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Oplæg ved Minna Kivipelto


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Oplæg til FORSA/NOUSA-konferencen, Institut for Socialt Arbejde, Metropol, nov. 2016

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Oplæg ved Minna Kivipelto

  1. 1. 1 Measuring social work effectiveness by using the KEY-measure Decisions, outcome and change Nordic FORSA/NOUSA conference 2016 Copenhagen, Denmark · Metropolitan University College Minna Kivipelto
  2. 2. Introduction • KEY-measure: online tool for determing the effectiveness of social work intervention with adults • Digitalisation and effectiveness evaluation are slogans that many politicians are trying to impose on public services in the Western countries • There has been a need to know more about effective interventions but there is a lack of suitable measuring instrument and tools • Starting point: what kind of measures we have for social work effectiveness evaluation? • How information of effectiveness could be gathered as an integral part of social work practices by using information and communications technology (ICT)? Minna Kivipelto 2
  3. 3. Minna Kivipelto 3 KEY- the background
  4. 4. • A KEY is an online measure for a goal-oriented social work • Realistic evaluation approach – Goals – Methods – Contextual factors and mechanisms • Single-case design • The measure has developed in cooperation by THL and Finnish social work professionals and researchers Minna Kivipelto 4
  5. 5. It was agreed that the tool should offer answers to the following questions • Was there a change in the client's problem or in the situation being addressed? • Which methods caused the positive change (improvement of the situation)? • What kind of contextual factors supported and/or hampered the client in reaching the goals? • Is it possible to identify contextual factors that facilitate or hamper the process? Minna Kivipelto 5
  6. 6. Minna Kivipelto 6 Using the tool
  7. 7. Measuring • The KEY covers all essential themes in goal-oriented social work: the client’s basic information, social work goals, methods and factors that contribute to, support, or hamper the client in reaching the goal • An ordinal-level measure: Categories were rank-ordered on a scale from 1 (e.g. not a goal/not improved) to 3 (e.g. targeting a change/improved very much. • Online questionnaire/ICT-based application • A-B –design: Evaluation I and Evaluation II • Summaries are compiled using the KEY’s own reporting tool or statistical software such as SPSS Minna Kivipelto 7
  8. 8. Evaluation I – Client’s basic information – Goals: (1) Goal is to improve the situation, (2) Goal is to remain situation unchanged, (3) Not a goal • Example: Client's capability to solve problems  1= the goal is to improve the situation – Methods: Method will be used with the client, (2) method not used with the client • Example: Support client's capability to problem solving  1=method is used with the client – Contextual factors / mechanisms: (1) supports the goal achievement, (2) hinders the goal achievement • Example: (1) Client’s motivation seems to promote the goal achievement, (2) Awareness the origin of problems is hindering achieving the goal Minna Kivipelto 8
  9. 9. Evaluation II • Have the goals achieved? • What activities have been carried out with the client (methods)? • Wwhat kind of contextual factors were supported or hampered the goal achievement? Minna Kivipelto 9
  10. 10. Minna Kivipelto 10 Results gathered by using the KEY
  11. 11. Results from the Seinäjoki Centre of Social Services • 53% were female and 47% male • Most of the clients were between 31 and 45 years of age (33%) or under 27 years of age (30%) • The smallest age group were clients over 55 years of age (8%) • Marital status of the clients varied between from unmarried (43%), married or cohabitation (26%), divorced (23%) or separated (6%) • More than a half of the clients had no children (56%) • Nearly half of the clients had completed post-compulsory education • The clients’ employment situation varied, but most of them were unemployed • Unemployed jobseekers were the largest group (44% of the clients). Only 9% of the clients were employed Minna Kivipelto 11
  12. 12. Minna Kivipelto 12 Figure 1. Clients’ goals, divided by gender (%) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Threat of violence experienced by the client Living conditions in the area Concern for loved ones Facilities for hobbies and participation Problems caused by antisocial behavior Problems caused by physical illness or disability Responding childrens needs Problems caused by alcohol or drugs Problems caused by mental illness or disability Housing situation in the area Alcohol and drug use Social capabilities Client's personal relationships Mental health Improving the service system Study progress Obtaining or retaining accommodation Participation and hobbies Self-confidence Client's awareness of the societal factors underlying his/her… Seeking education A functioning everyday life Life management Supporting the client seek or keep the residence Clarifying the client's debt situation Improving the employment prospects of clients with low… Occupational capabilities Supporting client's capability to problem solving Case management and delivery of services Employment or searching for a job Client's financial situation Women (%) (N=110) Men (%) (N=99)
