Feedforward Presentation to the University of Illinois

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I had the opportunity to present my dissertation research to a graduate design course at University of Illinois. The course covered cognitive theories that are relevant for design strategy. Feedforward is a design theory that supports emotive learning for lifestyle change through design. The presentation also describes custom research methods I developed to measure change in bias, preference, and behaviors over time.

Check out the follow-up workshop presentation. It offers an abbreviated framework for designing with feedforward.

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Feedforward Presentation to the University of Illinois

  1. 1. December 4, 2012University of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignFeedforwardSupport Emotive Learning for Enduring Lifestyle ChangeAmber Howard, Ph.D.Director of Research and EducationNew KindLecturerNorth Carolina State UniversityCollege of Design, Graphic and Industrial Designamberhoward.netamber@amberhoward.net@amberkhoward
  2. 2. Overview Introduction Conceptual Framework Purpose Research Framework Research Methodology Results ConclusionDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 2 / 115
  3. 3. Change for good The designer What wasn’t now is.December 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 3 / 115
  4. 4. Change for good The Hope Make the world betterDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 4 / 115
  5. 5. Change for good The Hope Make the life world betterDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 5 / 115
  6. 6. Change for good The predicament Make the life change world betterDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 6 / 115
  7. 7. Change for good The predicament Make the life change = world better challenge the status quoDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 7 / 115
  8. 8. Change for good The predicament Make the life change = world better challenge the status quo view the situation differentlyDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 8 / 115
  9. 9. Change for good The promise Find a gap, don’t create a need.December 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 9 / 115
  10. 10. Change for good Atmospheres of impact What change do you want to make? Find the gap in each atmosphere. culture beliefs behaviors thingsDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 10 / 115
  11. 11. Change for good Intended experiences What experiences do you want to create and reinforce? culture e nc iebeliefs r x pe e behaviors thingsDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 11 / 115
  12. 12. Change for good Experiences for change Current strategies focus on ability, will, and social pressure (Patterson, 2008) skill motivation socialDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 12 / 115
  13. 13. Change for good Moving forward ... but there’s more to it.December 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 13 / 115
  14. 14. The setting The Social Issue The Obstacles Design’s RoleDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 14 / 115
  15. 15. The Social Issue Obesity affects millions of people each year 11% of the population will become obese in the next 7 years (Wang, et al., 2008) 30% obese 30% obese 7 YEARS 41% obese 41% obese 75% overweight 75% overweight 65% overweight 65% overweight 2008 2015December 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 15 / 115
  16. 16. The Social Issue Obesity affects millions of people each year 11% of the population will become more at risk for: Heart disease, High blood pressure, Diabetes, Cancers, and Premature mortality (CDC, 2009) 30% obese 30% obese 7 YEARS 41% obese 41% obese 75% overweight 75% overweight 65% overweight 65% overweight 2008 2015December 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 16 / 115
  17. 17. The Social Issue Obesity affects millions of people each year Currently costs $177 billion/year in medical expenses (CDC, 2009) other 30% obese Medicaid 7 YEARS 41% obese 41% obese Medicare out of 75% overweight 75% overweight 65% overweight pocket 2008 2015December 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 17 / 115
  18. 18. The Social Issue Obesity affects millions of people each year Minimized or prevented by changing daily behaviors 30% obese 30% obese 7 YEARS 41% obese 41% obese 75% overweight 75% overweight 65% overweight 65% overweight 2008 2015December 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 18 / 115
  19. 19. The Social Issue We know what to change Habits and behaviors are the key determinates of future health (Healey & Zimmerman, 2009) Depends on our willingness and ability to prioritize for our future health every day eating behaviors health / chronic diseaseDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 19 / 115
