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Asenavage handout

  1. 1. Collaborative and Independent Learning Tools Karen Asenavage karen.asenavage@yale.edu Alice Emery alice.emery@yale.edu Anki http://ichi2.net/anki/ Create flashcards with audio, pictures, video. They can then be downloaded to cell phones. Great for busy university students. This might be a great collaborative projects for some people to put together. Different groups, different languages, flash cards for different purposes. It also has links to videos on YouTube about how to use the software. It is very intuitive to use. Possible uses: 1) Students can build their own review decks, or work in collaboration, to create decks by topic, grammar structure, cultural facts, full sentences or individual words. 2) Professors can share work across institutions. 3) Students can build decks individually and share them as part of a review process. Audacity http://audacity.sourceforge.net/ Use this tool to create audio and convert to WAV and MP3. Students can send audio files to each other and their instructors. Go to http://cnx.org/content/m18046/latest/ for an article “Digital Recording and its Applications in the Foreign Language Classroom” by Catherine Schwenker. Podomatic http://www.podomatic.com/featured Create podcasts that can be shared with others or view podcasts created by others. A team might consider creating a series of podcasts for use with a language to highlight, music, culture, dialects, grammar, famous speeches, stories and many more. Students could also create a series of podcasts while on study abroad trips to show how fluency and vocabulary has developed over the experience. Tangler Create a free, live, customizable discussion board that takes discussion and community building to a new level. Tangler forums allow real-time, persistent conversation into which contributors can deploy rich media such as images, videos and flash widgets easily, and each topic is embeddable – affording users the ability to easily share the discussion on their own web site or blog. Suggestions for structuring a successful discussion board (Alice Emery): 1) Discussion boards are asynchronous and can be used outside of real-time classroom time, for almost any discussion activity that might otherwise occur in a face-to-face classroom. Ideally, a Consortium for Language Teaching and Learning Workshop May 25-28, 2010 Yale Center for Language Study
  2. 2. discussion should be structured with a lead question, or questions. A minimum number of student responses should be specified for both the response to the initial question and to another student’s post. Deadlines for posting are also important for the successful functioning of a discussion. 2) Describe at the outset what a quality posting would be like, and recommend and model different types of online courtesy (the language for acknowledging others’ contributions, building on others’ ideas, politely disagreeing, etc.). It is an opportunity to teach the pragmatics of courtesy in conversations. 3) Student and instructor roles should be clearly defined from the outset so the students know how and when the instructor will intervene. Ideally, if the activity is structured well, a student can take the role of facilitator. The group will know when they can expect the instructor’s intervention (to wrap up at the end of the week, to respond to questions the students can’t answer, for example). One student can be assigned the task of moderating, and another to summarizing the discussion at the end of the week. Voice Thread http://voicethread.com/#home Voice Thread is a collaborative and asynchronous tool that allows discussions to extend beyond the classroom using images, audio, text, and phone access. This tool can help to create a series of images which can be used to teach culture, grammar, functions and many more. Students can practice oral and written language. This may be useful in creating formative or summative assessments. Sample of how one teacher uses voice thread. https://voicethread.com/#q.b3352.i28616 Word Champ http://www.wordchamp.com WordChamp.com, GlobaLinguist's innovative website, is the web's fastest growing multilingual community, providing a new platform for learning and teaching foreign languages, and providing resources for networking across countries, languages, and cultures. WordChamp.com provides members with an open database of user-generated language learning content that includes word pairs in over 100 languages, self-paced exercises for individual learners, free resources for language teachers, and community networking tools to assist anyone in the day-to-day development of a foreign language. Wimba http://www.wimba.com/ Wimba’s collaboration solutions augment leading course management and virtual learning systems to foster and encourage dynamic interaction between students and instructors as well as peer-to-peer communication between students and instructors. When passion is conveyed, when curiosity is piqued, when tough questions are probed, when brainstorming is encouraged, in short, when collaboration happens—this is when learning really takes place. • Build community and engage 21st century learners • Increase student-teacher & student-student engagement • Bring services & office hours on-line • Quickly and easily deploy new, collaborative technology • Remove physical & geographical constraints to learning • Enrich language-learning programs Consortium for Language Teaching and Learning Workshop May 25-28, 2010 Yale Center for Language Study
