Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Sexuality and Young People's Health

10 views

Published on

Sexuality and Young People's Health

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Sexuality and Young People's Health

  1. 1. Sexuality and young people’s health SFU
  2. 2. How does sex impact young people’s health?
  3. 3. Sexual Debut 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 <11 12 13 14 15 16 17+ Age of First Sexual Intercourse 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 0.0 0.5 1.0 Asian White Hispanic Black Female Male Survival Curve for Probability of “No Sexual Debut” by Age.
  4. 4. Sexual Scripts Theory Hey! Hi. Sexual encounters are considered to be scripted if the parties involved use any of these five linguistic devices: • References to predictable stages • References to common knowledge • The production of consensus through seamless turn-talking & collaborative talk • The use of hypothetical & general instances • Active voicing
  5. 5. Can you think of any scripts that are “good”? Are there bad scripts too?
  6. 6. “Although most participants’ culture-level gender scripts for behavior in sexual relationships were congruent with descriptions of traditional masculine and feminine sexuality, there was heterogeneity in how or whether these scripts were incorporated into individual relationships….Changing sexual scripts can potentially contribute to decreased gender inequity in the sexual realm and to increased opportunities for sexual satisfaction, safety, and wellbeing, particularly for women, but for men as well.” - Masters et al. (2014) “Sexual Scripts” JSR.
  7. 7. Teen Pregnancy 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 0 70 TeenPregnancies,per100,000 35 Teenage girls are more likely to get pregnant when they have fewer education or employment opportunities, lower access to effective contraceptives, and low sexual health literacy.
  8. 8. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Chlamydia 0 5 10 15 Syphilis 0 50 100 150 200 Gonorrhea >10 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-39 40-59 60+ 66.2% of HIV cases in Canada are among gbMSM. 116% 80% 568%
  9. 9. What is sexual orientation? Does it differ from sexuality?
  10. 10. Gender Attraction MasculineFeminine Androphilia Gynephilia Masculinity: traits that are typically associated with male sex. Femininity: traits that are typically associated with female sex. Gynephilia: attraction to women or femininity. Androphilia: attraction to men or masculinity. Gay man Bisexual woman Lesbian woman Straight manBisexual man Straight woman
  11. 11. Typical / Expected Patterns of Sex, Gender and Orientation XX XY
  12. 12. No Necessary Continuity Between Sex, Gender, Orientation XX XY
  13. 13. Sensitization Often occurring before puberty, a general sense of being different from his or her same-sex peers emerges. 1 2 3 4 Dissonance After puberty, conflict between social patterning and same- sex arousal develops. Identification In adolescence, as kids gains more experience and reflect on their sexuality they begin to identify as a sexual minority. Affirmation After identifying as a sexual minority, individuals in their late teens or early twenties begin to affirm their sexuality.
  14. 14. Trajectories of Sexual Identities, 10 Years Males Aged 12-17 Completely Gynophilic Mostly Gynophilic Bisexual Mostly Androphilic Completely Androphilic Unsure Completely Gynophilic 96% 3% 0% 0% 0% 0% Mostly Gynophilic 55% 37% 4% 2% 1% 1% Bisexual 39% 18% 18% 12% 9% 3% Mostly Androphilic 13% 4% 4% 33% 46% 0% Completely Androphilic 11% 0% 0% 14% 75% 0% Unsure 76% 9% 4% 4% 6% 1%
  15. 15. Trajectories of Sexual Identities, 10 Years Males Aged 18-21 Completely Gynophilic Mostly Gynophilic Bisexual Mostly Androphilic Completely Androphilic Unsure Completely Gynophilic 96% 3% 0% 0% 0% 0% Mostly Gynophilic 38% 53% 5% 2% 2% 0% Bisexual 0% 24% 33% 29% 14% 0% Mostly Androphilic 0% 0% 4% 46% 50% 0% Completely Androphilic 2% 0% 0% 9% 89% 0% Unsure 50% 0% 0% 17% 33% 0%
  16. 16. Trajectories of Sexual Identities, 10 Years Females Aged 12-17 Completely Androphilic Mostly Androphilic Bisexual Mostly Gynophilic Completely Gynophilic Unsure Completely Androphilic 93% 6% 1% 0% 0% 0% Mostly Androphilic 46% 44% 7% 1% 0% 1% Bisexual 17% 34% 42% 3% 3% 0% Mostly Gynophilic 0% 13% 13% 25% 38% 13% Completely Gynophilic 29% 0% 14% 14% 43% 0% Unsure 73% 13% 4% 1% 1% 8%
  17. 17. Trajectories of Sexual Identities, 10 Years Females Aged 18-21 Completely Androphilic Mostly Androphilic Bisexual Mostly Gynophilic Completely Gynophilic Unsure Completely Androphilic 94% 6% 0% 0% 0% 0% Mostly Androphilic 35% 55% 7% 1% 0% 1% Bisexual 7% 31% 48% 6% 8% 0% Mostly Gynophilic 5% 15% 20% 35% 25% 0% Completely Gynophilic 5% 0% 5% 25% 65% 0% Unsure 28% 22% 11% 11% 6% 22%
  18. 18. O H H H OH Hormones Social Influence Genetics Långström et al. (2010) | >7,600 twins 36% 64% 18% 65% 17% Genetics Genetics Experience Environment Experience
  19. 19. Are there such things as gay/queer features, styles, or personality traits?
  20. 20. Facial Recognition Straight Gay Narrower Jaws Higher Eyebrows Longer Noses Bigger Lips Yilun & Kosinski (2017) “We used deep neural networks to extract features from 35,326 facial images. These features were entered into a logistic regression aimed at classifying sexual orientation. Given a single facial image, a classifier could correctly distinguish between gay and heterosexual men in 81% of cases, and in 74% of cases for women. Human judges achieved much lower accuracy: 61% for men and 54% for women. The accuracy of the algorithm increased to 91% and 83%, respectively, given five facial images per person…
