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Martin Fellenz: Unpacking Management & Leadership Plenary Session


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Unpacking Management & Leadership Plenary Session

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Martin Fellenz: Unpacking Management & Leadership Plenary Session

  1. 1. Unpacking Management & Leadership Prof Martin Fellenz Trinity College Dublin April 13, 2019 ©Eaquals Eaquals International Conference | Madrid | 11-13 April 2019 #eaquals19madrid
  2. 2. What is Management? ©Eaquals #eaquals19madrid
  3. 3. GOAL RESULT Organizing Planning Controlling Leading The Process of Management The Process of Management Management ! a process that involves planning, organizing, leading (or deploying), and controlling resources in order to achieve goals. People management è the process of trying to achieve goals in organizations with and through people. (Source: Martin & Fellenz, 2017) ©Eaquals #eaquals19madrid
  4. 4. GOAL RESULT Organizing Planning Controlling Leading People Organizational Context The Process of Management Variety Uncertainty Complexity Variety Uncertainty Complexity (Source: Martin & Fellenz, 2017) ©Eaquals #eaquals19madrid
  5. 5. Variety – the number of differences that potentially relevant factors can contain (this can include variability – change over time) Complexity - a large number of potentially relevant factors and connections between them that may have a bearing on the intended outcome Uncertainty - the absence of sufficient information about the nature and likelihood of certain events that may have a bearing on the intended outcome (Source: Martin & Fellenz, 2017) ©Eaquals #eaquals19madrid
  6. 6. Individuals •  Personality & individual differences •  Abilities, skills and aptitudes •  Perception, attribution and attitudes •  Motivation and goals Interactions •  Leadership & management style •  Group dynamics •  Communication & Decision-making •  Conflict and negotiation Social Systems •  Culture •  Power, influence and politics •  Relationships and informal networks •  Fairness and trust Formal Systems •  Organization structure •  Technology •  Formal control and reward systems •  Human resource management systems and practices GOAL RESULT Organizing Planning Controlling Leading People Organizational Context The Process of Management (Source: Martin & Fellenz, 2017) ©Eaquals #eaquals19madrid
  7. 7. What would make me a manager in your organisation? è Appointment by someone with the necessary authority ©Eaquals #eaquals19madrid
  8. 8. What is Leadership? What is a Leader? ©Eaquals #eaquals19madrid
  9. 9. •  is capable, powerful, and confident •  is aware of what is going on and knows what to do •  is resilient and stays calm even under pressure •  is visionary and provides direction •  helps me understand and make sense of what’s going on •  clearly distinguishes between right and wrong •  inspires me to do and be my best •  provides a role-model of how and what to be •  is honest and open with me •  is trustworthy and willing to trust me •  listens to and understands me •  is open to take my input on board •  is concerned and has my interests and well-being at heart •  will go out of his/her way to help, support and protect me •  ... etc. The prototypical leader … ©Eaquals #eaquals19madrid
  10. 10. ©Eaquals 10 But there is a problem with this widely shared view of the prototypical leader … ... because it is the view any 4- year old has of their parent, caregiver, or teacher. This ‘heroic’ leadership ideal does not stand up to closer scrutiny. Leadership theory & research has traditionally conflated and confused leadership and authority-based influence.
  11. 11. Management vs Leadership Management Planning, Budgeting Organising, Staffing Controlling, Problem-solving Leadership Setting a direction Aligning people Motivating, Inspiring John Kotter ©Eaquals #eaquals19madrid
  12. 12. Managers vs. Leaders Ø Leaders chose the road for managers to drive on Ø Managers get people to do things – leaders get them to do the right things. Ø Managers get people to do the same better – leaders get people to do better things. Ø Managers get people to do things – leaders get them to want to do them.? ✗ ✗ ✗ ©Eaquals #eaquals19madrid
  13. 13. So what is Leadership? And how can we distinguish between management and leadership? ©Eaquals #eaquals19madrid
  14. 14. There is only one observable indicator of leadership: Followers that choose to follow, not based on coercion or reward, but driven by their own motivation ©Eaquals #eaquals19madrid
  15. 15. Management and Leadership can be distinguished on the basis of the explanation for followership in terms of the kind of motivation and the source of legitimacy: •  Management can be seen as the exercise of influence over others using extrinsic motivation and based on externally determined (i.e., authority based) legitimacy. •  Leadership in contrast can be seen as the exercise of influence over others using their intrinsic motivation and based on subjective, follower-based legitimation. Distinguishing between Leadership and Management (Source: Martin & Fellenz, 2017) ©Eaquals #eaquals19madrid
  16. 16. •  The implications of recognising that leadership depends on – in fact is created by - followers changes how we see Leaders and Leadership. •  It moves us from the traditional ‘heroic’ conceptions of leaders to a ‘post-heroic’, more relational, follower-based one. •  It also changes what effective leadership is from a power- based or goal-achievement based one. Leadership effectiveness is the degree of success in initiating and sustaining leadership (i.e., in creating and maintaining followership). Leadership Effectiveness (Source: Martin & Fellenz, 2017) ©Eaquals #eaquals19madrid
