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  2. 2. Interaction is how humans interact with the environment. We perceive the world through our senses. Sight, touch, smell, hearing and taste allow us to explore the environment around us. BUT, WHAT IS INTERACTION?
  3. 3. All the information received by our senses is processed by our most important organ, the brain. The brain is home to the conscious and unconscious mind, as well as our emotions and memory.
  4. 4. It controls our involuntary actions, such as breathing, or digesting our food, as well as our thinking and decision making. What other types of involuntary actions do we have?
  5. 5. Which actions are receiving information or giving a response? Maybe some can be both!
  6. 6. The Nervous System
  7. 7. Living organisms are made of cells. Cells that perform the same function together are called tissue. Tissue groups are called organs. Organs work together and form systems which make up the bodies of organisms. One of these systems is the nervous system.
  8. 8. The brain sends messages to all different parts of the nervous system, such as the locomotor system (or musculoskeletal system). The locomotor system allows us to respond to the stimuli from our senses and controls our internal systems, such as the digestive system or the respiratory system.
  9. 9. The Central Nervous System • The brain and the spinal cord make the central nervous system. • spinal cord brain
  10. 10. The Brain The brain controls our nervous system and is protected by the skull. The brain is made up of three main parts: cerebrum, cerebellum and the brain stem.
  11. 11. Cerebrum The cerebrum is the biggest part of the brain. Here we process information from our senses and we do our cognitive thinking. There are 2 main hemispheres: the left hemisphere and the right hemisphere. Each hemisphere controls different cognitive functions.
  12. 12. CEREBELLUM The cerebellum controls our movements, coordination and balance.
  13. 13. Brain Stem The brain stem is the continuation of the spinal cord. It controls involuntary actions, such as our heartbeat, breathing and sleeping.
  14. 14. Spinal Cord The spinal cord is made up of nerve tissue and runs from our brain down our spine. The spinal cord is protected by the vertebrae. It controls our reflex actions.
  15. 15. Peripheral Nervous System The peripheral nervous system is made up of nerves. Nerves are made up of tiny cells called neurons that transfer information through the nervous system using electrical and chemical signals. Different neurons carry out different tasks.
  16. 16. SENSES
  17. 17. Sight Light reflected from an object enters our eyes through the cornea and pupil. The amount of light entering our eyes is controlled by the iris. The iris gives the eye its colour. The lens focuses the light on the retina at the back of the eye. Nerve receptors in the retina transmit the information to the optic nerve which then sends the information to the brain. The place where the optic nerve leaves the eye is called a blind spot. This area does not respond to light.
  18. 18. Find your blind spot
  19. 19. Hearing • Sound waves enter the auditory canal in the outer ear and cause the eardrum to vibrate. • In turn, these vibrations make the three small bones in the middle ear vibrate. • The vibrations eventually reach the cochlea in the inner ear, where they become electrical signals. • The auditory nerve then sends the signals to the brain for processing. 3 small bones Auditory nerve
  20. 20. Smell Chemicals in the air enter our nose through our nostrils. The chemicals then come into contact with nerve receptors which send the information to the brain via the olfactory nerve. Taste Substances enter our mouth and come into contact with our tongue. The tongue is covered in taste buds which have receptor cells. These receptor cells detect the different tastes (salty, sweet, bitter and sour) and send the information to the brain. Chemicals from substances in our mouths also enter the nose which is why if we have a blocked nose, food often tastes different or bland.
  21. 21. Touch The skin covers and protects our whole body. The middle layer of skin, called the dermis, contains nerves and blood vessels. These detect sensations such as heat, pressure and texture. The nerves in the skin send information to the brain through the peripheral nervous system and the spinal cord.
  22. 22. HOW WE MOVE
  23. 23. Our body moves in response to signal from the brain. These signals travel through the nervous system to our muscles. Our muscles contract allowing us to move, hold objects, kick balls and make other movements. The muscles are supported by the skeleton and the joints. The whole system is called the locomotor or musculoskeletal system.
  24. 24. The Skeleton The skeleton is made up of bones. There are three types of bones: Short bones: such as the vertebrae in the spine, provide support and stabilty. Flat bones: such as ribs and the pelvis, protect the internal organs. Long bones: shape limbs and are used for movement. Joints Our bones are connected at the joints by strong elastic tissue called ligaments. The ends of the bones at the joints are covered in strong, flexible tissue called cartilage. There are three types of joints. Fixed joints do not move. The parts of the skull are connected by fixed joints. Semi-flexible joints, such as the vertebrae in the spine, only allow a small amount of movement. Most joints in the body are flexible joints which are important for movement.