Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Touria Eaton, Ph.D.
State Extension Specialist
Lincoln University of Missouri
eatont@lincolnu.edu
Soil Fertility Managemen...
Plants need:
Food
Air
Water
Soil provides
food, air and
water to plants
P
N
Zn
Ca
K
Mo
Ni
Mg
B
Cl
Cu
S Fe
Table 1: Plant nutrients
Nutrient Symbol Function in plants
Nitrogen N protein, amino ac...
P
NO3-
Zn
Ca++
K+
Mo
Ni++
Mg++
B
Cl-
Cu++
S Fe
Table 1: Plant nutrients
Nutrient Symbol Function in plants
Nitrogen N prot...
P
N
Zn
Ca
K
Mo
Ni
Mg
B
Cl
Cu
S Fe
Unmarketable crop
Economic loss
Reduced yield
Corn
Food
Plant Nutrients
P
N
Zn
Ca
K
Mo
Ni
Mg
B
Cl
Cu
S Fe
Unmarketable crop
Economic loss
Reduced yield
Cucumber
Food
Plant Nutrients
P
N
Zn
Ca
K
Mo
Ni
Mg
B
Cl
Cu
S Fe
Unmarketable crop
Economic loss
Broccoli
Food
Plant Nutrients
P
N
Zn
Ca
K
Mo
Ni
Mg
B
Cl
Cu
S Fe
Unmarketable crop
Economic loss
Cauliflower
Food
Plant Nutrients
P
N
Zn
Ca
K
Mo
Ni
Mg
B
Cl
Cu
S Fe
Reduced yield
Economic loss
Peas
Food
Plant Nutrients
P
N
Zn
Ca
K
Mo
Ni
Mg
B
Cl
Cu
S Fe
Unmarketable fruit
Economic loss
Strawberries
Food
Plant Nutrients
P
N
Zn
Ca
K
Mo
Ni
Mg
B
Cl
Cu
S Fe
Unmarketable crop
Economic loss
Reduced yield
Potatoes
Food
Plant Nutrients
P
N
Zn
Ca
K
Mo
Ni
Mg
B
Cl
Cu
S Fe
Unmarketable crop
Economic loss
Reduced yield
Tomatoes
Blossom-end rot
Food
Plant Nutrie...
P
N
Zn
Ca
K
Mo
Ni
Mg
B
Cl
Cu
S Fe
Unmarketable fruit
Economic loss
Cucumber
Food
Plant Nutrients
Soil Fertility
Management
 Avoid unmarketable
crops
 Avoid reduced yield
 Avoid economic losses
Goal
P
N
Zn
Ca
K
Mo
Ni
Mg
B
Cl
Cu
S Fe
Soil Fertility
Management
1. Nutrients in the soil in
appropriate quantities
2. Nutrient...
Soil Test
Table 1:
Contact information of Missouri State laboratories approved for soil testing
Soil
Test
report
Soil Test
report
Conventional
Organic
P
N
Zn
Ca
K
Mo
Ni
Mg
B
Cl
Cu
S Fe
Soil Fertility
Management
1. Nutrients in the soil in
appropriate quantities
Needed
Soil Fertility
Management
1. Nutrients in the soil in
appropriate quantities
2. Nutrients in available
forms
Needed
P
NO3-...
