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Ground Freezing for Tunnel Support
                   No. 7 Line Subway Extension
                          New York City
...
Projected Route
Rock Profile
Project Location




 Project Location
Work Zone



            Hudson
             Yards




                                  Penn
Work Zone                   ...
Subsurface Profile
General Project Plan
Freeze Pipe Layout
   (at mid-tunnel elevation)
Plan View of Freeze Pipes
Freeze Pipe Layout in 3D
Tunnel and Rock Profiles
Section View Looking North
Freeze Pipe Brine Flow Diagram
Frozen Cylinder Development
Frozen Earth Wall Formation
Mesh Created for Structural Analysis
Thermal Model Geometry
     (with groundwater flow)
Time vs. Temperature Plot
   (with groundwater flow for -25°C brine)
Time vs. Temperature Plot
   (with groundwater flow for -30°C brine)
Actual Freeze Pipe and Rock Profile
As-built Freeze Pipe Layout
       (at mid-tunnel elevation)
Temperature Contours at Day 70
Sonic Drill Head
Drill Rig Angles at the Surface
Sonic Drill Head Tilted to the Side
Sonic Drill Head Tilted Back
Side View of Sonic Drill Rig
Freeze Pipes with Aluminum Sections
Steel-Aluminum Joint
Manifold Pipe Groups
     and Section Detail
Presence of Utilities
Utilities Exposed Before Drilling
TBM Progress through Frozen Earth
Street View Looking NE
    (from 11th Ave & W. 28th St)
Street View Looking SE
    (from 11th Ave & W. 28th St)
Street View Looking N
    (from 11th Ave & W. 26th St)
Drilling Operations On-Site
Installed Freeze Pipes
PVC Downpipes
Freeze Pipe Header Assembly
Freeze Pipes Connected to Manifold
Aerial View of Ground Freeze
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Ground Freezing For Tunnel Stabilization

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Ground Freezing For Tunnel Stabilization

  1. 1. Ground Freezing for Tunnel Support No. 7 Line Subway Extension New York City Joseph A. Sopko, Ph.D., P.E. Michele R. Norman 
  2. 2. Projected Route
  3. 3. Rock Profile
  4. 4. Project Location Project Location
  5. 5. Work Zone Hudson Yards Penn Work Zone Station
  6. 6. Subsurface Profile
  7. 7. General Project Plan
  8. 8. Freeze Pipe Layout (at mid-tunnel elevation)
  9. 9. Plan View of Freeze Pipes
  10. 10. Freeze Pipe Layout in 3D
  11. 11. Tunnel and Rock Profiles
  12. 12. Section View Looking North
  13. 13. Freeze Pipe Brine Flow Diagram
  14. 14. Frozen Cylinder Development
  15. 15. Frozen Earth Wall Formation
  16. 16. Mesh Created for Structural Analysis
  17. 17. Thermal Model Geometry (with groundwater flow)
  18. 18. Time vs. Temperature Plot (with groundwater flow for -25°C brine)
  19. 19. Time vs. Temperature Plot (with groundwater flow for -30°C brine)
  20. 20. Actual Freeze Pipe and Rock Profile
  21. 21. As-built Freeze Pipe Layout (at mid-tunnel elevation)
  22. 22. Temperature Contours at Day 70
  23. 23. Sonic Drill Head
  24. 24. Drill Rig Angles at the Surface
  25. 25. Sonic Drill Head Tilted to the Side
  26. 26. Sonic Drill Head Tilted Back
  27. 27. Side View of Sonic Drill Rig
  28. 28. Freeze Pipes with Aluminum Sections
  29. 29. Steel-Aluminum Joint
  30. 30. Manifold Pipe Groups and Section Detail
  31. 31. Presence of Utilities
  32. 32. Utilities Exposed Before Drilling
  33. 33. TBM Progress through Frozen Earth
  34. 34. Street View Looking NE (from 11th Ave & W. 28th St)
  35. 35. Street View Looking SE (from 11th Ave & W. 28th St)
  36. 36. Street View Looking N (from 11th Ave & W. 26th St)
  37. 37. Drilling Operations On-Site
  38. 38. Installed Freeze Pipes
  39. 39. PVC Downpipes
  40. 40. Freeze Pipe Header Assembly
  41. 41. Freeze Pipes Connected to Manifold
  42. 42. Aerial View of Ground Freeze
  43. 43.

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