  3. 3. 10 Tips for Developing Collaborative Online Communities 1) Plan for regular communication for all members throughout the entire learning experience. 2) Establish communication guidelines or ground rules. 3) Plan for relevant and meaningful communication throughout the entire learning experience. 4) Plan a variety of communication opportunities with your resources in mind. Explore the resources that are available to you. Even if you don’t have resources provided by your school, there are many you can locate on the web. 5) Plan for a variety of communication opportunities with your learners learning styles and choice in mind. 6) Plan assessments that involve multiple assessors: instructor, students, peers. 7) Plan for regular and meaningful feedback to the assessments you choose. 8) Plan for a variety of individual, pair and group exercises assessed or otherwise. 9) Utilize your students’ expertise. 10) Become a part of your community of learners by finding ways to have your true personality inhabit the two-dimensional teaching space transforming it into a three-dimensional space. Consortium for Language Teaching and Learning Workshop May 25-28, 2010 Yale Center for Language Study
  4. 4. 10 Sites to Develop Online Community http://www.tangler.com/ Create a free, live, customizable discussion board http://voicethread.com/about/ Free On-line media album that allows five ways for participants to add comments: microphone, telephone, webcam, audio, text. http://www.elluminate.com/vroom/ Free real time collaboration for up to three locations with audio, video, white board, document sharing and breakout rooms. http://www.wikispaces.com/ Free webpages (wikiboards) for you and your students to edit together. http://pbwiki.com/ Another free wiki development site. http://surveymonkey.com/ Another free survey making tool. http://www.flashcardmachine.com/ Free text and audio flash cards that are shareable http://www.jingproject.com/ Free software to share documents, pictures etc. http://www.podomatic.com/ Create free podcasts to share and set up your own podcast page. https://www.blogger.com/start Create your own blog (web log/diary/journal) to share with others. Consortium for Language Teaching and Learning Workshop May 25-28, 2010 Yale Center for Language Study
  5. 5. Connexions module: m18046 1 Digital Audio Recording and its Applications in the Foreign Language Classroom ∗ Catherine Schwenkler This work is produced by The Connexions Project and licensed under the † Creative Commons Attribution License Abstract Looking for an easy-to-use technology tool that can help engage your students in communicative activities and practice speaking? Audacity has various applications for the foreign language classroom, for interpretive, interpersonal, and presentational modes of communication. From assessment to community- based group projects, digital audio recording can facilitate the realization of your objectives, no matter the target language or level. Digital Audio Recording and its Applications in the Foreign Language Classroom Module by: Lizzie Bailey and Catherine Schwenkler Introduction Unwieldy cassette players and poor-quality microphones are a thing of the past. Now, modern technology in the form of digital audio recording oers unprecedented ease in student-produced voice recordings in classroom settings. Digital audio recording is a useful tool in foreign language classrooms where a primary goal is for students to practice speaking the target language, hear how they sound, and improve their speaking prociency. This kind of self-monitoring is an important part of language production for all levels of foreign language learners. Free, easy-to-use software programs such as Audacity are tools that facilitate and document student practice speaking the target language. By recording themselves speaking with the software, students' original language production is recorded and students have the opportunity to go back and hear themselves speaking. Now students are able to reect on their accent, grammar, uency, intonation, etc. This tool can serve a variety of purposes, including self-assessment, group work, dialogues, links to culture, and teacher assessment. In the following module, we present our favorite online resources and examples of how to use Audacity for digital audio recording in the classroom. We also reect on the value that this tool adds to classroom activities, and possible challenges that teachers should be prepared for when employing this tool in their work. Ultimately it is the potential to use Audacity as tool in larger student-centered, creative, collaborative projects that is most exciting in terms of implementation in the classroom. Beyond just improving their own individual speaking abilities and comparing their pronunciation with that of their teacher and other uent speakers, digital audio recording tasks can be about student-created work. Students can write, record, edit, ∗ Version 1.1: Oct 19, 2008 9:24 pm GMT-5 † http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/ http://cnx.org/content/m18046/1.1/
