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19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge   Low Impact Design Via Traditional Neighborhoods 640 acres...
Planning  19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge   Not This: Continued Sprawl  Problems  Disconnec...
Planning  19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge   This Possibilities  Traditional neighborhoods, ...
Planning  19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge   This Possibilities  Diversity of real estate pr...
LID: Hydrology  19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge   Introduction and Project Goals The main h...
LID: Hydrology  19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge   Low Impact Development Methodologies Comp...
LID: Hydrology  19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge   Low Impact Development Methodologies: Ent...
LID: Hydrology  The only rainwater “reuse” proposed for the site is in the form of infiltration that should lead to ground...
LID: Hydrology  19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge   Low Impact Development Methodologies:  Th...
LID: Hydrology  19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge   Low Impact Development Methodologies:  Th...
LID: Hydrology  19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge   Low Impact Development Methodologies:  Be...
19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge   LID: Hydrology  Low Impact Development Methodologies:  Th...
19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge   LID: Hydrology  Low Impact Development Methodologies:  Th...
19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge   LID: Hydrology  Low Impact Development Methodologies:  Th...
Hydrology  19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge
Hydrology  19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge
19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge   LID: Hydrology  Low Impact Development Methodologies:  Re...
Hydrology  19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge   Low Impact Development Methodologies:  Conclus...
19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge   Traditional Neighborhoods  We are recommending a Traditio...
19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge   Traditional Neighborhoods  A downtown neighborhood simila...
Beyond LID: Building Neighborhoods  19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge   <ul><li>Single Family...
Beyond LID: Building Neighborhoods  19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge   Typical Residential N...
Beyond LID: Building Neighborhoods  19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge   Typical Edge Neighbor...
Beyond LID: Building Neighborhoods  19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge   Pedestrian Sheds The ...
19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge   Neighborhood Schools  Schools are integrated into the com...
Beyond LID: Building Neighborhoods  19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge   Neighborhood Schools ...
19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge   Neighborhood Schools  The Elementary School is located de...
Beyond LID: Building Neighborhoods  19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge   A Better Pattern Comp...
Beyond LID: Building Neighborhoods  19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge   A Better Pattern Repl...
Beyond LID: Building Neighborhoods  19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge   Conclusion Rather tha...
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SUBURBAN RES Team 19181 Competition Submittal

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Electronic submittal from the team of Crabtree Group, Asakura Robinson, HBL Architects, Texas A&M University, Dreilling-Terrones, Texas AgriLife Extension and Gulf Coast Lofts

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SUBURBAN RES Team 19181 Competition Submittal

  1. 1. 19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge Low Impact Design Via Traditional Neighborhoods 640 acres Homes, Workplaces, Schools integrated into traditional neighborhoods and connected to surrounding agriculture Complete Connected Compact Complex Convivial
  2. 2. Planning 19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge Not This: Continued Sprawl Problems Disconnected Single Use Few workplace opportunities High ratio of required infrastructure to value Limited diversity, limited opportunity Limited Sustainability over the long term
  3. 3. Planning 19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge This Possibilities Traditional neighborhoods, familiar values Many workplace opportunities, reducing the need to commute and reducing the total number of commuters. Lower ratio of required infrastructure to value, less wasted infrastructure. Diversity of housing types, diversity of incomes, diversity of character. Diversity of real estate products to address a wider market and insure a greater number of transactions.
