Who are the polluters?
Who should pay?
Should we ever pay the polluter?
What would a polluter pays charge look like?
How much difference would it make?
WHO ARE THE POLLUTERS?
• The popular view: "nasty companies"
• What happens if we tax businesses?
• Where do consumers come in?
• What happens to historical pollution?
THE CORPORATE TAX CASE
Tax on owners
via dividends and
Tax on workers and
jobs via lower
Tax on customers
via increased price
WHO SHOULD PAY?
• The polluter or the polluted?
• Cause argument - it doesn’t matter
• Bargaining problems
• Fairness and equity
THE CHEMICAL FACTORY AND THE FISH FARM
FISH FARMCHEMICAL COMPANY
WHEN SHOULD WE PAY THE
• Climate change, carbon taxes and developing countries
• Kyoto and Paris
• The rainforests and global biodiversity
• When the polluters can’t pay
WHAT SHOULD A POLLUTER CHARGE LOOK
• P= SMC
• Tax = difference between private & social cost
• Tax and learn
• Start low and increase to meet target
• Levy and regulation where each context is different
WHAT DIFFERENCE WOULD IT MAKE?
• Price of fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides
• Chemical Applications
• Carbon price
• Result: Less water pollution, more biodiversity, more organic farming
LESS INTENSE PRODUCTION, LESS
GLOBAL FOOD TRADE
• What happens to the money?
• Is there still a double dividend argument?
• Should we recycle generally or specifically to renewable natural
• Who benefits from the increase in economic efficiency?
• Polluters are ultimately us
• We live beyond our means
• Polluters should pay
• Leads to radical changes to relative prices
• Yields lots of money
• Can spend it on enhancing renewable natural capital