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Clts In Mozambique

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Clts In Mozambique

  1. 1. CLTS Sharing and Learning Workshop Kenya, Mombassa, 9th- 13 th 2009 EXPERIENCES FROM MOZAMBIQUE Americo Muianga, Fiorella Polo, Rostina Baptista and Sam Godfrey
  2. 2. Mozambique Presentation <ul><li>Presentation has the following sections: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction and Rationale, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Triggering Activities in Mozambique </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results of Triggering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Post Triggering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scaling Up </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Summary and Conclusion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. One Million Initiative will target 1 out of 10 Million of people who have no access to basic sanitation <ul><li>10 Mill. People- i.e.> 50% of the pop. practice OD </li></ul><ul><li>6 mil. in rural and 4 mil. in urban </li></ul><ul><li>NL/UNICEF ‘One Million Initiative’ plans to target 1 Mil. of people living in rural areas </li></ul>
  4. 4. Outputs of One Million Initiatve: 2007-2013 Sofala Manica Tete <ul><li>1.000.000 PEOPLE WITH ACCESS TO SAFE WATER, IMPROVED SANITATION FACILITIES AND HYGIENE BEHAVIOUR IMPROVED </li></ul><ul><li>200, 000 PEOPLE WITH REHABILITATED WATER SOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>140,000 SCHOOL CHILDREN WITH ACCESS TO SAFE WASH FACILITIES AND IMPROVE DHYGIENE </li></ul><ul><li>INSTITUTIONS STRENGTHENED AND SUSTAINABILITY ENSURED </li></ul>
  5. 5. Reaching One Million people with WASH? <ul><li>Integrated approach to water and sanitation includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion of ODF villages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction of water points in ODF villages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring of impact on public health of integrated WASH in ODF villages (Baseline/Sustainability Check 2008 completed) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. CATS introduced and gave results in less than 6 months Roadmap of CATS in Mozambique <ul><ul><li>Recrutiment of 2 international WASH experts </li></ul></ul>START June 08 1 <ul><ul><li>Design of new sanitation strategy for the programme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pilot of CATS approved by Minister of Public Works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 Government /UNICEF/PLAN staff trained in CLTS in Zambia </li></ul></ul>2 3 4 <ul><ul><li>In-country CLTS TOT training by Dr.Kamal KAR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 month Triggering in by NGOs partners (180 com. 17 districts) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-sectoral evaluation – 2 weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awards ceremony </li></ul></ul>5 6 8 7 TODAY ... <ul><ul><li>National sanitation campaign and Hygine Promition </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Why CATS? <ul><li>Sanitation results fell short of meeting both the expected targets and the MDGs roadmap </li></ul><ul><li>The traditional approaches (national campaigns and social mobilization with PHAST) did not faciltiate measurement of results </li></ul><ul><li>Low achievemnts and lack of commun mechanisms to measure them resulted in low interest in sanitation across the sector </li></ul><ul><li>Positive feed-back came from other countries who introduced new approaches </li></ul>A new approach was needed for Sanitation
  8. 8. CATS in Mozambique combines two approaches Sanitation Awards <ul><li>CATS = Community Approaches to Sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>Encapsulate various approaches (CLTS, TS) </li></ul><ul><li>Is part of UNICEF strategy to reflect differences in regions, countries and communities. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Developing a roadmap for scaling-up sanitation and hygiene in UNICEF”” ,T.Dooley, 2008 </li></ul>CLTS Community Led-Total Sanitation ODF (Open Defecation Free) Villages
  9. 9. Why combining CLTS and Sanitation Award ? CLTS Sanitation Awards <ul><li>Aim at motivating community leaders and politicians </li></ul><ul><li>Create competition among communities and among districts </li></ul><ul><li>Help to put sanitation in the agenda of local politicians </li></ul><ul><li>Triggers quick reaction from communities </li></ul><ul><li>Puts pressure on all the members of a community </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates cooperation within the community to support most vulnerable households </li></ul><ul><li>Allows households to opt for the most convenient technology </li></ul>
  10. 10. Why combining CLTS and Sanitation Award ? CLTS Sanitation Awards <ul><li>Aim at motivating community leaders and politicians </li></ul><ul><li>Create competition among communities and among districts </li></ul><ul><li>Help to put sanitation in the agenda of local politicians </li></ul><ul><li>Triggers quick reaction from communities </li></ul><ul><li>Puts pressure on all the members of a community </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates cooperation within the community to support most vulnerable households </li></ul><ul><li>Allows households to opt for the most convenient technology </li></ul>
