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Home Orchard Management
Insects & Diseases
Brooke Edmunds, OSU Extension
Your goals for pest management:
1. Protect trees and crops from substantial damage
2. Make it simple and easy
3. Make it safe
4. Use methods that enhance natural control factors
Adapted from: http://homeorchard.ucanr.edu/The_Big_Picture/Pests_&_Diseases/
Photo: Flickr user: steve_p2008 CC BY 2.0 https://flic.kr/p/cQ5bYf
Question 1
• Think about your own orchard.
• What insect and/or disease issues do you deal with?
• List two methods of pest management that you use.
• Then turn to a neighbor & share
Your pest management toolbox
• Proper irrigation & fertilization
• Pruning
• Cultivar resistance
• Sanitation
• Encourage beneficials
• Understand the pest
• Proper ID & life cycle
• Pest monitoring
• Take action:
• Biological control
• Biorational pesticides
• Chemical pesticides
Water & Fertilize Properly
• Overwatering encourages root rot
• Overfertilizing can encourage problems
Soil tests are
important!
Photo: http://www.opb.org/images/upload/c_limit,h_1000,q_90,w_640/20151009_soilsample_CF_z5a9yf.jpg
Pruning helps by:
• Increased air circulation
• Improved fruit quality
• Better coverage of sprays
Photo: http://www.provident-living-today.com/images/Before-and-After-Pruning-Peach-Tree.jpg
Choose disease resistant cultivars
Photo: http://pnwhandbooks.org/plantdisease/sites/default/files/images/apple_scab_box143-005.jpg
Resistant to Scab Susceptible to Scab
Home Orchard Series: Pests & Diseases
Question 2:
Understanding cultivar disease susceptibility charts
• Use the Apple Cultivar Susceptibility Chart
• Rank the following four cultivars:
Braeburn, Honeycrisp, Liberty, Red Rome
Scab Powdery mildew
Most resistant
Least resistant
Scab Powdery mildew
Most resistant Liberty Liberty
Honeycrisp Red Rome
Braeburn Honeycrisp
Least resistant Red Rome Braeburn
Answer to Question 2
How does this information affect your decision to plant?
What about insect susceptibility?
• Stressed plants more susceptible
• Timing of fruit set is important
• Early vs. Late harvest
Sanitation
• Remove
diseased/infested
plant material
• Don’t use diseased
leaves as mulch in
the orchard
Photo: http://www.growingmagazine.com/content/GRW/2012/04/A8010_4.jpg
ID & Understand the Pest
• Recognize pest & damage it causes
• Understand it’s life cycle
Photo: http://apps.rhs.org.uk/Advice/ACEImages//SCN0000901_757770.jpg
Common problem we see in spring-what is it?
Proper ID is key
OSU Extension resources
• Online handbooks
• Catalog.extension.oregonstate.edu
• Lane County Master Gardener
Plant Clinic
Hours: Mon-Thurs
10-1 pm & 2-5 pm
lanemg@oregonstate.edu
http://pnwhandbooks.org
Home Orchard Series: Pests & Diseases
Practice exercise: Understanding the pest
• Your apples have “worm holes”
• Diagnosed as Codling Moth….now what???
