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Microbiology and Human Spaceflight Applications

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Presentation by Mark Ott, Ph. D., NASA-JSC

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Microbiology and Human Spaceflight Applications

  1. 1. Ott – ISS CASIS Microbiome Workshop 2016
  2. 2. Ott – ISS CASIS Microbiome Workshop 2016 Microbiology and Human Spaceflight Applications C. Mark Ott, Ph.D. Microbiology Laboratory NASA Johnson Space Center ISS CASIS Microbiome Workshop 2016
  3. 3. Ott – ISS CASIS Microbiome Workshop 2016
  4. 4. Ott – ISS CASIS Microbiome Workshop 2016 How Microorganisms Impact Human Spaceflight • Infectious Disease • Biodegradation • Systems failure • Food spoilage • Release of volatiles Timbury,et al, 2004 4
  5. 5. Ott – ISS CASIS Microbiome Workshop 2016 Prevention 5
  6. 6. Ott – ISS CASIS Microbiome Workshop 2016 Vehicle Design Controls • HEPA air filters • In-line water filters • Contamination resistant surfaces • Water biocides • Water pasteurization systems • Minimize condensation • Contain trash and human waste 6
  7. 7. Ott – ISS CASIS Microbiome Workshop 2016 Operational Controls *Billica, Pool, Nicogossian, 1994 Mission Illness (Crew) Apollo 7 Upper respiratory infection (3) Apollo 8 Viral gastroenteritis (3) Apollo 9 Upper respiratory infection (3) Apollo 10 Upper respiratory infection (2) Apollo 11 Apollo 12 Skin infection (2) Apollo 13 Rubella (1) Apollo 14 Apollo 15 Apollo 16 Apollo 17 Skin infection (1) Skylab-2 Skylab-3 Skin infection (2) Skylab-4 Skin infection (2) Health Stabilization Program 7
  8. 8. Ott – ISS CASIS Microbiome Workshop 2016 Preflight Monitoring • Crew • Potable water • Spaceflight food – Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium – Staphylococcus aureus – Enterobacter cloacae – Klebsiella pneumoniae – Aspergillus fumigatus – Aspergillus flavus • Vehicle air, surfaces, and cargo – Pseudomonas aeruginosa – S. aureus • Biosafety review of experimental payloads – S. Typhimurium – Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus 8
  9. 9. Ott – ISS CASIS Microbiome Workshop 2016 Microbiological Monitoring on the ISS AirSurfaces Water Quantified in-flight and returned to JSC for identification 9
  10. 10. Ott – ISS CASIS Microbiome Workshop 2016 ISS Air and Surface Monitoring Bacterial Isolates *Pierson, et al. 2012 10
  11. 11. Ott – ISS CASIS Microbiome Workshop 2016 ISS Air and Surface Monitoring FungaI Isolates *Pierson, et al. 2012 11
  12. 12. Ott – ISS CASIS Microbiome Workshop 2016 U. S. Potable Water Dispenser • Provides “hot” and “ambient” potable water • Processing includes: – Catalytic oxidizer – Iodine disinfection – In-line filter (0.2 micron) • Common isolates – Ralstonia pickettii – Burkholderia multivorans – Sphingomonas sanguinis – Cupriavidas metallidurans 12
  13. 13. Ott – ISS CASIS Microbiome Workshop 2016 Visible Contamination • At least 50% of microbial contamination events on spacecraft are due to “free” water 13
  14. 14. Ott – ISS CASIS Microbiome Workshop 2016 Next Generation Spaceflight Monitoring • Spaceflight technology demonstrations – Razor system • QPCR technology – Targeted probes • Designed for and used by the military • Dry chemistry for easier sample prep • Limited number of sample wells – MinION system (Biomolecular Sequencer) • Nanopore technology • Sequences all organisms in the sample • Requires sample prep – Both systems performed well in recent ISS demonstrations • Next step: Development of crew health requirements 14
  15. 15. Ott – ISS CASIS Microbiome Workshop 2016 Summary – Spacecraft Environments • Environmental monitoring of the ISS and its cargo indicates – Spacecraft bacteria reflect human flora – The presence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens (e.g., P. aeruginosa, S. aureus) and potentially toxigenic filamentous fungi (e.g., A. flavis). • Environmental monitoring of Mir “free floating” condensate indicate multiple isolation of previously unidentified opportunistic pathogens and protozoa.* • Analysis of ISS trash after Space Shuttle landing indicated the presence of a Salmonella species.** • The presence of several medically significant agents are not monitored due to technological limitations (e.g., norovirus and other enteric viruses, Legionella pneumophila) • The SWAB flight experiment specifically looked for and did not find Stachybotris chartarum on ISS. *Ott, et al., 2004 ** Kish, et al., 2002 15
  16. 16. Ott – ISS CASIS Microbiome Workshop 2016 Crew-Environment Microbial Exchange • Evaluation of 36 S. aureus isolates from early ISS missions* – Blue - isolated from the crew of ISS-5, the crew of ISS-4, and in- flight environmental isolates – Green - isolated from the crews of ISS-1, ISS-4, and ISS-5 – Red - isolated from the crew of ISS-1 and ISS-4 and from an in- flight environmental surface *Bassinger, et al., 2004 16