  6. 6. Connexions module: m18046 2 and produce their own audio les and share as widely as they would like. Ideally and if time allows, Audacity can be a tool that allows students to take learning outside of the classroom. Larger interpersonal webs can be created with classmates, families, and native speakers in the community. Since foreign language learning is about not only perfecting, but applying spoken language in interactive and presentational formats, digital audio recording oers a host of options for the language teacher and learner alike. Digital Audio Recording 101 Audacity is an instructional tool for digital audio recording and editing. It is a free program available 1 for download here . This tool allows students and teachers to easily record, edit and eventually share audio les, thus facilitating student practice and assessment both in speaking and listening comprehension in the target language. Audacity requires Windows, Mac OS X, GNU/Linux or a similar operating system, at least 64 MB RAM and a 300 MHz processor, a microphone, speakers or headphones, and a high speed internet connection (recommended). Teachers and students rst need to download the software and learn how to use the software via helpful tutorials. (See below for links to these tutorials.) This program allows teachers and students to record live audio les and edit them in a variety of ways. Some, but certainly not all, of the various editing features are the following abilities: 1. To cut out unwanted sounds such as pauses, coughs, hisses and hums 2. To copy, paste and delete 3. To undo and/or redo an unlimited number of times 4. To rearrange the order of sounds clips 5. To adjust volume levels before, after and while recording 6. To fade and amplify sounds 7. To mix multiple clips together and fuse them into one track 8. To change the speed or pitch of clips Users can also transfer older out-of-date media les (such as tapes or records) into digital copies that can then be enhanced and edited. With so many editing features students can submit their best work by recording and re-recording as- signments until they are satised with their product. By recording, re-recording and editing, students are also practicing the language more and developing important self-monitoring skills needed to improve their language knowledge. Audio les can be saved in the WAV format to be put on CDs for students or be exported as MP3 les and shared with other users. This means that not only can Audacity be used to facilitate assessment of speaking skills, but it can also be employed as a resource for students who missed school and want to download that day's lecture or for students who need to extra listening comprehension or pronunciation practice. Audacity Tutorial Links 2 Creating an MP3 le using Audacity http://www.teachertube.com/view_video.php?viewkey=ac88ccd8100451384c97 This is a very instructional video on how to do everything from recording to exporting as an MP3 le. This video shows you how to cut and paste, adjust volume, rearrange the order of clips, add background music, and fade in and out. For a more detailed look at the Audacity main screen, click on the following 3 link http://www.sad46.org/download/audacity-basics.pdf . Audacity Slightly Advanced 4 http://www.teachertube.com/view_video.php?viewkey=b2e6bf071729a4fa68df Here is another helpful video that assumes that you already have some knowledge of the Audacity basics. It teaches you how to use some of the more advanced Audacity features such as amplifying select sections and importing and layering tracks. There is also a PDF document that oers a zoomed in view of many of 1 http://audacity.sourceforge.net/download/ 2 http://www.teachertube.com/view_video.php?viewkey=ac88ccd8100451384c97 3 http://www.sad46.org/download/audacity-basics.pdf 4 http://www.teachertube.com/view_video.php?viewkey=b2e6bf071729a4fa68df http://cnx.org/content/m18046/1.1/