P
NO3-
Zn
Ca++
K+
Mo
Ni++
Mg++
B
Cl-
Cu++
S Fe
pH of the soil
Indicative of nutrient
availability in the soil
P
NO3-
Zn
Ca++
K+
Mo
Ni++
Mg++
B
Cl-
Cu++
S Fe
P
NO3-
Zn
Ca++
K+
Mo
Ni++
Mg++
B
Cl-
Cu++
S Fe
Soil Fertility
Management
Needed
Soil Test
Soil Test Report
1. Nutrients in the soil in
appropriate quantities
2. Nutrient...
Soil Fertility
Management
Needed
Soil Test
Soil Test Report
1. Nutrients in the soil in
appropriate quantities
2. Nutrient...
CaCO3
Soil Fertility
Management
Needed
Soil Test
Soil Test Report
1. Nutrients in the soil in
appropriate quantities
2. Nu...
CaCO3
Soil Fertility
Management
Needed
Soil Test
Soil Test Report
1. Nutrients in the soil in
appropriate quantities
2. Nu...
Soil Fertility
Management
Needed
Soil Test
Soil Test Report
1. Nutrients in the soil in
appropriate quantities
2. Nutrient...
Soil Fertility
Management
Needed
Soil Test
Soil Test Report
1. Nutrients in the soil in
appropriate quantities
2. Nutrient...
Soil Fertility
Management
Needed
Soil Test
Soil Test Report
1. Nutrients in the soil in
appropriate quantities
2. Nutrient...
When the pH is adjusted
pH
adjusted
P
N
Zn
Ca
K
Mo
Ni
Mg
B
Cl
Cu
S Fe
H2PO4--
NO3-, NH4+
Zn++
Ca++
K+
MoO42-
Ni++
Mg++
H2B...
Soil Fertility
Management
1. Nutrients in the soil in
appropriate quantities
2. Nutrients in available
forms
3. Nutrients ...
Soil Fertility
Management
1. Nutrients in the soil in
appropriate quantities
2. Nutrients in available
forms
3. Nutrients ...
Soil Fertility
Management
1. Nutrients in the soil in
appropriate quantities
2. Nutrients in available
forms
3. Nutrients ...
Accumulation of salt
Accumulated salts
hurt crops
Loss of crops
How to deal with salt buildup in high tunnels
Cover crops scavenge
nutrients and avoid salt
built up
Rye in winter was suc...
How to deal with salt buildup in high tunnels
Cover crops improve soil
structure
Another benefit
Air
How to deal with salt buildup in high tunnels
Rolling the sides up to
the peaks about every
third winter
Farmers’ experien...
How to deal with salt buildup in high tunnels
Soil drainage – 3 to 6” water
(one day continuous rain)Farmers’ experience
How to deal with salt
buildup in high tunnels
Moveable High Tunnels
better than
Stationary High Tunnel
Three Positions MHT...
How to deal with salt
buildup in high tunnels
Less salt buildup
Three Positions MHT
better than
Two Positions MHT
Rotation
Heavy feeder
Heavy giver
Moderate feeder
 Open field
cover crops
 Protect soil
against
erosion
 Add organic
matter to
t...
Soil Amendments
Soil Amendments
A soil amendment is a
material that can
improve soil physically
or chemically, making
it more suitable for...
• Low to medium permeability
• Medium to High water retention
• Spread and incorporate
Soil Amendment
Compost
Good for
• A...
• chicken excrement and pine shaving
bedding
• Incorporated in the soil before planting
Good for
• Soil with
nematodes
Soi...
Cotton field affected by Root-knot nematodes
Cotton field affected by Root-knot nematodes
Roots are not effective in absorbing water and
taking up nutrients
What do
Ne...
Nematodedensity
Chicken litter increase
Nematode population
decreases
Plant weight increases
As the chicken litter increas...
Nematodedensity
Chicken litter increase
Nematode population
decreases
Beneficial Fungi and bacteria
increase
Chicken litte...
• Low to medium permeability
• High water retention
Good for
• sandy soil(Vestberg et al. 2005)
Soil Amendment
Peat Moss
• Low to medium permeability
• Medium water retention
Good for
• All soils
Soil Amendment
Aged Manure
Glucosinolate
Good for
• Soils infected with
Rhizoctonia solani (fungus)
Soil Amendment
Mustard Seed Meal
Glucosinolate
Effect:
• Decreased population of Rhizoctonia
solani in the soil
• Increased population of bacteria
and othe...
Glucosinolate
Good for
• Soils infected with Gummy
Stem Blight
Soil Amendment
Cabbage residue
Glucosinolate
Effect:
• Decreased population of Gummy
Stem Blight in the soil
Recommendation:
• Rotation with cabbage when...
Good for
• Acid soils
• Droughty soils
• Adds nutrients to the soil
• Alkaline material
• Silt and clay size
particles ?
S...
• Add organic matter to the soil
• Adds N to the soil
Red clover
Fava beans
Hairy Indigo
Lespediza
Soil Amendment
Legume c...
• Add organic matter to the soilBuckwheat
Pearl Millet
Sudangrass
Soil Amendment
Non-Legume cover crops
Conclusion
Food
Air
Water
Cover crops, peat moss,
compost
Irrigation
Fertilizers, lime or sulfur
 Soil-born Diseases
 So...
Conclusion
Soil Health and Cover Crops
 Especially important in High Tunnel
 Salt Buildup
 Moveable High Tunnel
 Rolli...
