1. Compare and contrast ancestry, nationality, ethnicity,
2. Describe the biological and social factors that shape
3. Explain how these concepts and their historical uses
give rise to heterogenous patterns of health in young
In what ways are ancestry,
nationality, ethnicity, and
Y-Chromosomal Adam Mitochondrial Eve
120,000 – 156,000 Years Ago 100,000 – 120,000 Years Ago
Most Recent Common Ancestor
3,500 - 15,000 Years Ago
A group of individuals with similar haplotypes
(i.e., genes inherited from a single parent) that
share a common ancestral lineage usually
dating back a few thousand years.
body hair &
Number of Genetic Loci Included
Walsh et al. “Global Skin Colour Prediction” (2017)
Haplotype frequency in European–Americans
Bamshad et al. “Deconstructing the relationship between genetics and race” (2004)
0.1% genetic difference
between two randomly
• 5-10% of this is “racial”
• 5-10% of this is
• 80-90% individual
Oceanic East Asian
Ronquillo et al. (2007) - Greater amygdala activity was observed for Black faces than White
faces.Moreover, Amygdala activity was observed at equivalent levels for light- and dark-skinned
Black targets, but dark-skinned White targets elicited greater amygdala activity than light-
skinned White targets.
Golby et al. (2001) - Individually defined areas in the fusiform region that responded
preferentially to faces had greater response to same-race versus other-race faces. Across both
groups, memory differences between same-race and other-race faces correlated with activation
in left fusiform cortex and right parahippocampal and hippocampal areas.
Cunningham (2004) - When the faces were presented for 30 ms, activation in the amygdala-a
brain region associated with emotion-was greater for Black than for White faces. When the faces
were presented for 525 ms, this difference was significantly reduced, and regions of frontal
cortex associated with control and regulation showed greater activation for Black than White
Ethnicity - Social construct
based primarily on shared
language and culture.
Nationality - Legal construct
based primarily on
An economic system where
wealth, status, and power is
preserved within families through
primogeniture (i.e., passed down
from father to eldest son).
How has patriarchy uniquely
impacted ethnic and racialized
Slavery – the treatment of
subjugated people as a de
jure forms of property.
Colonialism – Expansion of
political boundaries, norms,
beliefs, or cultural practice by
means of manipulative and
Focused on intersecting and
reinforcing structural positions
that are -assigned at birth,
Kyriarchy is a non-gendered
descriptor for systems of power,
derived from the Greek: κύριος,
kyrios, "lord, master" and ἄρχω,
archō, "to lead, rule, govern."
light or pale
Ancestry is based on a person’s heritage, often with an emphasis on
where their progenitors were born.
Nationality is based on place of birth or on immigration status.
Ethnicity is based on membership in a group that often shares a
common language and culture.
Race is based on a combination of shared physical traits, ancestry,
genetics, and cultural traits – often with an emphasis on skin colour and
other folk taxonomies.
69 71 72
74 76 78 78
68 69 71 73
1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2006
White Black There are surprisingly few studies
examining racial disparities in health
using representative Canadian data.
Those which do often fail to distinguish
between Canadian and Visible Born
Minorities, leading to differences being
obscured by the “healthy migrant
Studies also treat visible minorities as a
monolithic category, when in fact they are
of all genetic material is shared by
of all genetic variation occurs within
populations, not between them.
Race, as a biological construct, does not explain pandemic differences in
birthweight, maternal mortality, life expectancy, survival, or disparities in
cancer, heart disease, lung disease, or diabetes.
How does kyriarchy impact
the health of racialized and
ethnic young people?
Discrimination – the intentional or
unintentional prejudicial treatment of different
categories of people.
Racism – the explicit or implicit acceptance of
Over-policing – excessive observation,
regulation, and criminalization of minority
communities, individuals, and their behaviour.
Segregation – the forced or unenforced
separation of different racial groups.
Williams & Mohammed (2009) – Review of 115 Studies
• Discrimination linked to worse mental, sexual, and physical health.
• Discrimination linked to less health care seeking and adherence behaviors
• Discrimination linked to greater severity and poorer course of disease
Pascoe & Richman (2011) – Meta-analysis of 134 Studies
• Perceived discrimination has negative effects on mental and physical health.
• Perceived discrimination results in a heightened stress response.
• Perceived discrimination results in participation in unhealthy behaviours.
• Perceived discrimination results in non-participation in health behaviours.
Regardless of whether stigma is enacted (i.e., experienced) or merely felt (i.e.,
perceived), it has a negative impact on health.
Prejudice directed against someone
of a different race based on the
belief that one's own race is
Automatic and unconscious social
cognition shaped by pervasive
attitudes or stereotypes of others
and their actions.
Acceptance of racist beliefs or
stereotypes by racialized peoples.
…"basic" to understanding racial inequality in America.
Kenneth Clark (1965)
…key to understanding racial inequality.
Kerner Commission (1968)
…the "linchpin" of U.S. race relations and the source
of the large and growing racial inequality in SES.
John Cell (1982)
…"one of the most successful political ideologies" of
the last century and "the dominant system of
racial regulation and control" in the U.S.
Massey and Denton (1993)
…"the key structural factor for the perpetuation of
Black poverty in the U.S." and the "missing link"
in efforts to understand urban poverty.
Canada – Ethnic Diversity Index
Toronto – Segregation Map
How do you think segregation
reinforced racism and
Culturally Competent Care
Disparities-Targeted Health Programming
Addressing Racism & Discrimination
Culturally Competent Care1
Brach & Fraser (2000) – Review of 205 Articles
While there is substantial research evidence to
suggest that cultural competency should work,
health systems have little evidence about which
cultural competency techniques are effective.
Anderson et al. (2003) – Review of 43 Articles
We could not determine the effectiveness of any
of these interventions…
Hobgood et al. (2006) – Review of 50 Articles
The literature addressing the true efficacy of such
Horvat et al. (2014) – Review of 5 Randomized
The quality of evidence is insufficient to draw
“I would receive better healthcare if I
was a different race or ethnicity”
*Poor Data Quality
Disparities-Targeted Health Programming2
Parity requires that
remuneration of status and
resources to be equal (i.e.,
the same) for all people,
whereas, Equity requires
“more than treating persons
the same way, but also
requires special measures
and the accommodation of
Addressing Racism & Discrimination3
In-group/Out-group dichotomies can be
• Lessening hierarchical differences.
• Focusing on shared goals, values, and
• Bringing people together on equal terms.
• Supporting interventions that underscore
individuation over essentialism.
• Individuation – Emphasizing within-
group heterogeneity and breaking
down stereotypes by focusing on
individuals rather than groups.
• Essentialism – The belief that a set
of attributes are fundamental to the
essence of a group.
What else can public health and
community leaders do to reduce
disparities experienced by
racialized and ethnic groups?
• Next week we will cover technology, the media,
and young people’s health.
• Please check the syllabus for updated order of
• Outline and annotated bibliography due in next
• Grades for literature review should be ready by
the end of next week.