  4. 4. Planning 19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge This Possibilities Diversity of real estate products to address a wider market and insure a greater number of transactions in volatile economies. Total Dwelling Units Approx. 1480 Single Family Homes Approx. 400 (each with rear garages and in-law / rental units) Single Family Row Houses Approx. 200 (each with rear garages and in-law / rental units) Second Units (see above) Approx. 600 Neighborhood Apartments Approx. 280 (in small buildings and above retail spaces downtown) Commercial / Retail Space Approx. 800,000 sf Includes: Traditional Shops with Office Above Traditional Shops with Apartments Above Neighborhood Retail / Workplace Live / Work Row Houses All Residences have Home / Office Home / Workplace capabilities
  5. 5. LID: Hydrology 19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge Introduction and Project Goals The main hydrological goal was to avoid modifying the predevelopment hydrograph with the proposed development. Improvement of the hydrograph was assumed to occur if the peak runoff rate or overall runoff volume were reduced, and no pollutants were delivered to the main channel. Significant reduction in runoff rates or volumes could not be assumed to be hydrograph improvements, without analyzing the regional watershed characteristics. The hydrologic modeling for the neighborhood was based on the assumptions used to develop the Predevelopment Hydrograph as provided on the Competition Website. The project Geotechnical report findings were consistent with the USDA soils mapping for the site, which showed mostly hydrologic group B-type soils along with some B / D soils. D type soils were assumed throughout the site as that matched the calculations for the predevelopment hydrograph. Storm Net software was used, which is based on Soil Conservation Service Technical Release 55 methodology. Justification for the Hydrologic/Drainage Modeling Used To Develop Design Conclusions
  6. 6. LID: Hydrology 19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge Low Impact Development Methodologies Compact Urban Form is deployed as a primary stormwater Best Management Practices (BMP’s). The entire building program (including three schools) are arranged in a Traditional Neighborhood Development form on the northeast corner of the site; leaving about 3/4 of the site for productive and localized agricultural land or open space. ¼ Section Section Remaining Ag Lands
  7. 7. LID: Hydrology 19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge Low Impact Development Methodologies: Entirely Publicly Owned Facilities A number of BMP’s at the building-scale and private lot realm can provide significant counter-measures to offset the impact of impervious surfaces. We strongly support these methodologies, though would like to indicate the significant fact that privately owned and operated measures were not needed to achieve the hydrology goals of this neighborhood. Compact development, green streets and constructed wetlands BMP's alone more than exceeded the goals. The other BMP's provided at the will of the private sector at the building scale will only improve the results. No green roofs are assumed for the neighborhood. Although green roofs are a significant rainwater BMP and can be used to easily and significantly improve the hydrographs (some green roofs can absorb / retain / evaporate / transpire up to 2” of storm volume), they do present maintenance and enforcement issues when they are part of a required stormwater solution: How does the developer or jurisdiction ensure that the green roofs are built and maintained in perpetuity? Privately initiated green roofs are always an option and will only improve these rainwater results, but are not required for success. Private Public
  8. 8. LID: Hydrology The only rainwater “reuse” proposed for the site is in the form of infiltration that should lead to groundwater recharge. Rainwater reuse through the use of storage and reuse in the buildings or for irrigation is almost always a valid BMP that can reduce runoff rates and volumes. The initial costs, oversight and maintenance of the facilities can present issues. Privately initiated rainwater reuse is always an option and will improve these hydrology results, but is not required for success. No privately built or maintained raingardens or porous pavements are assumed for the neighborhood for the similar reasons given above. All of the calculations are based on publicly owned and maintained facilities (streets, alleys and wetlands). Privately initiated raingardens and porous pavements would have significant positive results on these hydrology calculations. 19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge Low Impact Development Methodologies. Low Impact Development Methodologies: Entirely Publicly Owned Facilities
  9. 9. LID: Hydrology 19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge Low Impact Development Methodologies: The Street System Streets as Primary Tool Constructed Wetland Naturalized Draincourse All of the rainwater storage and conveyance is by surface flow to and then through the public streets and alleys in the neighborhood; then to a constructed wetlands for detention and stormwater quality; thence to the main channel that is to cross the 640 acre site. Few, if any, storm drain pipes would be employed. All of the streets and alleys are proposed to be “green streets” in that they consist of porous materials. Additional rainwater storage capacity is provided in the depressed planter strips of most of the street sections. These bioswales also act as constant stormwater clarification. The green streets are a gradient of cross-sections depending on the intensity of the urbanism in the neighborhood and the progressive need for stormwater conveyance.
  10. 10. LID: Hydrology 19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge Low Impact Development Methodologies: The Street System The project Preliminary Geotechnical report recommended a 41’ wide rigid paved street section consisting 6” or 7”of reinforced concrete over 6” of chemically treated onsite soils. We are proposing a flexible paving section consisting of 4” porous concrete pavers over 1” of bedding sand, over 16” of well-drained crushed aggregate (40% voids), over geotextile fabric, over uncompacted subgrade. Subject to further coordination with the geotechnical engineer, this flexible and porous paving section is designed to carry the project traffic loads, would be expected to be similar in cost to a reinforced concrete section, and should exhibit a longer life cycle with easier and more aesthetic repairs possible.
  11. 11. LID: Hydrology 19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge Low Impact Development Methodologies: Beyond The Street System Wetland Naturalized Channel Road and Street System as Primary BMP Though not needed for runoff volume reductions, the constructed wetlands are designed to act as a stormwater buffer, provide detention storage to ensure the runoff peaks are well below predevelopment levels, and provide water quality treatment in the form of bacteria and nutrients removal. The wetlands can additionally serve recreational, educational, environmental and aesthetic benefits.