References
Riegel, C. and J. P. Noe. 2000. Chicken Litter Soil Amendment Effects on Soilborne
Microbes and Meloidogyne inc...
2017 3 9 eaton soil fertility management and plant nutrition
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

2017 3 9 eaton soil fertility management and plant nutrition

16 views

Published on

American Small Farm Conference 2017

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

2017 3 9 eaton soil fertility management and plant nutrition

  1. 1. Touria Eaton, Ph.D. State Extension Specialist Lincoln University of Missouri eatont@lincolnu.edu Soil Fertility Management and Plant Nutrition
  2. 2. Plants need: Food Air Water Soil provides food, air and water to plants
  3. 3. P N Zn Ca K Mo Ni Mg B Cl Cu S Fe Table 1: Plant nutrients Nutrient Symbol Function in plants Nitrogen N protein, amino acid Phosphorus P Nucleic acid, ATP Potassium K Catalyst, ion transport Calcium Ca Cell wall component Magnesium Mg Part of chlorophyll Sulfur S Amino acid Boron B Cell wall component Chlorine Cl Photosynthesis reactions Copper Cu Component of enzymes Iron Fe Chlorophyll synthesis Manganese Mn Activates enzyme Molybdenum Mo Involved in N fixation Nickel Ni Component of enzymes Zinc Zn Activates enzymes Food Plant Nutrients All nutrients available Appropriate concentrations
  4. 4. P NO3- Zn Ca++ K+ Mo Ni++ Mg++ B Cl- Cu++ S Fe Table 1: Plant nutrients Nutrient Symbol Function in plants Nitrogen N protein, amino acid Phosphorus P Nucleic acid, ATP Potassium K Catalyst, ion transport Calcium Ca Cell wall component Magnesium Mg Part of chlorophyll Sulfur S Amino acid Boron B Cell wall component Chlorine Cl Photosynthesis reactions Copper Cu Component of enzymes Iron Fe Chlorophyll synthesis Manganese Mn Activates enzyme Molybdenum Mo Involved in N fixation Nickel Ni Component of enzymes Zinc Zn Activates enzymes All nutrients available Appropriate concentrations Available form Food Plant Nutrients
  5. 5. P N Zn Ca K Mo Ni Mg B Cl Cu S Fe Unmarketable crop Economic loss Reduced yield Corn Food Plant Nutrients
  6. 6. P N Zn Ca K Mo Ni Mg B Cl Cu S Fe Unmarketable crop Economic loss Reduced yield Cucumber Food Plant Nutrients
  7. 7. P N Zn Ca K Mo Ni Mg B Cl Cu S Fe Unmarketable crop Economic loss Broccoli Food Plant Nutrients
  8. 8. P N Zn Ca K Mo Ni Mg B Cl Cu S Fe Unmarketable crop Economic loss Cauliflower Food Plant Nutrients
  9. 9. P N Zn Ca K Mo Ni Mg B Cl Cu S Fe Reduced yield Economic loss Peas Food Plant Nutrients
  10. 10. P N Zn Ca K Mo Ni Mg B Cl Cu S Fe Unmarketable fruit Economic loss Strawberries Food Plant Nutrients
  11. 11. P N Zn Ca K Mo Ni Mg B Cl Cu S Fe Unmarketable crop Economic loss Reduced yield Potatoes Food Plant Nutrients
  12. 12. P N Zn Ca K Mo Ni Mg B Cl Cu S Fe Unmarketable crop Economic loss Reduced yield Tomatoes Blossom-end rot Food Plant Nutrients
  13. 13. P N Zn Ca K Mo Ni Mg B Cl Cu S Fe Unmarketable fruit Economic loss Cucumber Food Plant Nutrients
  14. 14. Soil Fertility Management  Avoid unmarketable crops  Avoid reduced yield  Avoid economic losses Goal
  15. 15. P N Zn Ca K Mo Ni Mg B Cl Cu S Fe Soil Fertility Management 1. Nutrients in the soil in appropriate quantities 2. Nutrients in available forms 3. Nutrients are mobile in the soil and in the plant 4. Healthy root system Needed
  16. 16. Soil Test
  17. 17. Table 1: Contact information of Missouri State laboratories approved for soil testing
  18. 18. Soil Test report
  19. 19. Soil Test report
  20. 20. Conventional
  21. 21. Organic
  22. 22. P N Zn Ca K Mo Ni Mg B Cl Cu S Fe Soil Fertility Management 1. Nutrients in the soil in appropriate quantities Needed
  23. 23. Soil Fertility Management 1. Nutrients in the soil in appropriate quantities 2. Nutrients in available forms Needed P NO3- Zn Ca++ K+ Mo Ni++ Mg++ B Cl- Cu++ S Fe Soil pH
  24. 24. P NO3- Zn Ca++ K+ Mo Ni++ Mg++ B Cl- Cu++ S Fe pH of the soil Indicative of nutrient availability in the soil