  20. 20. The Social Issue We know what to change Health issues pervade mainstream media Knowledge Access Support Online References Organic Food Products Food Movements Documentaries Dieting Food Products Weight loss Programs Best-selling Books Health-Conscious Restaurants Health Management Apps Magazines National InitiativesDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 20 / 115
  21. 21. The Social Issue We know what to change We know which behaviors and lifestyles are healthy We have access to appropriate resources We know how to perform the behaviors We care about our future health access + skill + motivation = change right?December 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 21 / 115
  22. 22. The Social Issue Lifestyle change is easier said than done Relapse despite knowing what we should do (Adolfsson, Carlson, Unden, & Rossner, 2002) 1/2yr 1yr 2yr n median weight loss -1 -2 80% -3 relapseDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 22 / 115
  23. 23. The Social Issue Lifestyle change is easier said than done Despite our best intentions, we fail to act on them (Orbell and Sheeran, 2009) We revert back to old habits without realizing it access + skill + motivation ≠ changeDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 23 / 115
  24. 24. The obstacles Lifestyle change is easier said than done The trainer knows, but the elephant is set in its ways. “Today this mind does not stray and is under the harmony of control, even as a wild elephant is controlled by the trainer.” — Buddha “If passion drives, let reason hold the reins.” — Benjamin FranklinDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 24 / 115
  25. 25. The obstacles Lifestyle change is easier said than done We tend to attribute less emotional value to the future Intertemporal choice (Wilson, 2001) Current feelings bias predictions about future feelings present futureDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 25 / 115
  26. 26. The obstacles Lifestyle change is easier said than done We tend to attribute less emotional value to the future Future Discounting (Gilbert, 2006) Care more about an immediate outcome than a future one present ≠ futureDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 26 / 115
  27. 27. The obstacles Lifestyle change is easier said than done We tend to attribute less emotional value to the future Future Discounting (Receiving $20, Gilbert, 2006) today = 61.5 60 1 day = 53.6 7 days = 53.3 30 dayS = 50.9 50 185 dayS = 46.5 365 dayS = 42.2 05 01 00 150 200 250 300 350 400 days from nowDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 27 / 115
  28. 28. The obstacles Lifestyle change is easier said than done An exercise in self-control and will power Delayed Gratification The Marshmallow Study (Mischel, 1972) 1/3 succeedDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 28 / 115
  29. 29. The obstacles Lifestyle change is easier said than done We tend to attribute less emotional value to the future “Time discounting plays an especially important role in decisions concerning health. Virtually all health-related decisions involve trade-offs between short-term and long-term gains.” — Economist George Lowenstein, Psychologists Daniel Read and Roy BaumeisterDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 29 / 115
  30. 30. The obstacles Lifestyle change is easier said than done An exercise in self-control and will power Cognitive load can distract us from our health goals (Baumeister & Muraven, 2000) or < 3 digits > 3 digitsDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 30 / 115
  31. 31. The obstacles Lifestyle change is easier said than done Physiological components of lifestyle Stress can distract us from our health goals (Epel et al., 2001) stress increases cravings for sweet foods fried fatty saltyDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 31 / 115
  32. 32. The obstacles Lifestyle change is easier said than done Physiological components of lifestyle Locus of Control (Tice, Bratslovsky, & Baumeister, 2001) Stress leads to short-term decisions (Rodrigues, LeDoux, & Sapolsky, 2009) internal control long-term decisions external control stress short-term decisions chanceDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 32 / 115
  33. 33. Design’s Role Redefining Healthcare Design mediates our relationship to the food we eat Monitoring our health progress Generating healthy recipes on the fly Referencing food information we experience and learn healthy lifestyles through designed conditionsDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 33 / 115
  34. 34. Design’s Role Redefining Healthcare Decentralized and self-initiated Tailored personal health management and coaching tools Body Area Network (BAN) technology We use tools to help us control health-related behaviorsDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 34 / 115