  17. 17. Ott – ISS CASIS Microbiome Workshop 2016 The Risk of Astronaut Infection • Positives – Healthy, well-conditioned crew – Preflight medical exams – Preflight crew quarantine – Stringent microbiological monitoring – Medical consult throughout a mission • Negatives – Small enclosed environment – Recycled air/water – Limited diagnostics and treatment on board – Limited remediation capabilities – Dysfunctional aspects of the immune system – Unique alterations of microbial characteristics, including virulence 17
  18. 18. Ott – ISS CASIS Microbiome Workshop 2016 Infectious Disease during Spaceflight • Infectious disease characteristics, such as infection rate and route of infection, are difficult to determine during spaceflight missions, as disease incidence is usually based on symptomology – Rash – Dry hacking cough – Diarrhea • Examples of diseases attributed to microorganisms during spaceflight missions – Upper respiratory infections – Urinary tract infections – Ear infections – Various fungal infections – Herpes Zoster ‒ Stye ‒ Rashes & skin disorders ‒ Allergic reactions ‒ Gastroenteritis 18
  19. 19. Ott – ISS CASIS Microbiome Workshop 2016 Alterations in Microbial Virulence • Spaceflight research from STS-115 (MICROBE Experiment) and STS-123 (MDRV Experiment) demonstrated that S. Typhimurium grown in-flight compared to otherwise identical ground controls: – Showed the presence of an extracellular substance suggesting enhanced biofilm formation – Killed mice faster and killed mice at lower doses than identical bacterial cultures grown on the ground - 2.7 fold decrease in LD50 on STS-115; 6.9 fold decrease in LD50 on STS-123 – Displayed 167 genes with different expression with a specific protein called “Hfq” as a potential controlling mechanism – Inorganic ion concentrations (possibly phosphate) regulates the spaceflight associated changes in virulence Flight Sample Ground Control *Wilson, et al. 2007; Wilson, et al. 2008 19
  20. 20. Ott – ISS CASIS Microbiome Workshop 2016 Other Notable Experiments • P. aeruginosa (MICROBE Experiment aboard STS-115)* – P. aeruginosa grown during spaceflight had 167 genes with differentially expression compared to identical bacterial cultures grown on the ground. – Hfq again appeared to have a strong role in the mechanism behind these changes. – Increase in virulence characteristics • Candida albicans, (MICROBE Experiment aboard STS-115)** – C. albicans grown during spaceflight had 452 genes with differentially expression, genes involved in cell aggregation and stress responses, compared to identical bacterial cultures grown on the ground. – Cultures displayed enhanced random budding, as opposed to bipolar budding patterns for ground samples. – Gene expression patterns suggested the potential for enhanced virulence; however, increased virulence was not observed • P. aeruginosa (MICRO-2 aboard STS-132 and STS-135)*** – P. aeruginosa grown during spaceflight displayed increased biofilm formation – The “column-and-canopy” biofilm architecture has never been reported on Earth *Crabbe, et al. 2011 **Crabbe, et al. 2011 ***Kim, et al. 2013 20
  21. 21. Ott – ISS CASIS Microbiome Workshop 2016 Human Microbiome Experiment • Determining alterations in crew microbiota that result during spaceflight missions will allow NASA to leverage this data against the vast knowledge currently being amassed in terrestrial studies. • This information may lead to a better understanding of: – Crew immune status. – Previously unidentified medically significant microorganisms – Crew health for long duration missions, such as a Mars expedition. • Based on a recommendation from the Institute of Medicine, the Human Research Program (HRP) initiated a Risk based on spaceflight research indicating altered host-microorganism interactions. • In 2010, NASA selected a proposal to investigate the astronaut microbiome submitted by the J. Craig Venter Institute (PI: Hernan Lorenzi). 21
  22. 22. Ott – ISS CASIS Microbiome Workshop 2016 Astronaut Microbiome • Evaluation of changes in the crew microbiome during spaceflight missions – PI: Hernan Lorenzi, Ph.D., J. Craig Venter Institute – Samples are collected preflight, in-flight, and post-flight samples from 9 astronauts – Samples include two skin sites, nostrils, fecal samples, potable water, as well as blood and saliva for immunological evaluations. – Crew diets and medications are being included in the analyses. – Tightly monitored metadata (e.g., temperature, humidity) is available. 22
  23. 23. Ott – ISS CASIS Microbiome Workshop 2016 JSC Center Support Applied and Basic Research International Space Station Program JSC Biosafety Review Board Orion Program Commercial Spaceflight JSC Spaceflight Food Laboratory JSC Flight Medicine and Occupational Health Clinics Debbie Aldape Todd Elliott Sarah Foster Duane Pierson, PhD Bekki Bruce Crystal Enloe Jane McCourt Melanie Smith Victoria Castro Vanessa Garcia Satish Mehta, PhD Sarah Stahl Brandon Dunbar Tanner Hamilton Cherie Oubre, PhD Sarah Wallace, PhD JSC Microbiology Laboratory Accreditations: Environmental Microbiology Laboratory Accreditation Program (AIHA) National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Committee
  24. 24. Ott – ISS CASIS Microbiome Workshop 2016

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