It’s a type of cancer which develops from breast cells; inner lining of milk ducts is
the development part. Breast cancer is one of the most common health issues
around the world which found in women. There are two types of breast cancers
“Invasive” and “Non-invasive” breast cancer
Anatomy of Breast
Invasive breast cancer- The cancer cells break out from inside the lobules or ducts
and invade nearby tissue. With this type of cancer, the abnormal cells can reach
the lymph nodes, and eventually make their way to other organs (metastasis),
such as the bones, liver or lungs. The abnormal (cancer) cells can travel through
the bloodstream or the lymphatic system to other parts of the body; either early
on in the disease, or later.
Non-invasive breast cancer- This is when the cancer is still inside its place of
origin and has not broken out. Lobular carcinoma in situ is when the cancer is still
inside the lobules, while ductal carcinoma in situ is when they are still inside the
milk ducts. "In situ" means "in its original place". Sometimes, this type of breast
cancer is called "pre-cancerous"; this means that although the abnormal cells
have not spread outside their place of origin, they can eventually develop into
invasive breast cancer.
Some common signs and symptoms of breast cancer are as follows
A lump in a breast
A pain in the armpits or breast that does not seem to be related to the
woman's menstrual period
Pitting or redness of the skin of the breast; like the skin of an orange
A rash around (or on) one of the nipples
A swelling (lump) in one of the armpits
An area of thickened tissue in a breast
One of the nipples has a discharge; sometimes it may contain blood
The nipple changes in appearance; it may become sunken or inverted
The size or the shape of the breast changes
The nipple-skin or breast-skin may have started to peel, scale or flake.
Causes of Breast Cancer
Age- Breast cancer risk increases with increase in age, it has been noticed 80%
cases of breast cancer are belongs to age 50 or above.
Genetic- Breast cancer can cause due to genetic disorders as well, women who
have any relative who has/had breast or ovarian cancer are more likely to develop
it. However the majority of breast cancers are not hereditary.
Dense breast tissue- Women with denser breast tissue has a greater chance of
developing breast cancer.
Estrogen exposure- Women who started having period’s earlier or entered
menopause later than usual have a higher risk of developing breast cancer. This is
because their bodies have been exposed to estrogen for longer. Estrogen
exposure begins when periods start, and drops dramatically during the
Obesity- Post-menopausal obese and overweight women may have a higher risk
of developing breast cancer. Experts say that there are higher levels of estrogen in
obese menopausal women, which may be the cause of the higher risk.
Alcohol consumption - The more alcohol a woman regularly drinks, the higher her
risk of developing breast cancer is.
Radiation exposure- Undergoing X-rays and CT scans may raise a woman's risk of
developing breast cancer slightly.
HRT (hormone replacement therapy) - both forms, combined and estrogen-only
HRT therapies may increase a woman's risk of developing breast cancer slightly.
Combined HRT causes a higher risk.
Inverted nipple is a sign of breast cancer?
Inverted nipples on one or both sides are quite common and not typically
associated with cancer. However, some cancers involving the breast ducts can
cause retraction of the ducts, leading to nipple retraction. It is best to speak to an
experienced surgeon about the nipple retraction to see if it is cause for concern.
Osteoporosis is a bone disease where parts of the bone become weak and prone
to fracture. 68 percent of the 44 million people at risk for osteoporosis are
women. One of every two women over age 50 will likely have an osteoporosis-
related fracture in their lifetime. That’s twice the rate of fractures in men one in
four. 75 percent of all cases of hip osteoporosis affect women.
Back pain, caused by a fractured or collapsed vertebra
Loss of height over time
A stooped posture
A bone fracture that occurs much more easily than expected
Causes of Osteoporosis
Drop in estrogen after menopause: The rate of bone loss increases significantly
after menopause because the ovaries stop producing estrogen, a hormone that
plays a major role in the bone repair process. Female athletes and women who
suffer from anorexia nervosa may also be at increased risk for osteoporosis. In
both cases, the menstrual cycle is disrupted or lost and levels of estrogen in the
body drop dramatically. Women who experience early menopause (before 45
years of age) are more likely to have osteoporosis.
Family history and body type: Osteoporosis tends to run in families, and the risk
of this condition is greater for individuals with elderly relatives who have had a
bone fracture, especially if it is a parent who has had a hip fracture. People of
European and Asian descent are most at risk. People who are thin or "small-
boned" also have a higher risk of osteoporosis. People who have had a fracture in
the vertebrae are also at increased risk.
Lifestyle and health conditions: Lifestyle factors such as smoking and excessive
drinking, taking specific medications (such as corticosteroids), and having certain
medical conditions may also contribute to bone loss. People with type 2 diabetes
are more likely to suffer a hip or shoulder fracture than those without diabetes.
Lack of Physical Work: Bones need to be used daily in order for them to stay
healthy. People who are physically active are less at risk of developing
osteoporosis, as their bones are stronger and less likely to lose strength with age.
By contrast, a person who is bedridden or inactive for a lengthy period of time
loses bone mass very quickly and is at high risk of osteoporosis.