  35. 35. Design’s Role Redefining Healthcare Decentralized and self-initiated Tailored personal health management and coaching tools Body Area Network (BAN) technologyDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 35 / 115
  36. 36. Design’s Role Redefining Healthcare Decentralized and self-initiated Tailored personal health management and coaching tools Body Area Network (BAN) technologyDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 36 / 115
  37. 37. Design’s Role Redefining Healthcare Decentralized and self-initiated Tailored personal health management and coaching tools Body Area Network (BAN) technologyDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 37 / 115
  38. 38. Design’s Role Redefining Healthcare Tactical solutions We learn appropriate behaviors, but remain dependent on the system Prescribes disjointed tasks (though straightforward and easy to execute) Demands continual reminders, motivators, and feedback to ensure compliance Emphasizes reflective learning (data visualization) through designed conditions we manage tactics for healthDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 38 / 115
  39. 39. Design’s Role Redefining Healthcare Tactical solutions It’s all about enabling the trainer to control the elephant. culture beliefs behaviors thingsDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 39 / 115
  40. 40. Design’s Role Design can do better Strategic opportunities Address the emotive underpinnings of behavior and lifestyles Foster a different mindset/bias regarding eating practices “So much [of design] is focused on the moment of decision making. We need to create rewards around other (influences) on behavior…to motivate immediate and long-lasting behavior change.” — Robert Fabricant, Frog DesignDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 40 / 115
  41. 41. Design’s Role Design can do better Strategic opportunities culture e nc iebeliefs r x pe e behaviors thingsDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 41 / 115
  42. 42. Design’s Role True lifestyle change Our biases align with our health goals We impulsively choose the healthy option We are not tempted by old habitsDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 42 / 115
  43. 43. Design’s Role A design theory to support lifestyle change Change biases that guide preferences, interpretations, decisions, and actions Target emotive learning processes Function beyond the realm of conscious control “Do you like marshmallows?”December 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 43 / 115
  44. 44. Conceptual Framework Feedforward: A Design Theory Conceptual Framework DiagramDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 44 / 115
  45. 45. Feedforward: A Design Theory Conditions for emotive learning Timing matters Provide anticipatory conditions for a pre-experience Activate a mindset and associated biases Set the stage for behaviors to unfold past feedback present feedforward futureDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 45 / 115
  46. 46. Feedforward: A Design Theory Conditions for emotive learning Timing matters Seek patterns among subtle cues Frame, or contextualize, situations with minimal information Automatically facilitate motivation and goal pursuit present activate biasDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 46 / 115
  47. 47. Feedforward: A Design Theory Conditions for emotive learning Timing matters Anticipate what will likely happen within the given constraints Adapt behavior to prepare and/or adjust for change Develop subtle associations among cues present activate bias futureDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 47 / 115
  48. 48. Feedforward: A Design Theory Conditions for emotive learning Timing matters Anticipate what will likely happen within the given constraints Adapt behavior to prepare and/or adjust for change Develop subtle associations among cues present activate bias futureDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 48 / 115
  49. 49. Feedforward: A Design Theory Conditions for emotive learning Modulate the emotive learning process Anticipatory cues before the situation Skew the constraints from which the bias activates Modulates the perception of the situation present activate bias futureDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 49 / 115
  50. 50. Feedforward: A Design Theory Conditions for emotive learning Modulate the emotive learning process Consolidate the associations as a predictive model increase the chances of achieving enduring lifestyle changesent activate bias future consolidate for predictive model December 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 50 / 115
  51. 51. Feedforward: A Design Theory Conditions for emotive learning Expose intermittently throughout the day passive exposure skews motivation & goal pursuit (thank you, pattern matching)December 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 51 / 115
