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Reaching the Next Generations in bilingual Chinese churches Kenneth P. Carlson April 19, 2008
Reaching the Next Generations <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul>
Introduction <ul><li>Challenges facing Chinese churches </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of this study </li></ul>
Reaching the Next Generations <ul><li>  Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Part I: Background </li></ul>
Immigration Demographics <ul><li>Two waves of Chinese immigration </li></ul>
OBC/ABC Population Chart
Immigration Demographics <ul><li>Two waves of Chinese immigration </li></ul><ul><li>Growth in the number of Chinese church...
Who are the ABCs? <ul><li>Most ABCs are young </li></ul>
Based on analysis of 5% sample microdata using Data Ferret 1950 1965
Who are the ABCs? <ul><li>Most ABCs are young </li></ul><ul><li>Most ABCs have immigrant parents </li></ul><ul><li>Second ...
Most immigrant families in middle class Most immigrant families in lower class Many immigrant parents have graduate degree...
Many see themselves as “Asian Americans” Many see themselves as “ABCs” Seen as the “model minority” Seen as unwelcome temp...
Who are the ABCs? <ul><li>Most ABCs are young </li></ul><ul><li>Most ABCs have immigrant parents </li></ul><ul><li>Second ...
The Focus of this Study <ul><li>Bilingual Chinese churches </li></ul><ul><li>Second wave churches </li></ul><ul><li>Unreac...
Reaching the Next Generations <ul><li>  Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>  Part I: Background </li></ul><ul><li>Part II: Eng...
Stages of Development <ul><li>Stage one: a mono-lingual church </li></ul><ul><li>Stage two: English children’s ministry </...
Models of Ministry <ul><li>As the English Ministry matures, it becomes necessary to make some changes in the church leader...
Stage 1 Org Chart
Stage 2 Org Chart
Stage 3 Org Chart
Stage 4 Org Chart
CFC Structural Development <ul><li>A Tale of Two Mailboxes. . . </li></ul>
A Tale of Two Mailboxes
 
 
Paradigm Shift <ul><li>In order for the English Ministry to reach maturity, there needs to be a  paradigm shift  in how th...
Paradigm Shift Missions Dept./Church Plant  Education Dept. Reaching  Retaining  Eng. speaking Congregation  Youth Group  ...
If the English speaking congregation were to become a separate entity, it would be considered a birth If the English speak...
Treated as a Shepherd  Treated as an Employee/Hired Hand  Top Priority - Preparing the Soil  Top Priority - Finding the Ri...
Taken from an article by Robert Goette Both are Missions Evangelism of the 2nd Gen. & Overseas Missions Differ Multiethnic...
Leadership Development <ul><li>Why leadership is the key. . . </li></ul>
The Resource Pyramid Leadership Co-workers Outreach Ministry
The Resource Pyramid Leadership Co-workers Outreach Ministry
The Resource Pyramid Leadership Co-workers Outreach Ministry
Leadership Values <ul><li>The Priority of Character </li></ul><ul><li>The Gift of Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership ...
Leadership Development Strategy <ul><li>Select the right people </li></ul><ul><li>Provide good training </li></ul><ul><li>...
Leadership Formation <ul><li>How can we prepare leaders so that they will be ready when we need them? </li></ul>
Leadership and Culture <ul><li>Culture affects. . . </li></ul><ul><li>How leaders are perceived </li></ul><ul><li>Expectat...
Reaching the Next Generations <ul><li>  Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>  Part I: Background </li></ul><ul><li>  Part II: E...
Reaching Young Adults <ul><li>Why it is essential to reach English speaking adults </li></ul><ul><li>The need for ownershi...
The Need for Ownership <ul><li>“[It] is a turn-off when the English side is viewed as secondary to the Chinese side.  A co...
The Need for Ownership <ul><li>“Consider the English side as equal, not just as a service where only youth (teenagers) att...
The Need for Ownership <ul><li>“I think if Chinese churches can put aside the position of mothering or heading the English...
