , Community Control .6. (Community Anchor) 4 . - , . - . - . - .37
  37. 37. ACF , (Communty Alliance)7 ACF . • . , . (Coinstreet) (Canmore) . • (1) (2) (3) . • . 1 1 , . (Social Return Investment) , . . • Communitybuilders . . - . - , . - . - . - . - . - .7. BASSAC((British Association of Settlements and Social Action Centres) Community Matters the DTA . , . http://www.comm-alliance.org/38
  38. 38. 2) (1) DTA(Development Trust Association) (DTA: Development Trust Association) , , , 466 . (1) (Development Trust) ? (1) (2) , (3) (4) (5) . . , , . , , (Community Anchor) . . DT . • , , . • . • . • , . (2) DTA ? Development Trusts Association(DTA) DT DT . DT . • 466 DT 2009 5% 4339
  39. 39. . (Emerging) (Fullmember) (Associate member) . • (1) (2) , . DTA ‘ (Early warning guide)’ , (Healthcheck)8 . • DTA(Development Trusts Association) DTA 202 . , , , , , , 10 . : 2 7 5 1 3 6 - DT 2 7 5 , 2009 5 . . 60% , 40% 29% . - 36% 10 , 46% 10-50 , 18% 1 . DT . [ : DT ] - DT 23% . . - ,8. DTA (healthcheck) ‘ (early warning guide) DTA .40
  40. 40. 3 . . . , 4% 2009 40% , , 56% . DTA ‘ ’ . - . , , , , , , (76%) (overdraft facility, 39%), (31%) :5 6 5 - . 2/3 . 48% . 12% , . - 63% 5 6 5 , 15% . 10% 120 . 2007 Quirk Review Quirk Review . - (Examples of assets taken over for new community purposes) , , , , , , , , , , , .41
  41. 41. - 18% 1 . (1) (2008 5%, 2009 15%) (2) (Community Assets Programme) (Advancing Assets for Communities Programme) 9 . . . (2008 5%, 2009 15%). 1/4 - DT . 1 DT 9 , . DT 8 .9. (Community Assets Programme) The Asset Transfer Unit(ATU) 3 ATU DTA . 3 (Advancing Assets for Communities Programme) 2009 4 . ATU DTA Community Matters DTA 72 . (Community and Local . www.atu.org.uk42
  42. 42. DT . - · . , DT . - , , , , , , · . DT , . , , , , , , , , , , (van) , , , (maternity centre), , , , ,43
  43. 43. - 20% DT (A ordable housing) 40% . - DT . (Management committee) , DT . , , . - DTA . 5400 16,000 DT . - DT . 60% DT 5 , DT . . 20% 15 .10 - 1 1/5 DT , 25% . - DT . Trustee . 16,000 DT . 10 , 12% DT 40 . . 6% . . - DT , , DT .10. DTA . DTA . , . www.communityallowance.org44
  44. 44. - DTA (Healthcheck)11 . 5 2/3 DTA , 90% . , 48% . - DT (17%), ( ) (Social audit) (11%) . - 10% DT (Practical Quality Assuarance System for Small Organisations) , 6% (Matrix) , 3% ISO 9001 , (Customer First) . - . DTA (Knowledge and Skills small grants programme) , DTA 100 (Community Alliance) . DTA (Cultivating enterprise) DTA (Cultivating Enterprise programme) DT . . DT . . . • • SFEDI12 • • • DTA11. DTA DTA . 12. SFEDI .45
  45. 45. •1 : (www.dta.org.uk/ideas) •2 : . (Case Manager) . , . •3 : . •4 : DTA (Enterprise Team) 3 . (1) (2) (3) •5 : , . . V. 2 3 , , , . (Development trust) , . . 1) ‘ ’ ‘ (Area-based) HAT . ,‘ ’ Housing Action Trust(HAT) . . HAT . HAT46
  46. 46. . , . , HAT . ‘ ’ ‘ ’ (Board) . HAT , , . HAT , ‘Coin Street Action Group’ CSCB . . · . 2) ‘ ’ ‘ ’ . [ 3.4] CVCHA(Castle Vale Community Housing Association) , , , , , , · , , , , . HAT . . Coin Street Action Group’ CSCB ‘ ’ . , CSCB . ,47
  47. 47. . . ‘ ’ , . - - - . HAT , . , . . . ‘ ’(CSCB) . (Housing co-operatives), Coin Street Centre Trust, CSCB South Bank Management Service Ltd. · . CSCB 4 . . . / ‘ ’(Capacity building) ‘ ’ . , , ( ) . (CSCB) ([ 3.1] ) , . CSCB Iain Tuckett .48

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