  52. 52. Feedforward: A Design Theory Conditions for emotive learning Modulate the emotive learning process Develop preferred biases pervasively through daily routines Influence short- and long-term frame of reference, or worldview Decide which bias we want to embody going into a situation (not by happenstance) past feedback present feedforward futureDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 52 / 115
  53. 53. Feedforward: A Design Theory Research informing the theory Louis Cheskin, clinical psychologist and marketing innovator (Cheskin, 1947) How design mediates our subsequent experience of products Affects the taste of food Affects the value we attribute to eating itDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 53 / 115
  54. 54. Feedforward: A Design Theory Research informing the theory Priming Anticipatory cues activate implicit memory Frames the subsequent responses Does not require awareness or recollection of the priming stimuli “One remarkable feature of priming is that, unlike other forms of cognitive memory, it is nonconscious. A person perceiving a familiar object is not aware that what is perceived is as much an expression of memory as it is of perception.” — Endel Tulving and Daniel SchacterDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 54 / 115
  55. 55. Feedforward: A Design Theory Research informing the theory Priming Examples Elderly stereotype affects behavior (Bargh, Chen, & Burrows, 1996)December 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 55 / 115
  56. 56. Feedforward: A Design Theory Research informing the theory Priming Examples Elderly stereotype affects behavior (Bargh, Chen, & Burrows, 1996) Faster recognition of “butter” when “bread” precedes it (Meyer & Schvaneveldt, 1971) Ambient sad music affects perceived slope of a hill (Proffitt, 2006) Images of eyes affect honesty at the coffee station (Bateson et al., 2006) Warm beverage affects perception of strangers (Wiliams & Bargh, 2008) Professor persona affects score in trivial pursuit (Dijksterhuis and Knippenberg, 2005) Rude/Polite and Cooperation/Competition (Bargh & Williams, 2006)December 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 56 / 115
  57. 57. Feedforward: A Design Theory Research informing the theory Embodiment and Neuroplasticity Consciousness emerges from emotive processes (Ashby, 1956; McClelland & Rumelhart, 1986) Pleasure in anticipation (dopamine solidifies connections) (Hawkins, 2004; Carter et al., 2009) Deep-seated biases are not permanent (Kihlstrom, 1987; Hebb, 1949; Merzenich, 1984; LeDoux, 1999) “The brain knows more than the conscious mind reveals.” — Neuroscientist Antonio DamasioDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 57 / 115
  58. 58. Feedforward: A Design Theory Research informing the theory Embodiment and Neuroplasticity Examples The Iowa Gambling Task (Damasio, 2005) Anticipation • emotions • feel without knowing why (LeDoux, 1996) 70 cards laterDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 58 / 115
  59. 59. Feedforward: A Design Theory Research informing the theory Calm Technology (Brown & Wieser, 1995) Ubiquitous computing as an ambient influence on our behaviorsDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 59 / 115
  60. 60. Feedforward: A Design Theory Research informing the theory Louis Cheskin Priming Embodiment and Neuroplasticity Calm Technology formalizes a body of research regarding anticipatory cuesDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 60 / 115
  61. 61. Feedforward: A Design Theory A design theory Leveraging design prior to decisions and actions Frame a mindset through which to interpret a situation Influence our ability to adopt healthy behaviors and achieve long-lasting lifestyle change informs design conditions for emotive learningDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 61 / 115
  62. 62. Constraint Matching Feedforward Bias goal state by introducing Identify Cues additional constraints to the system (Increase occurrence of goal state cues) Co nst ing rain eek As e t Int nt S sign pat set ind Constrai erpretin Antici Value M & Emotive Learning te g Sta Rapid Cycle oal Bias G r to Ex ing c tra ec Co at At ut ion d n el rge li st d so rai Mo Cha on nt tive in tC Tes Refine Predic tra ting ConsDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 62 / 115
  63. 63. Conceptual Framework Constraint Matching Seeking limits the range of stimuli Identify Cues we consider relevant and meaningful (Barrett et al., 2007) Co nst ing rain eek As e t Int nt S sign pat set ind Constrai erpretin Antici Value M & Emotive Learning te g Sta Rapid Cycle oal Bias G Progressive Cycle r to Ex ing c tra ec Co at At ut ion d n el rge li st d so rai Mo Cha on nt tive in tC Tes Refine Predic tra ting ConsDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 63 / 115
