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COMPUTER BASICS
WEEK 2
COMPUTER BASICS
• A computer (or computer system) is a set of
tools that helps you to perform information-
processing task...
• A complete computer system consists of four
parts.
oHardware
oSoftware
oData
oUser
COMPUTER BASICS
Computer System
COMPUTER
Hardware
Input and
Output Devices
Processing
Devices
Storage Devices
Software
System
Software
Device Drivers
Util...
• Hardware includes physical devices that make
up your computer. Hardware is any part of the
computer that you can physica...
• Software is the set of instructions that your
computer hardware executes to process
information for you. In other words,...
• Data: Data consist of individual facts or pieces
of information.
• Users: People that work with computer are
called as u...
• Using all its parts together, a computer
converts data into information by performing
various actions on the data. These...
• Data: Data consist of the raw facts and figures
that are being processed into information.
• Information: Information is...
COMPUTER BASICS
Information Processing Cycle
Input-output cycle
• Input: During this part of the cycle the
computer accepts the data from particular
sources, such as the user or a progra...
• Processing: Processing is the manipulation
that a computer does to transform data into
information.
• There are 2 types ...
• Output: A computer may be required to
display the results of its processes such as:
o Text
o Numbers
o Graphics
o Sounds...
• Storage: The computer stores the results of its
processing on a disk, tape, or some other kind
of storage medium.
• Stor...
• Primary storage or memory is the internal
circuitry that temporarily holds data waiting
to be processed.
• Secondary sto...
• A computer’s hardware devices can be
classified into one of four categories:
o Processor
o Memory
o Input and Output
o S...
• Processing Devices
o The procedure that transforms raw data into
useful information is called processing.
o To perform t...
• Processing Devices
o Processor: Central Processing Unit (CPU)
o Memory
• Random Access Memory (RAM)
• Read Only Memory (...
• Memory
o RAM: RAM holds data and program instructions
temporarily while the CPU works with them.
IMPORTANT NOTE: RAM is ...
• RAM has a great impact on the speed and power of a
computer.
The more RAM a computer has, the more it can do
and the fas...
• A bit is an electronic signal which is either on (1) or
off (0). It is the smallest unit of information that the
compute...
• Memory
o ROM: Unlike RAM, ROM permanently stores its
data, even when the computer is turned off. ROM
holds instructions ...
• Input and Output Devices
o Input: Devices which are used to enter data into a
computer for processing e.g. from a keyboa...
• Common Input Hardware
oKeyboard
oPointing Devices: Mouse, Joystick, Touchpad etc.
o Mechanical / Optical Mouse
oScanner
...
• Common Output Hardware
oMonitor
oPrinter
IMPORTANT NOTE: While buying a monitor
several specifications needed to be chec...
• Storage Devices
o To function properly a computer needs a medium
to keep program files permanently when they are
not in ...
• Magnetic Storage
o There are many types of storage devices for
computers, but the most common one is the
magnetic disk.
...
• Magnetic Storage
o Hard disk : The hard disk serves as the computer’s
primary filing cabinet because it can store far
mo...
• Optical Storage: Devices that use lasers to read data from or
write data to the reflective surface of an optical disc.
o...
o Blu-ray Disc (BD): The new version of optical
storage device.
oThe new formats like HD (high resolution
video) can be sa...
o Blu-ray Disc vs DVD
Specification DVD Blu-ray
Disc Capacity 4.7 GB (Single layer)
8.5 GB (Double
layer)
25 GB (Single la...
• Flash Memory: Flash memory is a non-volatile computer
memory that can be electrically read and written.
• It is a techno...
• Ports: Sockets at the
back of a computer
used to plug in
external devices such
as a modem, mouse,
scanner, or printer.
C...
Serial port
Main power
This port is used to connect main power
A standard connector and protocol that
lets you attach devi...
USB port
You can connect USB devices, such as
flash disks, via USB ports. You do not need
to install any driver to use it....
Audio ports (jacks) are for microphone,
auxiliary and speaker or headphones.
Ethernet port
Network Interface Card (NIC) al...
• Wireless Ports: While using wireless devices, you don’t
need any wire or connectors. The connection is
established in th...
• Software
o Application Software
o System Software
COMPUTER BASICS
Software
• Application Software allows you to perform
specific information-processing tasks such as
o Writing a term paper
o Creati...
• System Software: There are three basic
components of system software
o Operating Systems: computing system.
o Device Dri...
• Most Common Operating System(OS)
o Macintosh (Mac OS):The latest version is MAC OS X Snow Leopard.
o Microsoft Windows: ...
• Device Drivers: Specialized software programs that
allow input and output devices to communicate with
the rest of the co...
• PDA (Personal Digital
Assistant): A mobile
device that functions as
a personal information
manager (connecting
internet,...