  21. 21. androstadienone estratetraenol “Homosexual males exhibit a pheromone response pattern [to androstadienone] akin to that of heterosexual females, whereas bisexual or homosexual females fall in between heterosexual males and females.” Derived from male sweat. Derived from female urine. Physiological Traits • The index fingers (2D) of most straight men and lesbians is shorter than the ring fingers (4D), and for most gay men and straight women they are the same length or longer. gay men & straight women Straight men & gay women Pheromones
  22. 22. Klar (2004) | N = 600 29.8% of men at popular gay beach had counterclockwise hair swirl, compared to 8.2% men at malls and stores. (β <0.01; Nr = 90) Rahmen et al. (2009) | N = 200 18.0% of gay men, compared to 14.0% of straight men have counterclockwise whorls. (β = 0.81; Nr = 2,630) Schwartz et al. (2010) | N = 1306 19.7% of gay men and 17.2% of straight men have counterclockwise whorls. (β = 0.62; Nr = 7,552) β = Probability of Incorrect Rejection of H0 Nr = Needed sample size to reject H0
  23. 23. 1983 1987 1991 1995 1999 1.0 Odds for Non-Right Handedness Among Gay Men and Women Lalumiere et al. (2000) | Meta-Analysis • Handedness is identifiable in fetuses as early as 10 weeks after gestation. • Genetics account for only a small degree of variance in handedness among children (<8%) and adults (14- 26%). • Males are more likely to be left-handed. • Concordance for left-handedness in twins is rare. • Yet, left-handedness is more common in twins and triplets. • Bottoms/versatiles gbMSM are more likely to be non-right-handed than tops and straight-identified gbMSM.
  24. 24. Fraternal Birth Order • According to meta-analyses, 15-29% of the prevalence of male androphilia is attributable to the fraternal birth order effect (FBOE). • Each older brother increases the odds of male androphilia by 28-48%. • The FBOE impacts right-handed males. • The FBOE is present even if children were reared in different households. • Having more older step/adopted brothers does not have an effect. • The FBOE occurs across races, cultures, historical areas, and regions. 0.02 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Number of Older Brothers ProbabilityofMaleAndrophilia
  25. 25. Maternal Familial Fecundity 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 Maternal fecundity is consistently higher among androphilic males Lemmola & Camperio (2009) “There is a long-standing debate on the role of genetic factors influencing homosexuality because the presence of these factors contradicts the Darwinian prediction according to which natural selection should progressively eliminate the factors that reduce individual fecundity and fitness. Recently, however, Camperio et al. reported a significant increase in fecundity in the females related to the homosexual probands from the maternal line but not in those related from the paternal one. This suggested that genetic factors that are partly linked to the X-chromosome and that influence homosexual orientation in males are not selected against because they increase fecundity in female carriers, thus offering a solution to the Darwinian paradox and an explanation of why natural selection does not progressively eliminate homosexuals.”
  26. 26. ‘30s ’40s ‘50s ‘70s ‘80s The Stigma Generation Gay and Lesbian Civil Rights Movement Declassification of homosexuality as mental illness AIDS Epidemic The Stonewall Generation Gay and Lesbian Civil Rights Movement at height of adulthood. The AIDS Generation Experienced adolescence and early adulthood post-Stonewall Hardest hit by AIDS epidemic The ART Generation Childhood and adolescence during AIDS; Witnessed major treatment advances for HIV; shifts from AIDS to human rights. The Marriage Generation Achievement of marriage equality, equal rights; greater social acceptance; post-AIDS,.
  27. 27. In what ways does sexuality impact young people’s health?
  28. 28. Crocker, Luhtanen, Cooper, Bouvrette. (2003) “Contingencies of Self Worth in College Students.” academics appearance approval competition famiy support spirituality virtue Contingencies of self worth Contingencies of self-worth represent the domains in which goals are linked to self-worth.” “
  29. 29. Pachankis & Hatzenbuehler (2013). “The Social Development of Contingent Self-Worth in Sexual Minority Young Men.” academics appearance approval competition famiy support spirituality virtue Contingencies of self worth Academics, appearance, and competition may be safer domains in which young sexual minority men can invest their self-worth and represent means for young sexual minority men to gain esteem even within the threatening environment surrounding many sexual minority youth.” “
  30. 30. Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory • “Minority status” is associated with poorer mental and physical health, increased substance use and sexual risk-taking. • Negative health effects emerge from the deleterious impact of stress hormones and the uptake of harmful coping strategies. • Experiences of prejudice, rejection, and homophobia contribute to greater levels of minority stress and worse health outcomes. • Affirmative and resilience based interventions have the potential to promote positive coping and reduce stress. CRH ACTH Cortisol To Immune System Adrenal Gland Pituitary Hypothalamus Cortisol Regulation The Stress Response
  31. 31. “Every established order tends to produce the naturalization of its own arbitrariness.” - Pierre Bourdieu -

×