  13. 13. Figure 2. Most commonly used methods Minna Kivipelto 13 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Influencing through media Influencing policy Lecturing, acting as a trainer Being active in NGOs and associations Studying and competence development by social workers Mediation or helping with legal issues Group work Support person or peer support Final assessment, closure of the client-process Safeguarding the client's interests Developing new operational models for social work Crisis work Supporting the client searching for an education Managerial decisions Supporting the job-seeking Negative opinion about client's action or behaviour Supporting client's family Helping the client to deal with other authorities Cooperation, networking Setting conditions and boundaries for the client Supporting client's participation Supporting client's awareness Client plans Discussing about client's problems Case management Solution focused work Supportive discussion Needs assessment with the client General advice and guidance Managing client's financial situation Decision making Methods for reaching the goals (%)
  14. 14. Figure 3. Goals reached very well (% of goals) Minna Kivipelto 14 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Rental housing situation in the area Leisure activities and opportunities for participation The consequences of anti-social behaviour Physical problems due to health problems or disability Clarifying the client's debt situation Mental health Concern for loved ones Employment, finding a job Life management The client's awareness of the societal factors underlying his/her problems Problems related to mental illness or disability Client's close relationships Client's control over his/her financial situation Improving the employment prospects of clients with low employability Study progress Inclusion and participation (eg. hobbies) A functioning everyday life Seeking education Obtaining or retaining accommodation Improving the service system Occupational capabilities Self-esteem Consequences from substance abuse Supporting client's problem-solving capabilities Childrens’ needs Social skills Client’s substance use Service management for a client Men (%) Women (%)
  15. 15. Figure 4. Which contextual factors promoted the goal attainment? Minna Kivipelto 15 3.8 3.8 4.3 5.3 7.2 9.1 10.5 15.3 16.3 16.3 16.7 20.1 20.1 20.6 23.9 25.4 26.3 26.8 27.3 30.6 30.6 33.0 39.7 41.1 44.5 45.0 47.4 48.3 52.6 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 Demographic structure of the area Alcohol and drug use among the client's loved ones Values / attitudes in the living area Accessibility of the client's environment Concern for loved ones Client’s cultural background Client's relation to alcohol / drugs Mental health and coping Client’s financial situation Client's mental health Client's employment situation Client's physical health Satisfaction / adequacy of close relationships Clients lifestyle Opportunities for participation and hobbies Possibilities of welfare technology Awareness of the origin of problems The client's educational background The client’s ability to influence Employment and educational situation Ability to see solutions and alternatives Ability / willingness to make financial planning Client's self-esteem Internet access Possibility to be heard Living conditions Services supply /availability Client's motivation The client's attitudes towards services Supported reaching the goal (%) Supported reaching the goal (%)
  16. 16. Figure 5 here: Which contextual factors hindered the goal attainment? (% of clients) Minna Kivipelto 16 1.4 1.9 3.3 4.8 5.3 6.2 8.1 9.6 10 10 10.5 11.5 12 13.4 14.8 15.8 17.2 19.1 19.1 19.1 20.6 22 23 26.8 29.2 31.6 34 37.8 50.7 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Unobstructured environment Possibilities of welfare technology Internet-connections Possibilities to participation and hobbies Possibility to be heard Satisfaction / adequacy of close relationships Demographic structure in the living area Relationship of close people to alcohol and drugs / addictions Services supply /availability Living conditions Client's self-esteem Client’s cultural background Awareness of the origin of problems Client's attitudes towards services Client's motivation Client's relation to alcohol / drugs Clients lifestyle Employment and educational situation Worries about the close people (e.g. health problems) Seeing solutions and alternatives Client's physical health Mental health and coping Client’s possibilities to influence Client's education Ability / willingness to make financial planning Client's mental health Values / attitudes in the living area Client's employment situation Client’s financial situation Hindered reaching the goal (%) Hindered reaching the goal (%)