• Smart Phones: combines the
functionalities of a PDA and a
cell phone.
o Operating Systems of Smart
Phones: Symbian^3, IO...
• Tablet PC
o Portable
o Running Android or IOS
o Running applications
distributed by Android or
IOS market
o Similar to s...
Property PDA Smart Phone Tablet PC
WIFI Yes Yes Yes
3G /4G Yes Yes Yes
Installing
software
Yes Yes Yes
Interface Keyboard ...
• Go to your desktop
• Right-click on My
Computer Icon
• Select Properties
from the pop-up
menu
• See the properties of
yo...
COMPUTER BASICS
References
• ©This lecture was prepared by using PETER NORTON’S INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS 6th Edition for
...
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Week2

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Week2

  1. 1. COMPUTER BASICS WEEK 2
  2. 2. COMPUTER BASICS • A computer (or computer system) is a set of tools that helps you to perform information- processing tasks. Computer System
  3. 3. • A complete computer system consists of four parts. oHardware oSoftware oData oUser COMPUTER BASICS Computer System
  4. 4. COMPUTER Hardware Input and Output Devices Processing Devices Storage Devices Software System Software Device Drivers Utilities Operating System Microsoft Windows Linux Machintosh Application Software COMPUTER BASICS Summary
  5. 5. • Hardware includes physical devices that make up your computer. Hardware is any part of the computer that you can physically touch. COMPUTER BASICS Computer System [1] Computer hardware
  6. 6. • Software is the set of instructions that your computer hardware executes to process information for you. In other words, software tells the computer what to do. COMPUTER BASICS Computer System
  7. 7. • Data: Data consist of individual facts or pieces of information. • Users: People that work with computer are called as users. NOTE: A computer’s primary job is to process these tiny pieces of data and to convert them into useful information. COMPUTER BASICS Computer System
  8. 8. • Using all its parts together, a computer converts data into information by performing various actions on the data. These actions are: o receiving data (input) o processing the data according to instructions (process) o displaying the resulting information to the user (output) o storing the results. (storage) COMPUTER BASICS Information Processing Cycle
  9. 9. • Data: Data consist of the raw facts and figures that are being processed into information. • Information: Information is data that has been summarized or manipulated for the use of decision making. COMPUTER BASICS Information Processing Cycle
  10. 10. COMPUTER BASICS Information Processing Cycle Input-output cycle
  11. 11. • Input: During this part of the cycle the computer accepts the data from particular sources, such as the user or a program, for processing. COMPUTER BASICS Information Processing Cycle
  12. 12. • Processing: Processing is the manipulation that a computer does to transform data into information. • There are 2 types of operations: 4 + 16 = 20 Logic 728 > 546 Arithmetic Operations Logical Operations COMPUTER BASICS Information Processing Cycle
  13. 13. • Output: A computer may be required to display the results of its processes such as: o Text o Numbers o Graphics o Sounds COMPUTER BASICS Information Processing Cycle
  14. 14. • Storage: The computer stores the results of its processing on a disk, tape, or some other kind of storage medium. • Storage is of two types: o temporary storage (primary storage) o permanent storage (secondary storage). COMPUTER BASICS Information Processing Cycle
  15. 15. • Primary storage or memory is the internal circuitry that temporarily holds data waiting to be processed. • Secondary storage refers to the device and media that stores data or information permanently. A floppy disk (diskette), flash drive, solid state drives or a hard disk are some examples of this kind of storage. COMPUTER BASICS Information Processing Cycle
  16. 16. • A computer’s hardware devices can be classified into one of four categories: o Processor o Memory o Input and Output o Storage • Communication is another important ability that the computers have which extends the functionalities of the computers. for Processing Action for Input and Output Actions for Storage Action COMPUTER BASICS Information Processing Cycle
  17. 17. • Processing Devices o The procedure that transforms raw data into useful information is called processing. o To perform this transformation, computer uses two components: the processor and memory. COMPUTER BASICS Essential Computer Hardware
  18. 18. • Processing Devices o Processor: Central Processing Unit (CPU) o Memory • Random Access Memory (RAM) • Read Only Memory (ROM) COMPUTER BASICS Essential Computer Hardware
  19. 19. • Memory o RAM: RAM holds data and program instructions temporarily while the CPU works with them. IMPORTANT NOTE: RAM is volatile, meaning that it loses its contents when the computer is shut off or if there is power failure. COMPUTER BASICS Essential Computer Hardware