  11. 11. Celebrate Achieving of ODF status CLTS “celebration”! <ul><li>Involve local government in celebrating the achievement of ODF </li></ul><ul><li>Organise a celebration (with senior officials, politicians) </li></ul><ul><li>Invite the media (politicians, journalists) </li></ul><ul><li>Once ODF status is achieved, place board for recognition </li></ul>
  12. 12. Awards Criteria for awards Districts Administrative posts The scheme includes awards at various levels Traditional leaders Community <ul><li>Declared ODF/awarded if: </li></ul><ul><li>100% HH with latrines </li></ul><ul><li>100 % latrines in use </li></ul><ul><li>No signs of faeces in the environment </li></ul>or or + <ul><li>Highest No. of ODF villages </li></ul><ul><li>Highest no. of latrines (incl. traditional) </li></ul><ul><li>If community awarded </li></ul><ul><li>If community awarded </li></ul>
  13. 13. Mozambique Presentation <ul><li>Presentation has the following sections: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction and Rationale, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Triggering Activities in Mozambique </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results of Triggering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Post Triggering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scaling Up </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Summary and Conclusion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Triggering with Dr. Kamal Kar October 2008 <ul><li>Dr. Kamal Kar facilitated the TOT with 74 participants: </li></ul><ul><li>District, provinces and national water technicians and sanitation officers </li></ul><ul><li>17 NGOs – contracted by districts to carry out all social mobilization and community participation of the One Million programme </li></ul><ul><li>2 district administrators and several district planning officers joined the de-briefing at the end of the training </li></ul>
  15. 15. Mozambique Presentation <ul><li>Presentation has the following sections: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction and Rationale, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Triggering Activities in Mozambique </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results of Triggering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Post Triggering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scaling Up </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Summary and Conclusion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. 160 communities Triggered <ul><li>NGOs are contracted by each district to facilitate community participation in whole programme life cycle </li></ul><ul><li>NGOs used PHAST to support the community in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Siting of water points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation and training of water committees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion of Hygiene and sanitation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NGOs welcomed CATS and introduced rapidly the new approach </li></ul>In 1 month 17 local NGOs triggered more than 150 communities
  17. 17. Mozambique Presentation <ul><li>Presentation has the following sections: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction and Rationale, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Triggering Activities in Mozambique </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results of Triggering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Post Triggering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scaling Up </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Summary and Conclusion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The awards were marketed through radio and in meetings with district administrators <ul><li>The NGOs supported the communities in the application process </li></ul><ul><li>Local administrators at all levels were involved </li></ul><ul><li>159 application were received at provincial level within deadline </li></ul>
  19. 19. 3 Multi Sectorial teams evaluated 159 communties in 2 weeks <ul><ul><li>Health, Education and water provincial goverment + indipendent experts (WSP, UNICEF, SNV, Oxfam) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The evaluation was based on a sample of 10% of the HH in each community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews and observation were used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicators for the evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 . 100% HH have latrine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. 100% latrines are in use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. NO faeces in the environment </li></ul></ul>Methodology
  20. 20. The evaluation form was kept simple !!!!!
