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Home Orchard Series: Pests & Diseases

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Home Orchard Series: Pests & Diseases

  1. 1. Home Orchard Management Insects & Diseases Brooke Edmunds, OSU Extension
  2. 2. Your goals for pest management: 1. Protect trees and crops from substantial damage 2. Make it simple and easy 3. Make it safe 4. Use methods that enhance natural control factors Adapted from: http://homeorchard.ucanr.edu/The_Big_Picture/Pests_&_Diseases/ Photo: Flickr user: steve_p2008 CC BY 2.0 https://flic.kr/p/cQ5bYf
  3. 3. Question 1 • Think about your own orchard. • What insect and/or disease issues do you deal with? • List two methods of pest management that you use. • Then turn to a neighbor & share
  4. 4. Your pest management toolbox • Proper irrigation & fertilization • Pruning • Cultivar resistance • Sanitation • Encourage beneficials • Understand the pest • Proper ID & life cycle • Pest monitoring • Take action: • Biological control • Biorational pesticides • Chemical pesticides
  5. 5. Water & Fertilize Properly • Overwatering encourages root rot • Overfertilizing can encourage problems Soil tests are important! Photo: http://www.opb.org/images/upload/c_limit,h_1000,q_90,w_640/20151009_soilsample_CF_z5a9yf.jpg
  6. 6. Pruning helps by: • Increased air circulation • Improved fruit quality • Better coverage of sprays Photo: http://www.provident-living-today.com/images/Before-and-After-Pruning-Peach-Tree.jpg
  7. 7. Choose disease resistant cultivars Photo: http://pnwhandbooks.org/plantdisease/sites/default/files/images/apple_scab_box143-005.jpg Resistant to Scab Susceptible to Scab
  8. 8. Question 2: Understanding cultivar disease susceptibility charts • Use the Apple Cultivar Susceptibility Chart • Rank the following four cultivars: Braeburn, Honeycrisp, Liberty, Red Rome Scab Powdery mildew Most resistant Least resistant
  9. 9. Scab Powdery mildew Most resistant Liberty Liberty Honeycrisp Red Rome Braeburn Honeycrisp Least resistant Red Rome Braeburn Answer to Question 2 How does this information affect your decision to plant?
  10. 10. What about insect susceptibility? • Stressed plants more susceptible • Timing of fruit set is important • Early vs. Late harvest
  11. 11. Sanitation • Remove diseased/infested plant material • Don’t use diseased leaves as mulch in the orchard Photo: http://www.growingmagazine.com/content/GRW/2012/04/A8010_4.jpg
  12. 12. ID & Understand the Pest • Recognize pest & damage it causes • Understand it’s life cycle Photo: http://apps.rhs.org.uk/Advice/ACEImages//SCN0000901_757770.jpg Common problem we see in spring-what is it?
  13. 13. Proper ID is key OSU Extension resources • Online handbooks • Catalog.extension.oregonstate.edu • Lane County Master Gardener Plant Clinic Hours: Mon-Thurs 10-1 pm & 2-5 pm lanemg@oregonstate.edu
  14. 14. http://pnwhandbooks.org
  15. 15. Practice exercise: Understanding the pest • Your apples have “worm holes” • Diagnosed as Codling Moth….now what??? Photo: http://www.zamzows.com/Documents%20and%20Settings/41/Site%20Documents/Garden/codling%20moth%20damage.jpg
  16. 16. Life Cycle of Codling Moth www.clipartbest.com
  17. 17. Life Cycle of Codling Moth www.clipartbest.com
  18. 18. Frass from feeding larva Life Cycle of Codling Moth www.clipartbest.com
  19. 19. Your pest management toolbox • Proper irrigation & fertilization • Pruning • Cultivar resistance • Sanitation • Encourage beneficials • Understand the pest • Proper ID & life cycle • Pest monitoring • Take action: • Biological control • Biorational pesticides • Chemical pesticides
  20. 20. Monitoring: Prediction models • Based on degree days (days above a threshold temperature) and statistical models • Utilizes local weather station data • Approximate prediction of pest/disease activities http://uspest.org/
  21. 21. http://utahpests.usu.edu/ipm/htm/fruits/fruit-insect-disease/codling-moths06
  22. 22. Local Monitoring of Insects Photo: http://utahpests.usu.edu/IPM/images/uploads/factsheet/codling-moth/delta-trap.jpg Example trap for Codling Moth monitoring Apple Maggot trap Apple maggot photo: https://www.ces.ncsu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/AM-trap-01.jpg
  23. 23. http://utahpests.usu.edu/IPM/images/uploads/factsheet/codling-moth/trap-placement.jpg
  24. 24. Physical options for insect management • Fruit bagging • Trapping Stocking photo: http://cdn.territorialseed.com/images/uploads/14794_8283_large.jpg Paper bag photo: http://www.vegetablegardener.com/assets/uploads/posts/11422/no-spray-organic-apples-4_lg.jpg
  25. 25. Pesticides • Biorational, organic and synthetic choices • Application timing is very important
  26. 26. Dormant Season Sprays Photo: http://media.merchantcircle.com/upics/3/1083976/shutterstock_98006159_full.jpeg
  27. 27. Examples of dormant season sprays • Insecticide: Dormant oil • Fungicide/Bactericide: Copper-based or synthetic Photo: https://extension.umaine.edu/fruit/wp-content/uploads/sites/62/2011/03/cherryflowerbuds1.jpg
  28. 28. Growing season sprays • Good coverage • Targeted Photo: https://mayertreeservice.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/apple-tree-spraying.jpg
  29. 29. Remember: Protect beneficial organisms Photo: http://www.southwestvictorygardens.com/wp-content/uploads/Lady-Bug-Larvae-Feeding-on-Aphids.jpg
  30. 30. Practice Exercise • Use the codling moth life cycle diagram • Where should management interventions occur?
  31. 31. Frass from feeding larva Example: Codling Moth When should management occur? www.clipartbest.com
  32. 32. Your homework • Think about your orchards biggest pest problem • Investigate when action needs to be taken • Scouting? Preventative application? • Put it on your calendar!
  33. 33. Resources Presentation slides & links are posted on my website: blogs.oregonstate.edu/ediblegardens brooke.edmunds@oregonstate.edu 541-791-6671

Editor's Notes

  • Photo: Flickr user forever_carrie_on CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 https://flic.kr/p/c5RK8y
  • Photo credits: Apple: Flickr user Joe King CC BY 2.0 https://flic.kr/p/7Y8ntN
    Walnuts: flickr user Erik Forsberg CC BY 2.0 https://flic.kr/p/odn4H3
    Pears: flickr user Joe King CC BY 2.0 https://flic.kr/p/7Y583a
    Hazelnuts: flickr user Andrea Demagistris CC BY-NC 2.0 https://flic.kr/p/esVm2
    Peach/Nectarine:
    Apricot
    Cherries:
    Plum/Prune:
  • Photo: flickr user Josefine Stenudd CC BY-NC 2.0 https://flic.kr/p/8VBTTc
  • Photo: Flickr user Pim Techamuanvivit CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 https://flic.kr/p/53ycTi
  • Photo: flickr user Simone Bosotti CC BY-SA 2.0 https://flic.kr/p/9MKX7K
  • Photo flickr user Julie Gibbons CC BY-SA 2.0 https://flic.kr/p/6RwxSY

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