  64. 64. Conceptual Framework Constraint Matching identifies internal and external cues that correspond with the Identify Cues anticipated stimuli (Kosslyn S. , 1995) Co nst ing rain eek As e t Int nt S sign pat set nd Constrai erpretin Antici Value i M & te g Sta oal Bias G Progressive Cycle r to Ex ing c tra ec Co at At ut ion d n el rge li st d so rai Mo Cha on nt tive tC Tes Refine Predic rain ting ConstDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 64 / 115
  65. 65. Conceptual Framework raint Interpreting assigns greater emotive value Const to the neural networks that Assign Value match expectancies (Oschner et al., 2004) g hin Con atc ues stra int M Exe fy C int Te cutio Identi Constra sting n Ch a Co te rg eA g pa ns kin i tic ttr tr An ain act ee tC or tS on ain sol str ida Con ting set Progressive Refin Mind CycleDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 65 / 115 eP &
  66. 66. Conceptual Framework Constraint Testing Testing anticipatory behavior and action Execution (Butz, Sigaud, & Gerard, 2007) Co g nst tin rpre rain Ch arg e t Co Inte Valu e At nsolida Constraint Assign Re tractor fin Emotive Learning e ting P Rapid Cycle Progressiv Cycle es u An ing yC tic Co tif ch ipa n Iden at st rai te M nt int Se sG stra eki oal Con ng Stat e & MindsetDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 66 / 115
  67. 67. ictive Model red eP efin R Conceptual Framework Bia Progressive s Go Cycle traint Consolidating Cons al State & Mind Consolidating Connections within the Attractor Charge attractor network strengthen or weaken depending on the network’s accuracy set (Sutton & Barto, 1998) Co g nst stin rain Ant nt Te tion t See icipa Constrai Execu te king Emotive Learning Rapid Cycle de I e nt C alu g on ify tin nV s re tra Cu Assig es erp int Int Ma raint tch ing ConstDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 67 / 115
  68. 68. ictive Model red eP efin R Conceptual Framework Bia Progressive s Go Cycle traint Consolidating Cons al State & Mind Predictive Model Attractor Charge accurate predictions are strengthened to enable more prominent and clear signals within the network set (Carter et al, 2009) Co g nst stin rain Ant nt Te tion t See icipa Constrai Execu te king Emotive Learning Rapid Cycle de I e nt C alu g on ify tin nV s re tra Cu Assig es erp int Int Ma raint tch ing ConstDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 68 / 115
  69. 69. Conceptual Framework Constraint Matching Feedforward Bias goal state by introducing Identify Cues additional constraints to the system (Increase occurrence of goal state cues) Co nst ing rain eek As e t Int nt S sign pat set ind Constrai erpretin Antici Value M & Emotive Learning te g Sta Rapid Cycle oal Bias G Progressive Cycle r to Ex ing c tra ec Co at At ut ion d n el rge li st d so rai Mo Cha on nt tive in tC Tes Refine Predic tra ting ConsDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 69 / 115
  70. 70. Feedforward: A Design Theory Conditions for emotive learning Modulate the emotive learning process “When learning occurs in a way consistent with the laws that govern brain plasticity, the process of the brain can be improved so that we learn and perceive with greater precision, speed, and retention.” — Neuroscientist Michael Merzenich, Father of NeuroplasticityDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 70 / 115
  71. 71. Research Purpose of the Theory Purpose of the StudyDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 71 / 115
  72. 72. Purpose of the Theory Propose a design theory for lifestyle change Feedforward Align design strategy with our emotive learning process Provide anticipatory cues that frame our perception of an emerging situation Align biases with intended lifestyle goals Foster preference, behavior, and bias changeDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 72 / 115
  73. 73. Purpose of the study Test the theory Feedforward Deploy a mobile design strategy into a naturalistic setting Prime for a future health-oriented mindset Measure the preferential, behavioral, and bias effects of prolonged priming Analyze the short- and long-term effectsDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 73 / 115
  74. 74. Research Research QuestionsDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 74 / 115
  75. 75. Central Research Question To what extent can designed mobile interaction that primes for a future health-oriented mindset before meal and snack times influence preferences, behaviors, and biases toward healthy eating practices among young adult college students at risk for obesity?December 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 75 / 115