  7. 7. Connexions module: m18046 3 5 the features used in this video. To access it, follow this link http://teachdigital.pbwiki.com/podcasting , scroll down to the How-to Guides and Articles section and click on letter b. Audacity Quickstart Guide (2 page PDF). Audacity Help Page 6 http://audacity.sourceforge.net/help/ This is a link to the Audacity Help page. From this website, you can access links to the Frequently Asked Questions page, the Audacity user manual and the Audacity Wiki page which contains many useful tips and tutorials. Podcasting Basics Since Audacity les are often eventually shared as podcasts, a working knowledge of podcasting basics can be necessary. See the site below to learn more. 7 http://teachdigital.pbwiki.com/podcasting Classroom Applications There are many examples of more teacher-centered digital audio recording in foreign language classrooms, while we found less student-centered examples shared online. Teachers use Audacity: to record their lectures so that students can listen to them at home; to produce vocabulary and pronunciation practice guides for their students; to record native speakers' voices in the creation of speaking and listening materials; to record audio o of streaming video or local media so that students can listen to the voices on radio broadcasts or podcasts. For example, teachers are using Audacity to record sight word lists of new vocabulary items and then burned them onto CD's so students could listen/practice in class or at home. Teachers also record their own voices reading texts, creating audio les and burning them onto CD's for students, who could then listen to the audio les at home as they read along with the text. 8 Abel Olivas has his Spanish II and AP Spanish students record themselves on Audacity software and submit those les for the 20% percent of their nal grade that is based on oral activities. For speaking practice, students prepare oral presentations in class and record them with Audacity. This kind of practice supplements more extemporaneous, interpersonal activities in class as well as student voice recordings using a cassette recorder to simulate the AP exam. 9 Joanne Van Tuyl makes audio ashcards for her Russian language students using the Audacity software so that students can hear and practice the language on their own time. She records each vocabulary word or phrase in its own audio le which students can organize in their own playlists; vocabulary audio les can also be accompanied by a relevant video le, or photo. Audacity is a tool that facilitates resource-producing and -sharing across foreign languages and levels. 10 Teachers direct students to online resources created by them or other teachers. This site links to Spanish- language and bilingual podcasts that guide student through vocabulary and pronunciation practice and grammar review. Students can easily access audio les for more exposure to proper pronunciation in the target language (perhaps with a dierent accent than their teacher's) and for practice in listening 11 comprehension. At this site , foreign language teachers post podcasts recorded on a variety of subjects, sharing resources from class lectures to pronunication practice tutorials. Students can practice specic thematic vocabulary or listen to a podcast called How to Improve your Spanish Pronunciation, recorded by an experienced Spanish teacher. 12 Uses of Audacity for second language acquisition: http://www.linux.com/feature/59062 Students are using Audacity to practice and record their speaking skills for their teacher for use in assessment. Students can listen to their own voice compared to that of their teacher or another native 5 http://teachdigital.pbwiki.com/podcasting 6 http://audacity.sourceforge.net/help/ 7 http://teachdigital.pbwiki.com/podcasting 8 http://faculty.harker.org/AbelO/APSpanLang/index.htm 9 http://cit.duke.edu/ideas/projects/2005/08/01/audio-ashcards-russian/ 10 http://www.spanish-bookworld.com/spanish-podcasts.html 11 http://epnweb.org/index.php?request_id=1628openpod=10#anchor10 12 http://www.linux.com/feature/59062 http://cnx.org/content/m18046/1.1/
  8. 8. Connexions module: m18046 4 speaker, listening to the ways that their pronunciation diers; this is a key example of the self-monitoring that Audacity can facilitate. What we did not nd as many examples of online were lesson plans or descriptions that focused on student-created audio les in foreign language classrooms. However, some student-created Audacity les are part of larger multimedia works like digital storytelling projects (using Photostory or Microsoft Moviemaker software). Students can also record original commercials or public service announcements in the target language and share them online as podcasts. Research shows that task- based assignments are more eective and meaningful, in that students use linguistic elements in context and in real-life situations. Potential for More Creative Use We think that there is room for much more creative, student-centered uses of Audacity in foreign language classrooms. Original student work is the rst step: creating commercials, song mixes, digital travel brochures or shopping guides. Digital storytelling also involves student creativity and self-expression. These all involve student written and oral production, but contextualize these skills and thus make learning more meaningful. Audacity can be used to involve native speakers in the community, utilizing this often untapped local linguistic resource. If students have access to mini-disk recorders or stand-alone laptop computers with microphone hook-ups, they can interview their classmates or community members. Students can record native speakers' voices, to use in focusing on their own pronunciation and how it can improve. Students can interview native speakers about their opinions, experiences, or for