  12. 12. 19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge LID: Hydrology Low Impact Development Methodologies: The Street System Neighborhood Center: Top of “Watershed”, lower total volumes Green Streets / Pervious Paving Typical gutters leading to “Rainways” Potential for small Rain Gardens Opportunities for private Green Roofs on traditional commercial buildings
  13. 13. 19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge LID: Hydrology Low Impact Development Methodologies: The Street System Typical Neighborhood Rainways : Green Streets / Pervious Paving Traditional Planting Strips as Rain Gardens and peak volume conveyance Private Property elevated to allow extreme volume event conveyance in roadways Idealized plant selection
  14. 14. 19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge LID: Hydrology Low Impact Development Methodologies: The Street System Central Rainway : Green Streets / Pervious Paving Wider Traditional Planting Strips as Rain Gardens and peak volume conveyance Private Property elevated to allow extreme volume event conveyance in roadways Idealized Plant Selection
  15. 15. Hydrology 19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge
  16. 16. Hydrology 19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge
  17. 17. 19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge LID: Hydrology Low Impact Development Methodologies: Recommended Planting
  18. 18. Hydrology 19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge Low Impact Development Methodologies: Conclusions The peak runoff rate and runoff volume for the post-development are reduced due to the BMP's of the development, for the 5-year, 10-year and 100 year 24-hour storm events. All of the stormwater system is publicly owned and operated, once built by the developer. The stormwater system is fully integrated with the street network, economical to build and maintain, and provides unique aesthetic benefits to the neighborhood.
  19. 19. 19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge Traditional Neighborhoods We are recommending a Traditional Neighborhood approach to development for greenfiled sites as a means to build more durable communities that are not entirely dependent on commuting and driving to other communities for employment, goods and services. Traditional American towns have served diverse needs in sustainable ways for centuries and were never proven obsolete. They were simply interrupted, for a while, by a massive commitment to auto-centric development patterns, most of which are proving unsustainable. As we have spent the last fifty years building sprawling suburbia, we will likely spend the next fifty years building neighborhoods, towns, villages and hamlets within and around our existing cities. As we rediscover the economic power of localized agriculture, small scale manufacturing and localized retail, we will also rediscover the social and cultural benefits of building complete neighborhoods, rather than fragmented sprawl. Beyond LID: Building Neighborhoods
  20. 20. 19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge Traditional Neighborhoods A downtown neighborhood similar to traditional central business districts that includes diverse retail and service functions, favoring local ownership so that wages and profits are circulated locally. All within walking distances of the surrounding neighborhoods so that customers have convenient access (and will generate localized loyalties) to locally owned businesses. A variety of residential neighborhoods that have identity as well as connectivity (not isolated pods). Each neighborhood has unique connections to schools, churches, shops and other neighborhoods. Each neighborhood is based on traditional pedestrian friendly street that will encourage walking and make driving (when chosen as an option) more pleasant through reduced congestion. Neighborhoods near the edge enjoy the visual connection to family farms and naturalized features, such as the wetland and the stream-like drainage channel. A neighborhood center occurs at the edge that integrates small scale ag uses into the neighborhood creating workplaces, neighborhood retail at the edge and drawing customers from the surrounding farms into the community. Beyond LID: Building Neighborhoods
  21. 21. Beyond LID: Building Neighborhoods 19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge <ul><li>Single Family Homes </li></ul><ul><li>Single Family Row Houses </li></ul><ul><li>Neighborhood Apartment Buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Garage with Cottage Above </li></ul><ul><li>Neighborhood Retail </li></ul><ul><li>2,3 Story Retail, Commercial </li></ul><ul><li>2,3 Story Retail / Residential </li></ul><ul><li>Church, School, Community Use </li></ul><ul><li>Neighborhood Park </li></ul>Neighborhood Center
  22. 22. Beyond LID: Building Neighborhoods 19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge Typical Residential Neighborhood <ul><li>Single Family Homes </li></ul><ul><li>Single Family Row Houses </li></ul><ul><li>Neighborhood Apartment Buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Garage with Cottage Above </li></ul><ul><li>Neighborhood Retail </li></ul><ul><li>2,3 Story Retail, Commercial </li></ul><ul><li>2,3 Story Retail / Residential </li></ul><ul><li>Church, School, Community Use </li></ul><ul><li>Neighborhood Park </li></ul>
  23. 23. Beyond LID: Building Neighborhoods 19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge Typical Edge Neighborhood <ul><li>Single Family Homes </li></ul><ul><li>Single Family Row Houses </li></ul><ul><li>Neighborhood Apartment Buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Garage with Cottage Above </li></ul><ul><li>Neighborhood Retail </li></ul><ul><li>2,3 Story Retail, Commercial </li></ul><ul><li>2,3 Story Retail / Residential </li></ul><ul><li>Church, School, Community Use </li></ul><ul><li>Neighborhood Park </li></ul>
  24. 24. Beyond LID: Building Neighborhoods 19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge Pedestrian Sheds The plan identifies three primary centers around which a natural Pedestrian Shed will occur. This pattern of development facilitates walking, cycling and dramatically reduces the need for long (or most) car trips. Additionally, this pattern generates a series of comfortable neighborhoods offering a variety of real estate products addressing a broader cross section of the emerging market.