  25. 25. P NO3- Zn Ca++ K+ Mo Ni++ Mg++ B Cl- Cu++ S Fe
  26. 26. P NO3- Zn Ca++ K+ Mo Ni++ Mg++ B Cl- Cu++ S Fe
  27. 27. Soil Fertility Management Needed Soil Test Soil Test Report 1. Nutrients in the soil in appropriate quantities 2. Nutrients in available forms
  28. 28. Soil Fertility Management Needed Soil Test Soil Test Report 1. Nutrients in the soil in appropriate quantities 2. Nutrients in available forms pH of 5.5 - 6.5 Add lime if pH < 5.5 Add S if pH > 6.5 pH = 5.5-6.5
  29. 29. CaCO3 Soil Fertility Management Needed Soil Test Soil Test Report 1. Nutrients in the soil in appropriate quantities 2. Nutrients in available forms Use lime to increase the pH *CaMg(CO3)2 * Ca(OH)2 CaO
  30. 30. CaCO3 Soil Fertility Management Needed Soil Test Soil Test Report 1. Nutrients in the soil in appropriate quantities 2. Nutrients in available forms *CaMg(CO3)2 * Lime needs:  Contact with soil  Water Use lime to increase the pH
  31. 31. Soil Fertility Management Needed Soil Test Soil Test Report 1. Nutrients in the soil in appropriate quantities 2. Nutrients in available forms Use Sulfur to decrease the pH *
  32. 32. Soil Fertility Management Needed Soil Test Soil Test Report 1. Nutrients in the soil in appropriate quantities 2. Nutrients in available forms Use Sulfur to decrease the pH * Water, Temperature, and Microorganisms are important for S to work
  33. 33. Soil Fertility Management Needed Soil Test Soil Test Report 1. Nutrients in the soil in appropriate quantities 2. Nutrients in available forms Use Sulfur to decrease the pH * Water, Temperature, and Microorganisms are important for S to work Apply S in the fall Test your soil in the fall
  34. 34. When the pH is adjusted pH adjusted P N Zn Ca K Mo Ni Mg B Cl Cu S Fe H2PO4-- NO3-, NH4+ Zn++ Ca++ K+ MoO42- Ni++ Mg++ H2BO3- Cl- Cu++ SO4-- Fe++
  35. 35. Soil Fertility Management 1. Nutrients in the soil in appropriate quantities 2. Nutrients in available forms 3. Nutrients are mobile in the soil and in the plant Needed P NO3- Zn Ca++ K+ Mo Ni++ Mg++ B Cl- Cu++ S Fe
  36. 36. Soil Fertility Management 1. Nutrients in the soil in appropriate quantities 2. Nutrients in available forms 3. Nutrients are mobile in the soil and in the plant Needed P NO3- Zn Ca++ K+ Mo Ni++ Mg++ B Cl- Cu++ S Fe Water
  37. 37. Soil Fertility Management 1. Nutrients in the soil in appropriate quantities 2. Nutrients in available forms 3. Nutrients are mobile in the soil and in the plant Needed Water Supply
  38. 38. Accumulation of salt
  39. 39. Accumulated salts hurt crops Loss of crops
  40. 40. How to deal with salt buildup in high tunnels Cover crops scavenge nutrients and avoid salt built up Rye in winter was successful. No need to water it in the winter Farmers’ experience
  41. 41. How to deal with salt buildup in high tunnels Cover crops improve soil structure Another benefit Air
  42. 42. How to deal with salt buildup in high tunnels Rolling the sides up to the peaks about every third winter Farmers’ experience
  43. 43. How to deal with salt buildup in high tunnels Soil drainage – 3 to 6” water (one day continuous rain)Farmers’ experience
  44. 44. How to deal with salt buildup in high tunnels Moveable High Tunnels better than Stationary High Tunnel Three Positions MHT better than Two Positions MHT
  45. 45. How to deal with salt buildup in high tunnels Less salt buildup Three Positions MHT better than Two Positions MHT Rotation
  46. 46. Heavy feeder Heavy giver Moderate feeder  Open field cover crops  Protect soil against erosion  Add organic matter to the soil Sunn hemp (summer cover crop) Tillage radish (Winter cover crops) Moveable High Tunnels better than Stationary High Tunnel  Rotation
  47. 47. Soil Amendments
  48. 48. Soil Amendments A soil amendment is a material that can improve soil physically or chemically, making it more suitable for plant growth.