information about their home coun- tries. This information can then be presented in a multimedia Powerpoint or Photostory presentation with visual images, maps and graphs to accompany the audio les. (See Digital Voices project below.) This is taking digital audio recording to another level in extending the interactive, communicative web and bringing more people into the learning community. Students practice speaking with native speakers and interviewing others, key interpersonal skills in the target language. Students can listen to English-language and Spanish-language podcasts about current events and im- 13 portant issues. For example, at the Homeland Productions site students can listen to audio podcasts about social, economic, legal, and environmental issues from the U.S.-Mexico border. This is listening comprehension practice and integrates culture; students could prepare their own audio les responding to the information presented online to share with their classmates. In Advanced Placement foreign language classrooms there is great potential to use Audacity as practice for the oral portion of the exam. Since the AP exam includes a listening comprehension/dialogue sec- tion where students listen to a voice prompt (one-half of the dialogue about an unknown topic) and have twenty-second intervals to extemporaneously respond, easy-to-use recording software like Audacity facilitates practice speaking and recording your voice. Teachers can record a master prompt and have students in the computer lab open the audio le, listen, and record their own Audacity track layered over it. Then, students can listen to both tracks and hear what the conversation would sound like. They can also focus on errors in their own speaking. Teachers can give creativity and control over to students, asking them to write and record their own master prompts and share them with classmates for further practice. This creation and handling of the audio les gives students a sense of ownership in preparation for an otherwise very stressful part of the AP exam! See the Audacity Slightly Advanced tutorial for any questions about layering and isolating tracks. Notable Examples We did not nd many examples of student-centered lesson plans using Audacity in foreign language class- rooms. However, we did nd a few examples of the kind of projects we hope to nd, where student learning and creativity are greatly enhanced by the use of digital audio recording. Some are specically designed for foreign language classrooms, and others can be easily adapted. Digital Voices Across the Curriculum: In this collection of exemplary classroom examples from the UK, secondary foreign language teachers 13 http://www.homelands.org/series/border.html http://cnx.org/content/m18046/1.1/
  9. 9. Connexions module: m18046 5 from Language Colleges were selected by the National Centre for Languages and trained specically in digital audio recording technology and cross-curricular project design. Teachers asked students to record themselves and others and present information on a variety of topics (time, weather, travel, school) in the target foreign language; these were cooperative group projects, requiring that students could take initiative and work together. Projects were interdisciplinary and many involved students recording community mem- bers giving opinions and information about a given topic, also in the target language. Sound les were edited on Audacity and layered over pictures and graphs in Powerpoint presentations that students presented to the rest of the class. Some projects also served as community resources, to be useful outside of the classroom context. Across the board, teachers reported increased condence in speaking and better pronunciation practice and review by their students as a result of these projects. These results and tips-for-teachers for similar project design are also presented at the end of this page. These projects are exemplary in incorporat- ing digital audio recording software into student-centered, community-based, interactive multimedia projects that connect disciplines as well as language and learners. These various plans are very good examples of the kind of student-centered work that we would like to see happen in foreign language classrooms and school communities. 14 http://www.cilt.org.uk/languagecolleges/projects/digital_voices.htm Digital Storytelling: In this six-week project, English-as-a-second-language students used digital audio recording and Photo- Story for authentic student-created cultural productions that were relevant to their lives. Students chose a topic that was interesting and meaningful for them, then researched the topic and created a dialogue to accompany their visual presentation of pictures. This project format means that students are speaking and most likely practicing their monologue multiple times because they want to turn in their best work. This site presents examples of student work as well as online resources for more information on digital storytelling. We consider this an example of how audio recordings can be part of multimedia projects where students combine new spoken language skills, personal stories, and technology to express themselves and write about their communities. Student choice and collaborative ownership are important aspects of these projects; both allow for much more engaged learning. 