The Need for Ownership <ul><li>“Don’t look down on them as ‘little kids’” </li></ul>
The Need for Ownership <ul><li>“[Young adults] want to be treated as adult, but sometimes the Chinese side can unintention...
The Need for Ownership <ul><li>“Find those post-college kids who are faithful, mature and capable, and let them run the sh...
Reaching Young Adults <ul><li>Why it is essential to reach English speaking adults </li></ul><ul><li>The need for ownershi...
Possible EM Visions <ul><li>Care for the children of the immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>Raise up workers to reach Chinese </...
Evaluating the Vision <ul><li>Does the vision provide a reason for post-college ABC adults to stay in the church? </li></u...
Evaluating the Vision <ul><li>Does the board and CM leadership understand and support the vision of the EM? </li></ul><ul>...
Ethnic Identity <ul><li>How does ethnic identity affect church choice? </li></ul>
New Church Type Chart
Ethnic Identity <ul><li>How does ethnic identity affect church choice? </li></ul><ul><li>The identity crisis of the second...
Multi-ethnic Churches? <ul><li>Why are multi-ethnic churches so popular? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are multi-ethnic churches s...
Unity and Diversity <ul><li>What is unity? </li></ul><ul><li>Tension between unity and diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Degree ...
Reaching the Next Generations <ul><li>  Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>  Part I: Background </li></ul><ul><li>  Part II: E...
The Way Forward <ul><li>Embrace the multi-cultural reality of the Chinese church </li></ul><ul><li>Accept the reality of c...
Reaching the Next Generations in bilingual Chinese churches Kenneth P. Carlson April 19, 2008
Other Information <ul><li>For more information on these topics, see my blog: http://reflections.cyberpastor.net, especiall...
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Dissertation Presentation Slides

  1. 1. Reaching the Next Generations in bilingual Chinese churches Kenneth P. Carlson April 19, 2008
  2. 2. Reaching the Next Generations <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Challenges facing Chinese churches </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of this study </li></ul>
  4. 4. Reaching the Next Generations <ul><li> Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Part I: Background </li></ul>
  5. 5. Immigration Demographics <ul><li>Two waves of Chinese immigration </li></ul>
  6. 6. OBC/ABC Population Chart
  7. 7. Immigration Demographics <ul><li>Two waves of Chinese immigration </li></ul><ul><li>Growth in the number of Chinese churches </li></ul>
  8. 8. Who are the ABCs? <ul><li>Most ABCs are young </li></ul>
  9. 9. Based on analysis of 5% sample microdata using Data Ferret 1950 1965
  10. 10. Who are the ABCs? <ul><li>Most ABCs are young </li></ul><ul><li>Most ABCs have immigrant parents </li></ul><ul><li>Second wave ABCs are significantly different from previous generations of ABCs </li></ul><ul><li>Some generalizations. . . </li></ul>
  11. 11. Most immigrant families in middle class Most immigrant families in lower class Many immigrant parents have graduate degrees Immigrant parents had little education Many parents are professionals Most parents were manual laborers 3rd gen. born 2000-present 3rd gen. born 1910-1940 2nd gen. born 1970-present 2nd gen. born 1880-1910 Peak immigration 1965-present Peak immigration 1850-1880 2nd Wave ABCs 1st Wave ABCs
  12. 12. Many see themselves as “Asian Americans” Many see themselves as “ABCs” Seen as the “model minority” Seen as unwelcome temporary workers Grew up in ethnically mixed suburbs Grew up in Chinatown Part of a growing and influential minority Part of a tiny minority Faced much less discrimination Faced severe racial discrimination 2nd Wave ABCs 1st Wave ABCs
  13. 13. Who are the ABCs? <ul><li>Most ABCs are young </li></ul><ul><li>Most ABCs have immigrant parents </li></ul><ul><li>Second wave ABCs are significantly different from previous generations of ABCs </li></ul><ul><li>The ABC “baby boom” is growing up </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Focus of this Study <ul><li>Bilingual Chinese churches </li></ul><ul><li>Second wave churches </li></ul><ul><li>Unreached ABCs and other AAs </li></ul>