  20. 20. • RAM has a great impact on the speed and power of a computer. The more RAM a computer has, the more it can do and the faster it can perform certain tasks. • The most common measurement unit for describing a computer’s memory is the byte. COMPUTER BASICS Essential Computer Hardware
  21. 21. • A bit is an electronic signal which is either on (1) or off (0). It is the smallest unit of information that the computer uses. A bit might be called the "on/off" unit of information. • Each byte (8 bits) means something to the computer. Bit On/Off Byte 8 Bits Kilobyte (KB) 1024 Byte Megabyte (MB) 1024 Kilobyte Gigabyte (GB) 1024 Megabyte COMPUTER BASICS Essential Computer Hardware
  22. 22. • Memory o ROM: Unlike RAM, ROM permanently stores its data, even when the computer is turned off. ROM holds instructions that the computer needs to operate. o Unlike RAM, ROM is not writable. IMPORTANT NOTE: ROM is called non-volatile memory because it never loses its contents. COMPUTER BASICS Essential Computer Hardware
  23. 23. • Input and Output Devices o Input: Devices which are used to enter data into a computer for processing e.g. from a keyboard or from a file stored on the disk. o Output : Devices which are used to display result of processing data; information is sent to the monitor screen /printer or is stored on the disk or is sent to another computer in a network. Input Output COMPUTER BASICS Essential Computer Hardware
  24. 24. • Common Input Hardware oKeyboard oPointing Devices: Mouse, Joystick, Touchpad etc. o Mechanical / Optical Mouse oScanner oMicrophone oWebcam COMPUTER BASICS Essential Computer Hardware
  25. 25. • Common Output Hardware oMonitor oPrinter IMPORTANT NOTE: While buying a monitor several specifications needed to be checked: Size, Resolution, Refresh Rate COMPUTER BASICS Essential Computer Hardware
  26. 26. • Storage Devices o To function properly a computer needs a medium to keep program files permanently when they are not in use or when the computer is turned off. o There are three main types of computer storage: magnetic, optical and flash memories. COMPUTER BASICS Essential Computer Hardware
  27. 27. • Magnetic Storage o There are many types of storage devices for computers, but the most common one is the magnetic disk. o Magnetic disks have read/write heads, which are used to read data from the disk or write data onto the disk. IMPORTANT NOTE: The device that holds a disk is called a disk drive. Some disks are fixed and cannot be removed; other kinds of drives enable you to remove and replace disks. COMPUTER BASICS Essential Computer Hardware
  28. 28. • Magnetic Storage o Hard disk : The hard disk serves as the computer’s primary filing cabinet because it can store far more data than a diskette can contain. o Floppy diskette: Diskettes are used to load data onto the hard disk, to share data with other users, and to make up copies of the data on the hard disk. COMPUTER BASICS Essential Computer Hardware
  29. 29. • Optical Storage: Devices that use lasers to read data from or write data to the reflective surface of an optical disc. o CD-ROM drive: Small, portable devices to save video and computer data. oCD-Recordable (CD-R) oCD-ReWritable (CD-RW) o DVD (Digital Video Disc) Specification CD DVD Diameter 12cm 12cm Thickness 12mm 12mm Total Capacity aprox. 650Mb 1.4-8Gb Rotation Speed aprox. 500 rpm aprox. 1600 rpm COMPUTER BASICS Essential Computer Hardware
  30. 30. o Blu-ray Disc (BD): The new version of optical storage device. oThe new formats like HD (high resolution video) can be saved in a single disc with high capacity. Physical Size Single Layer Capacity Dual Layers Capacity 12 cm, single layer 25 GB 50 GB 12 cm, double layers 50 GB 100 GB 8 cm, single layer 7.8 GB 15.6 GB 8 cm, double layer 15.6 GB 31.2 GB COMPUTER BASICS Essential Computer Hardware
  31. 31. o Blu-ray Disc vs DVD Specification DVD Blu-ray Disc Capacity 4.7 GB (Single layer) 8.5 GB (Double layer) 25 GB (Single layer) 50 GB (Double layer) Video Capacity Standard definition: 3 hours Standard definition: 23 hours, High definition: 5.6-8.5 hours Used laser Red laser Blue laser COMPUTER BASICS Essential Computer Hardware
  32. 32. • Flash Memory: Flash memory is a non-volatile computer memory that can be electrically read and written. • It is a technology that is primarily used in memory cards, USB flash drives. It allows data to be easily transferred from one machine to another. Software drivers are not required in the latest operating systems. Secure Digital Card Compact Flash Card xD Picture Card Smart Media Card COMPUTER BASICS Essential Computer Hardware
  33. 33. • Ports: Sockets at the back of a computer used to plug in external devices such as a modem, mouse, scanner, or printer. COMPUTER BASICS Essential Computer Hardware
  34. 34. Serial port Main power This port is used to connect main power A standard connector and protocol that lets you attach devices such as modems to your computer. NOTE: USB ports can be used for mouse, keyboard, printer and modem connections A port that is used to connect monitor. Parallel port A port designed to connect printer VGA Port COMPUTER BASICS Essential Computer Hardware