  49. 49. • Low to medium permeability • Medium to High water retention • Spread and incorporate Soil Amendment Compost Good for • All soils
  50. 50. • chicken excrement and pine shaving bedding • Incorporated in the soil before planting Good for • Soil with nematodes Soil Amendment Chicken Litter
  51. 51. Cotton field affected by Root-knot nematodes
  52. 52. Cotton field affected by Root-knot nematodes Roots are not effective in absorbing water and taking up nutrients What do Nematodes do? Modified roots
  53. 53. Nematodedensity Chicken litter increase Nematode population decreases Plant weight increases As the chicken litter increase (Riegel and Noe, 2000) What does Chicken Litter do?
  54. 54. Nematodedensity Chicken litter increase Nematode population decreases Beneficial Fungi and bacteria increase Chicken litter increase Parasitism; toxic substances (Riegel and Noe, 2000)
  55. 55. • Low to medium permeability • High water retention Good for • sandy soil(Vestberg et al. 2005) Soil Amendment Peat Moss
  56. 56. • Low to medium permeability • Medium water retention Good for • All soils Soil Amendment Aged Manure
  57. 57. Glucosinolate Good for • Soils infected with Rhizoctonia solani (fungus) Soil Amendment Mustard Seed Meal
  58. 58. Glucosinolate Effect: • Decreased population of Rhizoctonia solani in the soil • Increased population of bacteria and other fungi in the soil Cohena et al., M.F., 2005 What does Mustard Seed Meal do?
  59. 59. Glucosinolate Good for • Soils infected with Gummy Stem Blight Soil Amendment Cabbage residue
  60. 60. Glucosinolate Effect: • Decreased population of Gummy Stem Blight in the soil Recommendation: • Rotation with cabbage when the soil is infected Soil Amendment Cabbage residue
  61. 61. Good for • Acid soils • Droughty soils • Adds nutrients to the soil • Alkaline material • Silt and clay size particles ? Soil Amendment Coal Fly Ash
  62. 62. • Add organic matter to the soil • Adds N to the soil Red clover Fava beans Hairy Indigo Lespediza Soil Amendment Legume cover crops
  63. 63. • Add organic matter to the soilBuckwheat Pearl Millet Sudangrass Soil Amendment Non-Legume cover crops
  64. 64. Conclusion Food Air Water Cover crops, peat moss, compost Irrigation Fertilizers, lime or sulfur  Soil-born Diseases  Soil Amendments  Crop Rotation  Cover crops
  65. 65. Conclusion Soil Health and Cover Crops  Especially important in High Tunnel  Salt Buildup  Moveable High Tunnel  Rolling up of the sides to the Soil  Soil Drainage  Cover crops  Soil-born Diseases  Soil Amendments  Crop Rotation  Cover crops
  66. 66. References Riegel, C. and J. P. Noe. 2000. Chicken Litter Soil Amendment Effects on Soilborne Microbes and Meloidogyne incognita on Cotton. Plant Disease 84(12): 1275-1281 Cohena, M.F., H. Yamasakib, and M. Mazzolaa. 2005. Brassica napus seed meal soil amendment modifies microbial community structure, nitric oxide production and incidence of Rhizoctonia root rot. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 37:1215–1227 Chan. K. Y., A.E. L. Van ZwietenB, I. MeszarosA, A. DownieC,D, and S. Joseph. 2007. Agronomic values of greenwaste biochar as a soil amendment. Australian Journal of Soil Research 45:629–634 Vestberg, M., K. Saari, . S. Kukkonen, and T. Hurme. 2005. Mycotrophy of crops in rotation and soil amendment with peat influence the abundance and effectiveness of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in field soil. Mycorrhiza 15:447–458 End

×