Electronic manufacturing v3.0 - Fab Academy 2016

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Open source and DIY electronics are filling Fab Labs and maker spaces with new tools for incredible creations. How can we design tools to change how people make things? How to scale DIY electronics to millions of users?

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Electronic manufacturing v3.0 - Fab Academy 2016

  1. 1. 1 Electronic Manufacturing Eric Pan seeed.cc p.seeed.cc
  2. 2. Eric Pan Maker, Biker Founder of Seeed
  3. 3. 3 Chapter 0 Overview p.seeed.cc
  4. 4. Today’s Sharing 4p.seeed.cc
  5. 5. HOW? 5p.seeed.cc
  6. 6. 6 Electronics Firmware Mechanics Enclosure p.seeed.cc
  7. 7. Design  Prepare  Produce  Package 7p.seeed.cc
  8. 8. Cost * Quality * Schedule 8p.seeed.cc
  9. 9. Quality p.seeed.cc 9 Expectations
  10. 10. Schedule ALL shall arrive on time. But, - Supply chain is very dynamic - Production line has queue - Problems are unexpected Project Management is Serious. p.seeed.cc 10
  11. 11. 11p.seeed.cc Cost BOM Manufacturing Engineering Marketing Certification Logistics Defects Management Mistakes, Mistakes, Mistakes, Tooling
  12. 12. 12 Chapter 1 Design from manufacture p.seeed.cc
  13. 13. Be Responsible For what you started.
  14. 14. p.seeed.cc 14 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Design_for_X Development phase Design for short time to market Design for reliability Design for test Design for safety Design for quality Design against corrosion damage Design for minimum risk Production-operations phase Design to cost Design to standards Design for assembly Design for manufacturability Design for logistics Design for postponement Design for Electronic Assemblies Design for Low-Quantity Production Use phase Design for user-friendliness Design for ergonomics Design for aesthetics Design for serviceability Design for maintainability Design for repair-reuse-recyclability Disposal phase Design for Environment Design for recycling Design for Remanufacturing) Design for X
  15. 15. 15 Hardware Orchestra Software Band Unarmed to the new field.
  16. 16. p.seeed.cc 16 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Design_for_X Development phase Design for short time to market Design for reliability Design for test Design for safety Design for quality Design against corrosion damage Design for minimum risk Production-operations phase Design to cost Design to standards Design for assembly Design for manufacturability Design for logistics Design for postponement Design for Electronic Assemblies Design for Low-Quantity Production Use phase Design for user-friendliness Design for ergonomics Design for aesthetics Design for serviceability Design for maintainability Design for repair-reuse-recyclability Disposal phase Design for Environment Design for recycling Design for Remanufacturing) Design for X
  17. 17. 17 Design FROM Manufacturing 700+ popular components Open testing/Open process/Open manufacturing capability/Open schedule 3D printer/Laser cutting/CNC/Automated SMT line/flexible cell line/Tools 500+ different kinds of module for MCU/Sensors/Shield/Prototyping/To ols/Wearables… Open Parts Library for Supply Chain Open Source Hardware for Prototyping Open Manufacturing for Process Distributed Manufacturing as a Service 1 2 3 4
  18. 18. Design based on Open Hardware 18p.seeed.cc
  19. 19. 19p.seeed.cc
  20. 20. 20p.seeed.cc Beginner Professional Expensive Free More Free, Cloud based Collaborative CAD tools
  21. 21. 21p.seeed.cc PCB Design process
  22. 22. 22 Chapter 2 Prepare the materials p.seeed.cc
  23. 23. Materials and Risks • Printed Circuit Board / Stencils ★ ★ (quality) • Active/Passive Components ★ ★ ★ (lead time/ quality) • Standard Mechanic Components ★ • Standard Accessories ★ • Package ★ ★ (quality) • Customized parts ★ ★ ★ ★ (lead time/ tolerance) • Injection Molding ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ (lead time/ tolerance)
  24. 24. Bill of Materials template
  25. 25. BOM DFM hints • Don’t assume people knows • Always have Plan B • Leave no room for ambiguity • Consider availability in long run • Consider lead time, in worst scenario 25p.seeed.cc
  26. 26. PCB 26p.seeed.cc
  27. 27. • PCB board house use Gerber file for production. Gerber files should be with standard file extensions: GTO-- Top Silkscreen GTS-- Top Soldermask GTL-- Top Copper GBL-- Bottom Copper GBS-- Bottom Soldermask GBO-- Bottom Silkscreen GML/GKO/GBR*-- Board Outline* TXT-- Routing and Drill PCB into production 27p.seeed.cc
  28. 28. 28p.seeed.cc
  29. 29. Other way to manufacture PCB PCB desktop Printer/miller Homebrew PCB Voltera OtherMill 29p.seeed.cc