  35. 35. USB port You can connect USB devices, such as flash disks, via USB ports. You do not need to install any driver to use it. HDMI and DVI ports HDMI and DVI ports are used to connect display devices. They provides higher resolution displays. HDMI also can transfer sounds to output devices.HDMI DVI This port is used to connect mouse This port is used to connect keyboardKeyboard Mouse COMPUTER BASICS Essential Computer Hardware
  36. 36. Audio ports (jacks) are for microphone, auxiliary and speaker or headphones. Ethernet port Network Interface Card (NIC) also referred as “network adapter” is a printed circuit board. It contains necessary hardware used to connect a computer to network. Audio jacks COMPUTER BASICS Essential Computer Hardware
  37. 37. • Wireless Ports: While using wireless devices, you don’t need any wire or connectors. The connection is established in the following ways: o Infrared Data Association (IrDa) uses infra red lights work similar to remote TV controller. o Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances. o Wireless Fidelity (WiFi) is a technology that allows an electronic device to exchange data or connect to the internet wirelessly. o Near Field Communication (NFC) establishes radio communication between devices by touching them together or bringing them into proximity, usually no more than a few inches. COMPUTER BASICS Essential Computer Hardware
  38. 38. • Software o Application Software o System Software COMPUTER BASICS Software
  39. 39. • Application Software allows you to perform specific information-processing tasks such as o Writing a term paper o Creating slides for a presentation o Editing pictures • Examples: o MS Office o Adobe Photoshop o Open Office o Skype COMPUTER BASICS Software
  40. 40. • System Software: There are three basic components of system software o Operating Systems: computing system. o Device Drivers: control peripheral devices. o Utility Programs: support, enhance, or expand existing programs in a computer system. IMPORTANT NOTE: We interact mainly with the application software that functions with the system software which controls the hardware. COMPUTER BASICS Software
  41. 41. • Most Common Operating System(OS) o Macintosh (Mac OS):The latest version is MAC OS X Snow Leopard. o Microsoft Windows: Windows 7, Windows 8, Vista, XP, NT, 98… o Linux: Ubuntu, Debian, Pardus (Turkish variation of Linux) Windows Linux Mac Os X Pros Pros Pros Runs on a wide range of hardware Runs on a wide range of hardware Easy to install Has largest market share Has largest number of interface types Best GUI Has many built-in utilities Can be used as server or desktop PC OS Secure and stable Cons Cons Cons Security Problems Limited support for games Supports only Apple computer Not efficient used as a server OS Limited commercial applications available Base hardware more expensive than other platforms Have to reboot every time a network configuration is changed Can be difficult to learn Fewer utilities available COMPUTER BASICS Software
  42. 42. • Device Drivers: Specialized software programs that allow input and output devices to communicate with the rest of the computer system. If you buy a new peripheral device (e.g. a mouse/scanner), its package will include a device installer for the device (on a CD/DVD). • Utility (Service) Programs: perform tasks related to the control and allocation of computer resources. They enhance existing functions or provide services not supplied by other system software programs. Norton is an example for service programs. COMPUTER BASICS Software
  43. 43. • PDA (Personal Digital Assistant): A mobile device that functions as a personal information manager (connecting internet, web browser, media player) COMPUTER BASICS New Technologies & Devices
  44. 44. • Smart Phones: combines the functionalities of a PDA and a cell phone. o Operating Systems of Smart Phones: Symbian^3, IOS, Android o Technical Properties: GPS, Bluetooth, WiFi, 3G COMPUTER BASICS New Technologies & Devices
  45. 45. • Tablet PC o Portable o Running Android or IOS o Running applications distributed by Android or IOS market o Similar to smart phones but has a wider screen. It provides users a better mobile platform to work with. COMPUTER BASICS New Technologies & Devices
  46. 46. Property PDA Smart Phone Tablet PC WIFI Yes Yes Yes 3G /4G Yes Yes Yes Installing software Yes Yes Yes Interface Keyboard or Touch screen Keyboard or touch screen Touch screen Size Small Small Medium/Large COMPUTER BASICS New Technologies & Devices
  47. 47. • Go to your desktop • Right-click on My Computer Icon • Select Properties from the pop-up menu • See the properties of your computer. NOTE: If you buy a new software, it should be compatible with your hardware to run properly. Check the software’s "compatibility requirements" to see whether your computer would run it properly or not. COMPUTER BASICS Let’s Do It Together
  48. 48. COMPUTER BASICS References • ©This lecture was prepared by using PETER NORTON’S INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS 6th Edition for teaching purposes. • [1] http://ademocut.com/bilgisayar-donanimi-ve-cevre-birimleri/

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