15 http://faculty.lagcc.cuny.edu/eiannotti/7.1/ Audacity Radio Commercial Project: This website has a variety of links to lesson plans that use digital audio recording, specically Audac- ity. One example is to use Audacity to record a radio commercial using a specic set of vocabulary words. While this lesson plan is not geared specically for foreign language classrooms, it provides a very versatile lesson plan format because it can be adapted for any ability level. Depending upon your students' abilities, teachers could change the vocabulary or the amount of student output required. F or example, beginning level students could record themselves reading a prepared script composed by either the teacher or the whole class. More advanced students would not only be asked to use a larger amount of more challenging vocab- ulary, but they would also have to write the script for the ad themselves. This could be done individually or as a group assignment. Completed ads could be used only by the teacher as a form of assessing speaking skills, or they could be posted online as podcasts to share with the rest of the class. Several topics we thought would lend themselves easily to this assignment are grocery store ads, travel agency ads, clothing store ads and real estate ads. This kind of assignment allows for student choice and creativity, as well as practice both writing and speaking. We like that it is adaptable to various levels and content. 16 http://lessonplans.btskinner.com/multimedia.html Podcast Project: 14 http://www.cilt.org.uk/languagecolleges/projects/digital_voices.htm 15 http://faculty.lagcc.cuny.edu/eiannotti/7.1/ 16 http://lessonplans.btskinner.com/multimedia.html http://cnx.org/content/m18046/1.1/
  10. 10. Connexions module: m18046 6 Another of the lesson plans requires students to work in groups to record a ve minute radio show that they will later share with the class by making it a podcast. While the topics of discussion are left to the students' choice, it must be something related to their school. Some examples suggested are the dress code, the cafeteria menu or the student handbook. This gives the students some freedom of choice and an opportunity to express their opinions and creativity while still remaining a structured activity. This topic in particular makes the activity very relevant and meaningful to their lives, which is essential to engaged student learning. 17 http://lessonplans.btskinner.com/multimedia.html Digital Audio Recording in the Classroom: Advantages and Disadvantages Strengths There are many advantages to using digital audio recording in the foreign language classroom. Tools like Audacity add exibility to instructional planning and facilitate the sharing of student speaking samples for assessment and/or presentation. Audacity also facilitates interpersonal communication and the sharing of resources across communities by posting audio les online as podcasts. In the process of listening to and recording their own audio les, students have more exposure to the spoken language and their pronunciation, especially, can improve. Students' pronunciation also improves as their ability to self-monitor increases with the use of digital audio recording in the classroom. Students can hear their own voices and their uency, vocabulary and grammar usage, and pronunciation as many times as they would like to play the audio les. Students can contrast their pronunciation with that of their teacher or another native speaker, in assignments that specically target their focus and meta-cognition in producing the target language. Students can practice beforehand and review, edit, and re-record their audio les, leading to more condence in oral presentation without being on the spot in front of their peers and a polished nished product. The use of digital audio recording within the context of larger communicative activities targets one of the primary national standards in foreign language teaching: Communication. Audacity is a exible, useful tool for all of the modes in teaching and learning foreign languages: interpersonal (Standard 1.1), interpretive (1.2), and presentational (1.3). • Students communicate with other people (interpersonal) by recording interviews, native speakers' voices, and their classmates' opinions. This is a tool that can be the jumping-o point to send students into the community and facilitate their interacting with other people in the target language. (See Digital Voices Across the Curriculum project.) • Students listen to other people's voices (interpretive) and either answer questions that demonstrate their understanding and listening comprehension abilities. Students can listen to a story recorded in an audio le as they read along (both reading and listening skills). Students can also record their own voices in response, simulating a