Photo: http://www.zamzows.com/Documents%20and%20Settings/41/Site%20Documents/Garden/codling%20moth%20damage.jpg
Life Cycle of Codling Moth
www.clipartbest.com
Life Cycle of Codling Moth
www.clipartbest.com
Frass from feeding larva
Life Cycle of Codling Moth
www.clipartbest.com
Your pest management toolbox
• Proper irrigation & fertilization
• Pruning
• Cultivar resistance
• Sanitation
• Encourage beneficials
• Understand the pest
• Proper ID & life cycle
• Pest monitoring
• Take action:
• Biological control
• Biorational pesticides
• Chemical pesticides
Monitoring: Prediction models
• Based on degree days (days above a threshold
temperature) and statistical models
• Utilizes local weather station data
• Approximate prediction of pest/disease activities
http://uspest.org/
Home Orchard Series: Pests & Diseases
http://utahpests.usu.edu/ipm/htm/fruits/fruit-insect-disease/codling-moths06
Local Monitoring of Insects
Photo: http://utahpests.usu.edu/IPM/images/uploads/factsheet/codling-moth/delta-trap.jpg
Example trap for Codling Moth monitoring
Apple Maggot trap
Apple maggot photo: https://www.ces.ncsu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/AM-trap-01.jpg
http://utahpests.usu.edu/IPM/images/uploads/factsheet/codling-moth/trap-placement.jpg
Physical options for insect management
• Fruit bagging
• Trapping
Stocking photo: http://cdn.territorialseed.com/images/uploads/14794_8283_large.jpg
Paper bag photo: http://www.vegetablegardener.com/assets/uploads/posts/11422/no-spray-organic-apples-4_lg.jpg
Pesticides
• Biorational,
organic and
synthetic choices
• Application
timing is very
important
Dormant Season Sprays
Photo: http://media.merchantcircle.com/upics/3/1083976/shutterstock_98006159_full.jpeg
Examples of dormant season sprays
• Insecticide: Dormant oil
• Fungicide/Bactericide: Copper-based or synthetic
Photo: https://extension.umaine.edu/fruit/wp-content/uploads/sites/62/2011/03/cherryflowerbuds1.jpg
Growing season sprays
• Good coverage
• Targeted
Photo: https://mayertreeservice.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/apple-tree-spraying.jpg
Remember: Protect beneficial organisms
Photo: http://www.southwestvictorygardens.com/wp-content/uploads/Lady-Bug-Larvae-Feeding-on-Aphids.jpg
Practice Exercise
• Use the codling moth life
cycle diagram
• Where should
management interventions
occur?
Frass from feeding larva
Example: Codling Moth
When should management occur?
www.clipartbest.com
Your homework
• Think about your orchards biggest pest problem
• Investigate when action needs to be taken
• Scouting? Preventative application?
• Put it on your calendar!
Resources
Presentation slides & links are posted on my website:
blogs.oregonstate.edu/ediblegardens
brooke.edmunds@oregonstate.edu
541-791-6671

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Home Orchard Series: Pests & Diseases

  • 1. Home Orchard Management Insects & Diseases Brooke Edmunds, OSU Extension
  • 2. Your goals for pest management: 1. Protect trees and crops from substantial damage 2. Make it simple and easy 3. Make it safe 4. Use methods that enhance natural control factors Adapted from: http://homeorchard.ucanr.edu/The_Big_Picture/Pests_&_Diseases/ Photo: Flickr user: steve_p2008 CC BY 2.0 https://flic.kr/p/cQ5bYf
  • 3. Question 1 • Think about your own orchard. • What insect and/or disease issues do you deal with? • List two methods of pest management that you use. • Then turn to a neighbor & share
  • 4. Your pest management toolbox • Proper irrigation & fertilization • Pruning • Cultivar resistance • Sanitation • Encourage beneficials • Understand the pest • Proper ID & life cycle • Pest monitoring • Take action: • Biological control • Biorational pesticides • Chemical pesticides
  • 5. Water & Fertilize Properly • Overwatering encourages root rot • Overfertilizing can encourage problems Soil tests are important! Photo: http://www.opb.org/images/upload/c_limit,h_1000,q_90,w_640/20151009_soilsample_CF_z5a9yf.jpg
  • 6. Pruning helps by: • Increased air circulation • Improved fruit quality • Better coverage of sprays Photo: http://www.provident-living-today.com/images/Before-and-After-Pruning-Peach-Tree.jpg
  • 7. Choose disease resistant cultivars Photo: http://pnwhandbooks.org/plantdisease/sites/default/files/images/apple_scab_box143-005.jpg Resistant to Scab Susceptible to Scab
  • 9. Question 2: Understanding cultivar disease susceptibility charts • Use the Apple Cultivar Susceptibility Chart • Rank the following four cultivars: Braeburn, Honeycrisp, Liberty, Red Rome Scab Powdery mildew Most resistant Least resistant
  • 10. Scab Powdery mildew Most resistant Liberty Liberty Honeycrisp Red Rome Braeburn Honeycrisp Least resistant Red Rome Braeburn Answer to Question 2 How does this information affect your decision to plant?
  • 11. What about insect susceptibility? • Stressed plants more susceptible • Timing of fruit set is important • Early vs. Late harvest
  • 12. Sanitation • Remove diseased/infested plant material • Don’t use diseased leaves as mulch in the orchard Photo: http://www.growingmagazine.com/content/GRW/2012/04/A8010_4.jpg
  • 13. ID & Understand the Pest • Recognize pest & damage it causes • Understand it’s life cycle Photo: http://apps.rhs.org.uk/Advice/ACEImages//SCN0000901_757770.jpg Common problem we see in spring-what is it?