  21. 21. 34 ODF communities <ul><ul><li>34 communities (~ 26,000 people) were declared ODF after 2 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 1st award ceremony took place in February 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Minister of Public Works personally awarded community leaders and local authorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Provincial Governor and 2 representatives attended </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNICEF Representative and the Dutch Embassy Representative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The event attracted considerable media coverage </li></ul></ul>The ceremony
  22. 22. Post Triggering: Maximizing Local Leaders <ul><ul><li>11 districts were awarded ODF status in 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each district will organise a local celebration facilitated by the District Administrator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>34 ODF villages will be recognized in front of other communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20 Post Administrators will give speeches on how they mobilised the communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local leaders (political/religious) of the entire district will be invited </li></ul></ul>District Level Ceremonies
  23. 23. Mozambique Presentation <ul><li>Presentation has the following sections: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction and Rationale, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Triggering Activities in Mozambique </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results of Triggering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Post Triggering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scaling Up </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Summary and Conclusion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Results provided good advocacy for scaling up of CATS <ul><ul><li>Rapid and Quantifiable Results – In less than 2 months, the results of CLTS were visible throughout the 3 provinces. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awards as a Monitoring Tool – The awards scheme provides a tool to monitor the progress of sanitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awards as multi-sectoral work - The evaluation brought together 3 sectors in an easy to understand activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CATS as morale booster – rapid and measurable results contributed to increase motivation in NGOs staff and the sanitation officers in the sector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainability is key for scaling -up – To ensure the future sustainability of the CATS approach it is recommended that PSP is promoted for the awards. </li></ul></ul>Lessons learnt
  25. 25. Monitoring and Sustaining ODF status in 2009 <ul><li>100% hand washing device </li></ul><ul><li>100% use </li></ul><ul><li>(interviews with children) </li></ul>ODF ODF + ODF + + <ul><li>100% latrines </li></ul><ul><li>100% cover </li></ul><ul><li>100% use </li></ul><ul><li>NO Faeces in the environment </li></ul><ul><li>100% slabs </li></ul>Awardies 2008 <ul><li>100% latrines </li></ul><ul><li>100% cover </li></ul><ul><li>100% use </li></ul><ul><li>NO Faeces in the environment </li></ul><ul><li>100% latrines </li></ul><ul><li>100% cover </li></ul><ul><li>100% use </li></ul><ul><li>NO Faeces in the environment </li></ul><ul><li>100% hand washing device </li></ul><ul><li>100% use </li></ul><ul><li>(interviews with children) </li></ul>The way forward
  26. 26. Progressive prizes to move to ODF+ /ODF++ ODF Traditional leaders Posts Districts ODF + ODF + +
  27. 27. Communities simultaneously accelerate access to sanitation, water and education ODF ODF + ODF + + Comunidades Familias ODF ODF + ODF + +
  28. 28. Each ODF village cost ~ 17,000 USD <ul><li>Promotion : 1,5% </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation 4,5% </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing : 5,1% </li></ul><ul><li>Familiy award : 11,4% </li></ul><ul><li>Community award : 57,1% </li></ul><ul><li>Triggering CLTS: 2,8% </li></ul><ul><li>TOT CLTS : 15,4% </li></ul>2008 CLTS TOT Awards Family award. Others Awards. Evaluation Promotion Water point classroom 15,4% Average community size in 2008: ~ 800 people 2,8% 57,1% 4,5 % 1,5 % 16,6 % Cost analysis Triggering
  29. 29. By 2011, 1.2 Mil. people will be ODF in Mozambique Scaling Up in the programme Communities of 1.000 people ( = 200 HH) 2008 2009 2010 2011 TOTAL ODF per district   15 20 35 70 ODF 18 districts 34 270 360 630 1,294 ODF people 26,980 270,000 360,000 630,000 1,286,980 <ul><li>Cost/ person (USD) Water and Sanitation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$10 for Water (as prize) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$8 for Sanitation </li></ul></ul></ul>18
  30. 30. Projections of growth for ODF villages in the programme area Cumulative ODF Villages People ODF 34 630 1,294 1,29 Mil. 664 304 0,78 Mil. 2008 2009 2010 2011 0,35 Mil. 0,03 Mil. 34 360 270
  31. 31. Triggering in Schools <ul><li>100% handwashing devices </li></ul><ul><li>100% use </li></ul><ul><li>(interviews with students) </li></ul>Schools Go ODF <ul><li>100% clean latrines </li></ul><ul><li>100% latrines in use </li></ul><ul><li>NO faeces in the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning & maitaince plan + budget </li></ul>Child-friendly handwashing <ul><li>Students competition to invent low-cost and CF hand washing devices </li></ul>
  32. 32. Summary and Conclusions <ul><li>34 communities (~ 26,000 people) became ODF in less than 2 months </li></ul><ul><li>CATS has proven to be highly successful in Mozambique </li></ul><ul><li>Impressive political commitment to the process and good results to report in AFRICASAN 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of facilitation requires monitoring (peer review exercise to be introduced this year) </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation of lessons learnt is ongoing with World Bank WSP </li></ul><ul><li>Multipartner training of trainers required (Dr Kamal Kar June 2009) </li></ul>

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