  30. 30. PCB DFM hint • Follow supplier process spec, leave some buffer if possible • Polarized component must be marked. • Designator for each components. • Silkscreen must be clear. 6mil width, 40mil height. 30p.seeed.cc
  31. 31. Stencils for mass production p.seeed.cc 31
  32. 32. Active/Passive components 32p.seeed.cc
  33. 33. example: Espruino 20 days from PO to Shipping 4k pcs (Normal Priority) 100 popular components consists ~30% of BOMs Sharing the library = Sharing the Supply Chain Cost, Lead time, Quality, and Knowledges Components DFM hint
  34. 34. Standard Accessories 34p.seeed.cc
  35. 35. Package 35p.seeed.cc
  36. 36. Customized Parts 36p.seeed.cc
  37. 37. Injection Molding 37p.seeed.cc
  38. 38. 38 Chapter 3 Assembly p.seeed.cc
  39. 39. Assembly and Test Process Y Y Y Stencil print paste SMT SMT Assembly DIP Assembly PCB incoming inspection Print quality check QC check before reflow Owen Assembly quality check Functional check Assembly quality check IQC check Clean Inform Engineer improve I PQC confirm Repairing Adjustment Inform engineer improve Remove components FQC Repairing Y Y Y Y N N N N N N N N Y Inform engineer improve 39p.seeed.cc
  40. 40. 40p.seeed.cc Solder Paste Screen Printing
  41. 41. 41p.seeed.cc Pick and Place  Reflow  QC
  42. 42. 40℃ 130℃ 200℃ 217℃ 230℃ 0℃ PH1 PH2 PH3 PH4 Peak value 240 ℃±5℃ Sec Temp(℃) IMG 2 42 SMT Reflow Soldering p.seeed.cc  Preheat Zone: Preheat PCB and components, in order to achieve thermal equilibrium for soldering Thermal soak zone: In the thermal soak, typically a 60 to 120 second exposure for removal of solder paste volatiles and activation of the fluxes, where the flux components begin oxide reduction on component leads and pad. Reflow zone: It is the part of the process where the maximum temperature is reached. Components will be stick to the pads. Cooling zone: The last zone is a cooling zone to gradually cool the processed board and solidify the solder joints
  43. 43. 1) Tomb stoning Causes: Components don’t match the dimension of the actual design Solutions: Make sure the design of the pad matches the package of the components 2) Pseudo Soldering Causes: a. pitch of the pad does not match the component’s dimension b. Through-hole pads Solutions: a. design from actual package b. avoid via hole of the pad 1.SMT issues
  44. 44. 1.SMT issues 3) Wrong-placed components Causes: No marks of the pads Solutions: a. Mark the PCB b. Mark the Polar components’ pad 4) Mismatch between the design and pads, delaying the manufacturing process Causes: Mismatch between the design and pads Solution: Rational design OPL design
  45. 45. SMT DFM hints • Compassion for machines • Align same components in order • Leave adequate spacing for thermal parts • Leave enough margin to PCB edge • Avoid double side placement if possible 45p.seeed.cc
  46. 46. 46p.seeed.cc Through Hole Soldering
  47. 47. Semi Auto Through Hole Soldering Temperature should set 300℃+-10℃, Flux spraying evenly for 3-4 seconds, dry for 2-4 seconds, move the PCB into the tin surface for 3-4 seconds, then move it to the cooing zone. 47p.seeed.cc
  48. 48. Automatic Soldering 48 According to the components, the temp should set about 380℃- 405 And select different solder iron to ensure the quality p.seeed.cc
  49. 49. 49p.seeed.cc
  50. 50. 1) Components can’t be Wave soldered Causes and Solutions: Design from Wave-soldering, improve manufacturing efficiency 2) Components can’t be soldered by hand Causes: Wrong Through-Hole dimension Solutions: Design from Through-hole Manufacturing 2. Through-Hole Soldering
  51. 51. 2. Through-Hole Soldering 3)Short distance between two components Causes and Solutions: Ensure Standard distance between two through-holes 4)Tilted parts after wave-soldering Causes and Solutions: Design from the wave-soldering standard
  52. 52. • Keep space for each components, 0.5mm at least. • Ensure space is able for manual soldering, repairing and verifying. • Avoid, if you can Through Hole DFM hints 52p.seeed.cc
  53. 53. 53 Chapter 4 Test and Package p.seeed.cc
  54. 54. Basically,
  55. 55. Verification before mass production
  56. 56. • PCB inspection systems ★ usually done by supplier • ICT In circuit test ★★★★ common for simple projects • Functional testing ★★ for complex circuits/IC/RF • JTAG Boundary scan testing ★★ for complex logic systems • Combinational test ★★★ a combination of tests Test method and priorities 56p.seeed.cc
  57. 57. Be a good killer of defects, • No under-kill • Fewer overkill • Fast • Easy • Cheap • Duplicable A good test plan: 57p.seeed.cc
  58. 58. Test jig for small scale manufacturing p.seeed.cc 58 Test Jig Underhood
  59. 59. 59p.seeed.cc Packaging with SOP
  60. 60. 3. PCB Testing Process 1)Can’t make test jig Causes: No test feasibility plan before design Solutions: Consider test plan before design 2) No test plan Solutions: Provide test plan before new product introduction