  17. 17. •  as a manager •  as a leader •  as an educator Ask: Is my behaviour serving my goals? Implications from unpacking management and leadership for you …
  18. 18. Ask: Is my behaviour serving my goals? •  What am I trying to achieve? •  Is an approach based on authority and formal power (carrot & stick) the best way to achieve my goals? •  Am I using my formal power effectively? •  Am I limiting my impact by not considering other influencing approaches? Finding Your Own Leadership Approach(es) … as a manager
  19. 19. Ask: Is my behaviour serving my goals? •  What am I trying to achieve? •  Is my own conception of leadership helping me to achieve my goals? •  Am I recognising and leveraging the intrinsic motivation of those I am trying to lead? •  Am I recognising how I can best create and maintain followership? Finding Your Own Leadership Approach(es) … as a leader
  20. 20. Ask: Is my behaviour serving my goals? •  What am I trying to achieve? •  Do I recognise the role that leadership plays in education and learning? •  How can I actively lead my students, my colleagues, and myself to better support student learning and development? Finding Your Own Leadership Approach(es) … as an educator
  21. 21. Have you ever worked for (with) a great boss (coach, teacher, etc.)? A brief reflection
  22. 22. In the long run, nothing motivates people as much as their own quest for self-fulfilment and self-actualisation. To lead most effectively, we need to learn how to tap into the developmental objectives of our students, our colleagues, and ourselves. This is where our role as educators and our potential as leaders become one. The key takeaway …
  23. 23. Want to go further? Some useful readings (A): Note: Not all these readings will be to everyone’s taste, but they may provide some useful input. On almost everything we talked about: Martin, J., & Fellenz, M.R. (2017). Organizational behaviour and management (5th ed.). Andover: Cengage. (What can I say –a one-stop-shopping source for all areas to do with individual and collective behaviour in organizations.) On developing leadership and other skills: •  Bolton, R. (1979). People skills. New York: Simon & Schuster. (A classic with useful input on interpersonal skills, communication, assertiveness, conflict resolution. Useful for reflecting on personal styles as well as values.) •  Cialdini, R.B. (2008). Influence: Science and Practice (5th ed.). New York: Allyn & Bacon. (The ‘Bible’ of how to influence people). •  Goleman, D. (2000). Leadership that gets results. Harvard Business Review, March-April. (Helpful discussion of different leadership styles and their fit in different types of situations and contexts.) •  Sutton, Robert I. (2009). How to Be a Good Boss in a Bad Economy. Harvard Business Review, June. (Useful discussion of what people need in difficult times, and what bosses need to provide.) •  Whetten, D.A., & Cameron, K.S. (2007). Developing management skills. Prentice Hall. (Very broad and comprehensive source for a wide variety of useful skills in managing people.) •  Yukl, G. (2012). Leadership in Organizations (8th ed.). Pearsons. (Leading textbook on leadership – useful but largely reflective of the traditional ways of thinking about leadership)
  24. 24. On personal development •  Bridges, William (2009). Managing transitions: Making the most of change (3rd ed.). London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing. (A classic on transitions in human experience.) •  Fromm, Erich (1956). The Art of Loving. (Various editions and re-issues) and (1976). To Have or To Be? (Various editions and re-issues). The Fromm books provide some relevant input to our discussions from a humanistic and more philosophical perspective. •  Kegan, R. (1983). The Evolving Self: Problem and Process in Human Development. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press. •  Kegan, R. (1995). In Over Our Heads: The Mental Demands of Modern Life. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press. •  Kegan, R., & Lahey, L.L. (2009). Immunity to Change. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press. Robert Kegan’s core ideas on adult development and subject-object transformation were laid out in his 1983 book (which provides for somewhat heavier reading at times), and again used in his broader 1995 book. The 2009 book is very relevant for organisational as well as individual change – very readable. On coaching (there are thousands of books on coaching – I have found Whitmore’s work useful and sufficient) •  Whitmore, John (2009). Coaching for Performance: GROWing Human Potential and Purpose - The Principles and Practice of Coaching and Leadership (4th ed.). London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing. On Mindfulness and self-compassion: •  Bays, J. C. (2011). How to Train a Wild Elephant. Boston: Shambhala Publications. (Some ideas for mindfulness in everyday life.) •  Gilbert, P. (2009). The Compassionate Mind. London: Constable & Robinson. (Intriguing book on the the role of compassion and self-compassion and its importance for all of us in daily life. Highly recommended.) •  Kabat-Zinn, Jon (2013). Full Catastrophe Living (rev. ed.). London: Piatkus. (Well-written and readable treatment of mindfulness and life in modern times by one of the originators of the mindfulness movement/revolution. Higly recommended.) •  Williams, M. & Penman, D. (2011). Mindfulness: A practical guide to finding peace in a frantic world. London: Piatkus. (Comprehensive disciussion of mindfulness – contains a programme everyone can follow – an intersting entry point to reading and thinking about mindfulness – or even to mindfulness!) Want to go further? Some useful readings (B):
  25. 25. Trinity Business School Thank You Prof. Martin Fellenz