  • 14. Proper ID is key OSU Extension resources • Online handbooks • Catalog.extension.oregonstate.edu • Lane County Master Gardener Plant Clinic Hours: Mon-Thurs 10-1 pm & 2-5 pm lanemg@oregonstate.edu
  • 17. Practice exercise: Understanding the pest • Your apples have “worm holes” • Diagnosed as Codling Moth….now what??? Photo: http://www.zamzows.com/Documents%20and%20Settings/41/Site%20Documents/Garden/codling%20moth%20damage.jpg
  • 18. Life Cycle of Codling Moth www.clipartbest.com
  • 19. Life Cycle of Codling Moth www.clipartbest.com
  • 20. Frass from feeding larva Life Cycle of Codling Moth www.clipartbest.com
  • 21. Your pest management toolbox • Proper irrigation & fertilization • Pruning • Cultivar resistance • Sanitation • Encourage beneficials • Understand the pest • Proper ID & life cycle • Pest monitoring • Take action: • Biological control • Biorational pesticides • Chemical pesticides
  • 22. Monitoring: Prediction models • Based on degree days (days above a threshold temperature) and statistical models • Utilizes local weather station data • Approximate prediction of pest/disease activities http://uspest.org/
  • 25. Local Monitoring of Insects Photo: http://utahpests.usu.edu/IPM/images/uploads/factsheet/codling-moth/delta-trap.jpg Example trap for Codling Moth monitoring Apple Maggot trap Apple maggot photo: https://www.ces.ncsu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/AM-trap-01.jpg
  • 27. Physical options for insect management • Fruit bagging • Trapping Stocking photo: http://cdn.territorialseed.com/images/uploads/14794_8283_large.jpg Paper bag photo: http://www.vegetablegardener.com/assets/uploads/posts/11422/no-spray-organic-apples-4_lg.jpg
  • 28. Pesticides • Biorational, organic and synthetic choices • Application timing is very important
  • 29. Dormant Season Sprays Photo: http://media.merchantcircle.com/upics/3/1083976/shutterstock_98006159_full.jpeg
  • 30. Examples of dormant season sprays • Insecticide: Dormant oil • Fungicide/Bactericide: Copper-based or synthetic Photo: https://extension.umaine.edu/fruit/wp-content/uploads/sites/62/2011/03/cherryflowerbuds1.jpg
  • 31. Growing season sprays • Good coverage • Targeted Photo: https://mayertreeservice.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/apple-tree-spraying.jpg
  • 32. Remember: Protect beneficial organisms Photo: http://www.southwestvictorygardens.com/wp-content/uploads/Lady-Bug-Larvae-Feeding-on-Aphids.jpg
  • 33. Practice Exercise • Use the codling moth life cycle diagram • Where should management interventions occur?
  • 34. Frass from feeding larva Example: Codling Moth When should management occur? www.clipartbest.com
  • 35. Your homework • Think about your orchards biggest pest problem • Investigate when action needs to be taken • Scouting? Preventative application? • Put it on your calendar!
  • 36. Resources Presentation slides & links are posted on my website: blogs.oregonstate.edu/ediblegardens brooke.edmunds@oregonstate.edu 541-791-6671

Editor's Notes

  1. Photo: Flickr user forever_carrie_on CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 https://flic.kr/p/c5RK8y
  2. Photo credits: Apple: Flickr user Joe King CC BY 2.0 https://flic.kr/p/7Y8ntN Walnuts: flickr user Erik Forsberg CC BY 2.0 https://flic.kr/p/odn4H3 Pears: flickr user Joe King CC BY 2.0 https://flic.kr/p/7Y583a Hazelnuts: flickr user Andrea Demagistris CC BY-NC 2.0 https://flic.kr/p/esVm2 Peach/Nectarine: Apricot Cherries: Plum/Prune:
  3. Photo: flickr user Josefine Stenudd CC BY-NC 2.0 https://flic.kr/p/8VBTTc
  4. Photo: Flickr user Pim Techamuanvivit CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 https://flic.kr/p/53ycTi
  5. Photo: flickr user Simone Bosotti CC BY-SA 2.0 https://flic.kr/p/9MKX7K
  6. Photo flickr user Julie Gibbons CC BY-SA 2.0 https://flic.kr/p/6RwxSY