  17. 17. Minna Kivipelto 17 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Supportive methods were not used * Used 1-2 supportive methods)* Used 3-4 supportive methods* Women (%) Men (%) Figure 6. Effectiveness of supportive methods to the client's problem- solving capabilities. Comparison men/women %
  18. 18. Minna Kivipelto 18 Conclusions
  19. 19. • Social work focused mainly on clients’ financial situation • Problems were mostly seen as having been caused by the client him/herself • The main working methods were targeting the clients’ own resources and reasoning even though the main problem lies in the structures • The client’s motivation was seen to be important for reaching the goal; structural and social factors were not seen as important • Social workers used several methods with women; these methods included supporting motivation, self-esteem, and the client’s family situation • The workers only used a small number of methods with men; supporting the client’s financial situation, employment and educational goals Minna Kivipelto 19
  20. 20. – Time-consuming – It is important to integrate the KEY into the client database systems – Single-case evaluation convenient in situations that require long- term social work – Client’s health situation important factor – Clients’ participation – Are the client-centred methods effective enough if only 1/3 of clients reach their most important goals satisfactorily? – Turning data into evidence – Programme theory is needed: broad-based analysis of what works for whom and under which circumstances  evaluation testing this theory Minna Kivipelto 20 KEY as a tool for social work effectiveness evaluation
  21. 21. References • Astbury, B., Leeuw, F. L. (2010) Unpacking Black Boxes: Mechanisms and Theory Building in Evaluation. American Journal of Evaluation 3, 3, 363-381. • Blomgren, S., Kivipelto, M. (2012) Valtaistus. Aikuissosiaalityön valtakunnallinen kartoitus [National Survey of Adult Social Work] (Report 27). Helsinki, FI: National Institute for Health and Welfare. • Bloom, M., Fischer, J., Orme, J. G. (2009) Evaluating practice: Guidelines for the accountable professional (6th ed.) Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. • Cohen, B. J. (2011) Design-based practice: A new perspective for social work. Social Work, 56, 4, 337-346. • Fischer, J., Corcoran, K. (2007a) Measures for Clinical Practice and Research. A sourcebook, Volume 1. Couples, Families and Children (4th ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. • Fischer, J., Corcoran, K. (2007b) Measures for Clinical Practice and Research. A sourcebook, Volume 2, Adults (4th ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. • Gambrill, E. (2008) Evidence-Based (Informed) Macro Practice: Process and Philosophy. Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work, 5, 3-4, 423-452. • Gambrill, E. (2013) Social Work Practice: A Critical Thinker's Guide (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. • Gray, M., Plath, D., Webb, S. (2009) Evidence-based social work. A critical stance. London, UK: Routledge. Minna Kivipelto 21
  22. 22. • Howe, D. (2009) A brief introduction to social work theory. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. • Juhila, K. (2008) Aikuisten parissa tehtävän sosiaalityön yhteiskunnallinen paikka [Social Locus of Social Work With Adults] In A. Jokinen, K. Juhila (Eds.), Sosiaalityö aikuisten parissa [Social Work With Adults] (48-81). Tampere, FI: Vastapaino. • Julnes, G., Mark, M. M. (1998) Evaluation as sensemaking: Knowledge construction in a realist world. New Directions For Evaluation, 1998, 78, 33-52. • Kazi, M., Wilson, J. (1996) Applying single-case evaluation in social work. British Journal of Social Work, 26, 5, 699–717. • Kivipelto, M., Blomgren, S., Karjalainen, P, Saikkonen, P. (2013) Vaikuttavaa aikuissosiaalityötä – arviointimalleista mittareihin [Effective adult social work – from evaluation models to evaluation measures] (Report 8). Helsinki, FI: National Institute for Health and Welfare. • Mark, M. M., Henry, G. T., Julnes, G. (1998) A Realist Theory of Evaluation Practice. New Directions For Evaluation, 1998, 78, 3-32. • Patton, M. Q. (2010) Utilization-Focused Evaluation for Social Services and Social Work. Revista de Asistenț ă Socială, 4, IX, 11-27. • Pawson, R., Manzano-Santaella, A. (2012) A realist diagnostic workshop. Evaluation, 8, 2, 176- 191. • Pawson, R., Tilley N. (1997) Realistic Evaluation. London, UK: Sage. • Payne, M. (2005) Modern social work theory (3rd ed.). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. • Saikkonen, P., Blomgren, S., Karjalainen, P., Kivipelto, M. (2015) Poistaako sosiaalityö huono- osaisuutta? [Does social work diminish social deprivation?] (Reports of the Foundation for Municipal Development). Helsinki, FI: the Foundation for Municipal Development (forthcoming). • Thyer, B. A., Pignotti, M. (2011) Evidence-Based Practices Do Not Exist. Clinical Social Work Journal, 39, 4, 328-333. Minna Kivipelto 22