  15. 15. Reaching the Next Generations <ul><li> Introduction </li></ul><ul><li> Part I: Background </li></ul><ul><li>Part II: English Ministry Development </li></ul>
  16. 16. Stages of Development <ul><li>Stage one: a mono-lingual church </li></ul><ul><li>Stage two: English children’s ministry </li></ul><ul><li>Stage three: English youth ministry </li></ul><ul><li>Stage four: English worship service </li></ul><ul><li>Stage five: Partnership (One church, two congregations) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Models of Ministry <ul><li>As the English Ministry matures, it becomes necessary to make some changes in the church leadership structure. . . </li></ul>
  18. 18. Stage 1 Org Chart
  19. 19. Stage 2 Org Chart
  20. 20. Stage 3 Org Chart
  21. 21. Stage 4 Org Chart
  22. 22. CFC Structural Development <ul><li>A Tale of Two Mailboxes. . . </li></ul>
  23. 23. A Tale of Two Mailboxes
  24. 26. Paradigm Shift <ul><li>In order for the English Ministry to reach maturity, there needs to be a paradigm shift in how the EM is understood. . . </li></ul>
  25. 27. Paradigm Shift Missions Dept./Church Plant Education Dept. Reaching Retaining Eng. speaking Congregation Youth Group English speaking Group English speaking Group Two or More People Groups One Family/One Ethnic Group Church Church The New Paradigm The Old Paradigm
  26. 28. If the English speaking congregation were to become a separate entity, it would be considered a birth If the English speaking congregation were to become a separate entity, it would be considered a divorce Church Beside a Church Church Within a Church Autonomy/Inter-Dependence Control/Dependence Multi-Ethnic Eng. Speaking Church Multi-Generational Ethnic Church Goal Goal The New Paradigm The Old Paradigm
  27. 29. Treated as a Shepherd Treated as an Employee/Hired Hand Top Priority - Preparing the Soil Top Priority - Finding the Right Leader Church Planter Youth/EM Pastor Leader Leader The New Paradigm The Old Paradigm
  28. 30. Taken from an article by Robert Goette Both are Missions Evangelism of the 2nd Gen. & Overseas Missions Differ Multiethnic Sensitive Ethnic Focus Also English Speaking Friends & Associates 2nd & 3rd Generation Target Group Target Group The New Paradigm The Old Paradigm
  29. 31. Leadership Development <ul><li>Why leadership is the key. . . </li></ul>
  30. 32. The Resource Pyramid Leadership Co-workers Outreach Ministry
  31. 33. The Resource Pyramid Leadership Co-workers Outreach Ministry
  32. 34. The Resource Pyramid Leadership Co-workers Outreach Ministry
  33. 35. Leadership Values <ul><li>The Priority of Character </li></ul><ul><li>The Gift of Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership Teams </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom and Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Loyalty and Commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Co-worker Care </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership Reproduction </li></ul>
  34. 36. Leadership Development Strategy <ul><li>Select the right people </li></ul><ul><li>Provide good training </li></ul><ul><li>Give them adequate support </li></ul><ul><li>Allow them freedom to carry out their ministry </li></ul>
  35. 37. Leadership Formation <ul><li>How can we prepare leaders so that they will be ready when we need them? </li></ul>
  36. 38. Leadership and Culture <ul><li>Culture affects. . . </li></ul><ul><li>How leaders are perceived </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations of leaders </li></ul><ul><li>How leadership is exercised </li></ul>
  37. 39. Reaching the Next Generations <ul><li> Introduction </li></ul><ul><li> Part I: Background </li></ul><ul><li> Part II: English Ministry Development </li></ul><ul><li>Part III: Reaching English Speaking Adults </li></ul>
  38. 40. Reaching Young Adults <ul><li>Why it is essential to reach English speaking adults </li></ul><ul><li>The need for ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Some comments from the college leadership survey. . . </li></ul>