  25. 25. 19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge Neighborhood Schools Schools are integrated into the community rather than isolated in a separate mega-campus. Parking and drop off occurs on safe streets, (which have to be built anyway) rather than in large mall-style parking lots. The schools are traditional two-story buildings that have compact footprints and better utilize the sites. They also evoke a higher standard for educational facilities beyond the “mall” image that many new schools have. They are close to the street and visible to the neighborhoods as important centers of neighborhood activity beyond school hours. They can become community centers, meeting places, recreational facilities and serve a far wider array of neighborhood needs. Beyond LID: Building Neighborhoods
  26. 26. Beyond LID: Building Neighborhoods 19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge Neighborhood Schools The plan includes a focus on Neighborhood Schools that draw from this neighborhood and (for older grades) nearby neighborhoods. They are located strategically according to their respective functions and the character of the grades. Each school has a strong visual identity in the neighborhood reflecting the importance of the function and making access by walking and biking favorable. Each school is located for easy access from other neighborhoods for staff and students when necessary. Most parking occurs on the streets to minimize the impact of cars on the school site, utilize an infrastructure that must be built anyway and increase the overall safety of the sites for students and staff. Middle School Elementary School High School
  27. 27. 19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge Neighborhood Schools The Elementary School is located deep in the neighborhood as its students will be drawn entirely from the neighborhood and will likely walk or bike to school. This location offers the highest level of safety as it is away from large parking lots, high speed roads and unfamiliar adults. The Middle School is located deeper in the community, but nearer to the adjacent roads and edges as some students will come from adjacent communities. It is also located near the ag edge so that playfield needs have flexibility for expansion, if truly necessary. There are several Retail shops near the Middle School as it is also an employer and staff can benefit from genuine neighborhood amenities in the course of their day. The High School is located near the existing edges, as some students will be drawn from adjacent neighborhoods. It is also located near downtown so that staff have access to the neighborhood for noon meals, supplies and personal needs. Students also benefit from access to the neighborhood before and after school and as likely places for first jobs. This kind of integration has been shown to develop a sense of citizenship and participation in young adults as they approach adulthood. Middle School 650 Students Elementary School 350 Students High School 1200 Students Beyond LID: Building Neighborhoods
  28. 28. Beyond LID: Building Neighborhoods 19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge A Better Pattern Compact neighborhood plans facilitate more lifestyle and employment options in smaller areas. Replication of this pattern over four sections allows for the emergence of genuine towns exhibiting social and economic sustainability while reducing energy use, greenhouse gas production and other environmental negatives. This pattern generates a town large enough to support the full compliment of schools, localized businesses and workplaces necessary to support diversity of wages and diversity of ages. This leads to more durable settlement patterns as well as increased social capital. 640 acres 640 acres 640 acres 640 acres Additional neighborhood schools, centers and workplaces
  29. 29. Beyond LID: Building Neighborhoods 19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge A Better Pattern Replication of this pattern over four sections allows for the emergence of genuine towns exhibiting social and economic sustainability, while reducing energy use, greenhouse gas production and other environmental negatives. If large areas were developed in this way, rather than the typical sprawl pattern, patterns of complete, connected towns could reemerge that would better occupy available lands, better preserve localized agriculture and generate places that are distinct, well loved and economically durable. 2 mile spacing is an ideal distance for transit stops and commuter rail. This also allows for useful parcels of ag lands in between, supporting family farms, localized ag and additional diversity of workplaces. 2 miles 2 miles 2560 acres 2560 acres 2560 acres 2560 acres 2560 acres
  30. 30. Beyond LID: Building Neighborhoods 19181 Low Impact Design: Suburban Residential Design Challenge Conclusion Rather than just seeking solutions for stormwater problems, we recommend seeking solutions for a whole host of environmental, economic and social problems that plague the sprawling suburbs of America. The standard pattern of sprawl is not the only choice. In fact, it is only one of many choices and there are choices that have worked in the past that have not been utilized in many years. All we have to do is travel around the country and look at the most resilient, robust and comfortable towns to see what patterns work. The Traditional Neighborhood pattern offers greater durability and sustainability than the suburban sprawl pattern and can go far beyond simply solving the stormwater problem. And the traditional neighborhood pattern is what the market is really seeking, often without fully realizing it.

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