  61. 61. 1) Unable or difficult to assembly. Causes: Do not verify the mechanical part after designing. Solutions: Should consider tolerance, and verify the mechanical part. 4. Assembly Process
  62. 62. 1) Uncertain packaging Causes and Solutions: Customer do not have packaging nearly production. IT should be prepared in the designing stage. 2) Unreasonable packaging method Causes: Unable to pack according to the packaging method Solutions: Should confirm Packaging method beforehand 5. Packaging
  63. 63. Assembly and Test hints • Try to involve less process • SOP (standard operation procedure) is critical • Invent when there is no other choices • Don’t expect Pilot run will expose every error • Wherever might be problem, there will be problem. p.seeed.cc 63
  64. 64. 64 Chapter 5 Takeaways p.seeed.cc
  65. 65. 65 Setup 7-42 days Manufacturing 3-15 days Engineering 1-30 days • Unclear BOM • Process Tolerance • Inadequate Test Plan • Long Lead Time Components • Consistency Problem • Supply Chain Complexity • Unexpected Error • Low Yield • Uncontrollable Assembly Time Prototype Product manufacture Key Phrases and Risks
  66. 66. 66p.seeed.cc Maker Supplier
  67. 67. 5 simple tips for indie products • 1. Balance Cost, Quality, Schedule • 2. Consider overall cost • 3. Use the popular components • 4. Involve fewer processes • 5. Use only SMD components if possible. More info can check the link 67p.seeed.cc
  68. 68. 68 Chapter 6 Practice p.seeed.cc
  69. 69. Let’s redefine hat
  70. 70. Cost = How many basic material per hat Volume = How many hats manufactured Consistency = Same among the batch Promise = Final Deliver matches Pitch Votes = Peer to Peer vote for favourite Team Score = x x x x
  71. 71. Basic Components 20 pcs A4 paper, 1*Adhesive tape, Shared components Anything you can find(legally) Equipment 1*Scissors, 1*Stapler, 2*Colors pens,
  72. 72. Design – Pitch – Manufacture – Deliver DESIGN 15 min PITCH 2 min MANUFACTURE 20 min DELIVER 5 min
  73. 73. DESIGN 15 min Objectives: Design and make the 1st hat Optional: Define Roles Outstanding Choose materials wisely Think how to make more later Find a popular lighthouse user Prepare to Pitch
  74. 74. PITCH 2 min Objectives: Sell your design to backers Optional: AWESOME!
  75. 75. MANUFACTURE 20 min Objectives: Manufacture more hats! Optional: Collect enough material Prepare a operation procedure Optimize the process Apply Quality Control
  76. 76. Objectives: Show us the results! Optional: A moving story Improvement (downgrade) applied Share your hints DELIVER 5 min
  77. 77. A free fusion PCB coupon for the submitter A free fusion PCBA coupon for the winner Share your result photo/thoughts via twitter @seeedstudio #fusion, to win
  78. 78. Diving by sport in touch UK, from Pinterest Good Luck To the mass 78p.seeed.cc
  79. 79. This work is created under CC BY 3.0 All rights of contents not listed is belong to its original authors. 79p.seeed.cc Disclaimer: This material is still in beta stage, not all contents cited are properly listed in the reference. Also we didn’t cover full spectrum of electronic manufacturing but sharing most common practices. Video: PCB https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sFMFmrCur08&list=PLpH_4mf13- A17zy-k0oiaTNSXBisxqxyR&index=1 Stencil https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ya8N4RWNo_s&list=PLpH_4mf13- A17zy-k0oiaTNSXBisxqxyR&index=3 Jet Print https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Voe-z0qCEvY SMT https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6e4AMTmURVw&list=PLpH_4mf1 3-A17zy-k0oiaTNSXBisxqxyR&index=4 Semi Automatic DIP soldering https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PSOaUNxIDZ8 Automatic DIP soldering https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fmvFO3rfw7M Packaging https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mrZOSpGZliQ&feature=youtu.be Reference • http://www.protel.net/ • http://www.cadsoftusa.com/ • http://www.altium.com/ • https://123d.circuits.io/ • http://kicad-pcb.org/ • https://upverter.com/ • https://easyeda.com/ • http://www.techtimes.com/articles/114088/2015120 7/independent-analysis-kickstarter-project- fulfillment-finds-9-percent-campaigns-fail.htm • http://www.instructables.com/id/Making-A- Customized-Circuit-Board-Made-Easy/ • http://voltera.io/images/printRender.png • https://othermachine.co/ • http://electronicdesign.com/embedded/engineer-s- guide-high-quality-pcb-design • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PSOaUNxIDZ8 • http://www.radio- electronics.com/info/t_and_m/ate/automatic-test- equipment-basics.php

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