  39. 41. The Need for Ownership <ul><li>“[It] is a turn-off when the English side is viewed as secondary to the Chinese side. A consequence of this thought is that the English side is seen as a glorified babysitting service.” </li></ul>
  40. 42. The Need for Ownership <ul><li>“Consider the English side as equal, not just as a service where only youth (teenagers) attend. We’re not babysitters!” </li></ul>
  41. 43. The Need for Ownership <ul><li>“I think if Chinese churches can put aside the position of mothering or heading the English congregation, it might keep the post-college attendees. If it were more of a partnership, maybe things will happen sooner than later.” </li></ul>
  42. 44. The Need for Ownership <ul><li>“Don’t look down on them as ‘little kids’” </li></ul>
  43. 45. The Need for Ownership <ul><li>“[Young adults] want to be treated as adult, but sometimes the Chinese side can unintentionally convey to the English side that they don’t know what’s best for the church.” </li></ul>
  44. 46. The Need for Ownership <ul><li>“Find those post-college kids who are faithful, mature and capable, and let them run the show.” </li></ul>
  45. 47. Reaching Young Adults <ul><li>Why it is essential to reach English speaking adults </li></ul><ul><li>The need for ownership </li></ul><ul><li>The Importance of vision </li></ul>
  46. 48. Possible EM Visions <ul><li>Care for the children of the immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>Raise up workers to reach Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>Reach their own peers with the Gospel </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural Great Commission ministry </li></ul>
  47. 49. Evaluating the Vision <ul><li>Does the vision provide a reason for post-college ABC adults to stay in the church? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the vision allow room for EM members to reach out to their non-Chinese friends and co-workers? </li></ul><ul><li>Will those in the EM who do not have any other family members in the church feel that they belong? </li></ul>
  48. 50. Evaluating the Vision <ul><li>Does the board and CM leadership understand and support the vision of the EM? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the church have an overall vision that encompasses both the EM and the CM? </li></ul>
  49. 51. Ethnic Identity <ul><li>How does ethnic identity affect church choice? </li></ul>
  50. 52. New Church Type Chart
  51. 53. Ethnic Identity <ul><li>How does ethnic identity affect church choice? </li></ul><ul><li>The identity crisis of the second generation </li></ul><ul><li>What attracts people to ethnic Chinese churches? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The homophily principle </li></ul></ul>
  52. 54. Multi-ethnic Churches? <ul><li>Why are multi-ethnic churches so popular? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are multi-ethnic churches so difficult to establish? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the place of ethnic churches? </li></ul>
  53. 55. Unity and Diversity <ul><li>What is unity? </li></ul><ul><li>Tension between unity and diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of integration </li></ul>
  54. 56. Reaching the Next Generations <ul><li> Introduction </li></ul><ul><li> Part I: Background </li></ul><ul><li> Part II: English Ministry Development </li></ul><ul><li> Part III: Reaching English Speaking Adults </li></ul><ul><li>The Way Forward </li></ul>
  55. 57. The Way Forward <ul><li>Embrace the multi-cultural reality of the Chinese church </li></ul><ul><li>Accept the reality of cultural assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a theology of ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>Give priority to the Great Commission </li></ul><ul><li>Broaden the outreach of the English Ministry </li></ul><ul><li>Discover the unique ministry niche for the EM </li></ul><ul><li>Plant new churches </li></ul>
  56. 58. Reaching the Next Generations in bilingual Chinese churches Kenneth P. Carlson April 19, 2008
  57. 59. Other Information <ul><li>For more information on these topics, see my blog: http://reflections.cyberpastor.net, especially the series “30 Days on the Chinese Church” </li></ul><ul><li>© 2008 Kenneth P. Carlson </li></ul>

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