dialogue. This is particularly applicable to Advanced Placement classes in preparation for the oral part of the exam; please see our description above. • Students record their own voices to share with other people (presentational), whether it is their teacher, classmates, or community members. Students can write their own stories and record them on audio les, linking writing and speaking skills. Students can post audio les on wikis and/or burn CD's as electronic speaking portfolios to give to their teacher or classmates. These CD's could even be used as tutorials for younger students as a way to facilitate peer tutoring across levels. Students have a record of their oral practice, using key vocabulary and grammar, to listen to in future years, since language learning builds upon itself and they will have to be responsible for their prior knowledge. For class assignments, students can produce audio les at home as an alternative to presenting work in class in front of their peers. This is more practice for more students, and means class time does not have to be taken up for the same purposes of letting every individual student make a presentation. For example, students can record their summary and thoughts about current events, posting Audacity les 17 http://lessonplans.btskinner.com/multimedia.html http://cnx.org/content/m18046/1.1/
  11. 11. Connexions module: m18046 7 as podcasts on a classroom wiki site with accompanying links to the newspaper article in question. All of these assignments compiled in portfolios help students monitor their progress and set goals. Students can express themselves in a variety of presentational modes, with Audacity accounting for the audio portion. Digital storytelling as discussed above allows students to choose a topic of interest, work with others, integrate culture and current events, and personalize their learning. Spoken language and presentation of pictures, information, and stories are all student-selected and constructed. This kind of engagement allows students to connect with the content in an entirely dierent way. Teachers can also become more familiar with free and widely available software like Audacity, to then use in for a variety of purposes in a foreign language classroom. This is a exible tool that allows for easy adaptability to diverse instructional goals and objectives, and facilitates cross-curricular work like that seen in the Digital Voices Across the Curriculum project. Teachers can use Audacity to help them in administrative tasks, like sharing class lectures with students who missed class by posting les online. Digital audio les are also easy for assessment purposes, since students can share them with their teacher in a variety of ways and one-on-one teacher/student time is not needed for all oral assessments. Limitations Students may not be familiar with digital audio recording and may be uncomfortable or nervous using new technology; as such, teachers must be familiar with Audacity and other tools needed for a particular project, and ready to help students feel empowered to use them independently. Directing students to online help sheets and tutorials such as those referenced above is a good way to help students feel more supported. An in-class group tutorial with the teacher walking students through every step of the process might also be necessary in many cases, before students feel condent to embark on a project. Teachers need to be prepared to invest some time beforehand in teaching themselves, teaching their students, and proactively troubleshooting potential problems. Technology may not be widely available in schools or in students' homes, so longer-term projects may be necessary as a result. If students have access to a computer lab at school with the necessary equipment, they can work on their own time to accomplish the tasks. Teachers can collaborate with school personnel for support in coaching students and ensuring the necessary technological access. Since even the easy-to-use tools can have problems and all technology-based lesson plans can go awry, teachers should have a back-up plan in case students face challenges with computers, microphones, le sharing, etc. Tips for teachers 1. Audacity is a tool to help you get where you want to go, and not the end in and of itself. Connect your project to your curriculum, standards, and class needs, and not the technology. 2. Design your project to allow for student choice and creativity. If students can choose their own topic, the speaking project will be more meaningful and interesting to them. 3. Provide specic guidelines, goals, and grading rubrics as necessary to focus students' eorts while still allowing them creativity. 4. Provide students with as much introductory coaching and support as they need and think about their equal access to technology when designing assignments. Students need to be comfortable using the technology so that the focus can be on their speaking and self-editing, not how to manipulate the Audacity software. http://cnx.org/content/m18046/1.1/

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