  76. 76. Central Research Question cause To what extent can designed mobile interaction that strategy primes for a future health-oriented mindset when before meal and snack times effect influence preferences, behaviors, and biases domain toward healthy eating practices who among young adult college students at risk for obesity?December 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 76 / 115
  77. 77. Sub-Research Questions cause To what extent can designed mobile interaction that strategy primes for a future health-oriented mindset when before meal and snack times for one week Q1 influence the perceived desirability of healthy foods Q2 influence the proportion of healthy food consumed Q3 influence future health biases who among young adult college students at risk for obesity?December 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 77 / 115
  78. 78. Research Methodology Participants Research Design Variables InstrumentsDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 78 / 115
  79. 79. Overview of Study Preference Repeated Measure ANOVA Survey: Rate appetite Margin of Error Survey: Rate craving ANCOVA Purposive Sampling Behavior Logistic Regression SMS Reported intake Repeated Measure ANOVA Conclusions about Survey: Food Choice Margin of Error the design theory Stratified Chi Square Test for Variance Random ANCOVA Assignment Bias Repeat Measure ANOVA IAT Response Times Margin of Error Survey: Time Perspective ANCOVADecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 79 / 115
  80. 80. Participants Recruitment Purposive Sampling IRB approval Recruited from 3 cross-disciplinary courses Received extra credit for participation Participation was voluntary Screened for ownership and usage of a mobile phone Similar settings, routines, and stress cyclesDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 80 / 115
  81. 81. Participants Sample Size 117 participants completed the full study 58 treatment group / 59 control group 10% attrition rate (from 130 participants) 23% over minimum requirementDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 81 / 115
  82. 82. Participants Questionnaire Demographic, Personal Health, and Mobile Phone BehaviorsDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 82 / 115
  83. 83. Participants Demographics 4% Latin 10% Amer. Other 40% 40% men 13%men African Amer. 60% women 60% Caucasian 3% 10% under- 14% obese weight cook 2+ meals/dayDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 83 / 115
  84. 84. women 60% Caucasian Participants Demographics 3% 10% under- 14% obese weight cook 2+ meals/day 21% overweight 50% don’t cook 37% 65% cook 1 meal/day average 16% 14% currently 1 diet dietingDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 84 / 115
  85. 85. 37% 65% cook 1 meal/day average Participants Demographics 16% 14% currently 1 diet dieting 56% 30% never dieted +2 diets 74% not currently dietingDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 85 / 115
  86. 86. Participants Group Assignment Stratified Random Assignment (matching) BMI Gender Zimbardo Dieting Phone Use Group M P F <18.5 P F F M P 18.5– F 24.9 P F F M P 25– F 29.9 P F F M P F >30 P F FDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 86 / 115
  87. 87. RESEARCH DESIGN Modified Solomon Group Design Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Baseline Treatment Follow up 1 Follow up 2 Group 1A 2A 3A 3B 1B 2B 3C ••___________________________________ ••________________ 1C 2C 3D ••________________ 1 X 3A 1A 2A 3B 3C 1B 2B _________________•• __________________________________ •• 3D 1C 2C ________________•• 2 1B 2B 3C ••________________ 1C 2C 3D ••________________ 3 3C 1B 2B 3D 1C 2C ________________•• ________________•• 4 R 1A 2A 3A 3B 1B 2B 3C 1C 2C 3D (X) ••___________________________________ ••________________ ••________________ 5 3A 1A 2A 3B 3C 1B 2B _________________•• __________________________________ •• 3D 1C 2C ________________•• 6 1B 2B 3C 1C 2C 3D ••________________ ••________________ 7 3C 1B 2B 3D 1C 2C ________________•• ________________•• 8 • : Preference 1 : Preference • : Bias 2 : Bias __ : Behavior 3 : BehaviorDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 87 / 115
  88. 88. Variables Independent Variable (Treatment Condition) Prime for future health-oriented mindset Delivered through MMS within the hour preceding meal and snack timesDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 88 / 115
  89. 89. Variables Control Variable Neutral point of comparison Delivered through MMS within the hour preceding meal and snack timesDecember 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 89 / 115
  90. 90. Variables / Instruments Dependent Variables (Effects) Perceived desirability of healthy foods Online survey How appetizing is the food in the photograph? How often do you crave the food in the photograph?December 4, 2012 | Feedforward | Amber Howard, Ph.D. | 90 / 115

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