Lack of Calcium: Children, adolescents, and adults need to eat the recommended
amounts of vitamins and minerals. Calcium and vitamin D are very important in
the maintenance of healthy and strong bones throughout life and in the
prevention of osteoporosis.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome is a problem in which a woman's hormones are out of
balance. It can cause problems with menstrual periods and make it difficult to get
pregnant. PCOS also may cause unwanted changes in the way you look. If it isn't
treated, over time it can lead to serious health problems, such as diabetes and
Weight gain and trouble losing weight
Extra hair on the face and body- Often women get thicker and darker facial
hair and more hair on the chest, belly, and back
Thinning hair on the scalp
Irregular periods- Often women with PCOS have fewer than nine periods a
year, some women have no periods and others have very heavy bleeding
Fertility problems- Many women who have PCOS have trouble getting
Causes of PCOS
Excess insulin- Insulin is the hormone produced in the pancreas that allows cells
to use sugar, your body's primary energy supply. If you have insulin resistance,
your ability to use insulin effectively is impaired, and your pancreas has to secrete
more insulin to make glucose available to cells. Excess insulin might also affect the
ovaries by increasing androgen production, which may interfere with the ovaries'
ability to ovulate.
Low-grade inflammation- Your body's white blood cells produce substances to
fight infection in a response called inflammation. Research has shown that
women with PCOS have low-grade inflammation and that this type of low-grade
inflammation stimulates polycystic ovaries to produce androgens.
Heredity- If your mother or sister has PCOS; you might have a greater chance of
having it, too. Researchers also are looking into the possibility that certain genes
are linked to PCOS.
Sadness or downswings in mood are normal reactions to life’s struggles, setbacks,
and disappointments. Many people use the word “depression” to explain these
kinds of feelings, but depression is much more than just sadness. Some people
describe depression as “living in a black hole” or having a feeling of impending
doom. However, some depressed people don't feel sad at all—they may feel
lifeless, empty, and apathetic, or men in particular may even feel angry,
aggressive, and restless.
Feeling of Helplessness and Hopelessness
Loss of interest in daily activities- Start finding no interest in hobbies,
pastimes, social activities, sex and losing ability to feel joy and pleasure.
Appetite or weight changes- Significant weight loss or weight gain, a change
of more than 5% of body weight in a month.
Lack of Sleep- Either insomnia, especially waking in the early hours of the
morning, or oversleeping.
Anger or irritability- Feeling agitated, restless, or even violent. Your
tolerance level is low, your temper short, and everything and everyone gets
on your nerves.
Loss of energy- Feeling fatigued, sluggish, and physically drained, your
whole body may feel heavy, and even small tasks are exhausting or take
longer to complete.
Self-loathing- Strong feelings of worthlessness or guilt, you harshly criticize
yourself for perceived faults and mistakes.
Reckless behavior- You engage in escapist behavior such as substance
abuse, compulsive gambling, reckless driving, or dangerous sports.
Unexplained aches and pains
Causes of Depression
Lack of social support
Recent stressful life experiences
Family history of depression
Marital or relationship problems
Early childhood trauma or abuse
Alcohol or drug abuse
Unemployment or underemployment
Health problems or chronic pain
Thalassemia Blood Disease
Thalassemia is a type of blood disorder which passed down through families. In
this body makes abnormal form of hemoglobin, the red blood cell protein which
Thalassemia Minor: Thalassemia minor usually does not cause any symptoms. If it
does, it causes only minor anemia.
Beta Thalassemia: Beta Thalassemia comes in two serious types
Thalassemia Major: Generally appear before a child’s second birthday. The severe
anemia related to this condition can be life-threatening. Other symptoms include:
Failure to thrive
Thalassemia Intermedia: It is a less severe form of beta thalassemia. While
people with this condition still have anemia, they do not need blood transfusions.
Causes of Thalassemia
Thalassemia occurs when there is an abnormality or mutation in one of the genes
involved in hemoglobin production. This genetic defect is inherited from your
parents. If only one of your parents is a carrier for thalassemia, you may develop a
form of the disease called “thalassemia minor.” If this occurs, you will probably
not have symptoms, but you will be a carrier of the disease. Some people with
thalassemia minor do develop minor symptoms. If both of your parents are
carriers of thalassemia, you have a 25 percent chance of inheriting a more serious
form of the disease. Thalassemia is most common in people from Southeast and
Central Asia, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, India, and North Africa.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a progressive type of lung disease which
makes it difficult to breath. Here progressive means the disease gets worse over
You have a cough that won't go away
You often cough up mucus
You are often short of breath, especially when you exercise
You may feel tightness in your chest
Coughing up more mucus than usual
A change in the color or thickness of that mucus
More shortness of breath than usual
Greater tightness in your chest
Causes of COPD
Long-term exposure to lung irritants such as industrial dust and chemical
Preterm birth that leads to lung damage (neonatal chronic lung disease)
Smoking- Cigarette smoke is by the far the most common reason people get
Secondhand smoke- Even if you don't smoke yourself, you can get COPD
from living with a smoker and breathing in smoke
Pollution and fumes- You can get COPD from air pollution