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Title:	Chemistry,	materials	
science	and	technology	related	to	photovoltaic,	
and	photoelectrochemical	solar	energy	conversion	
Presented	to	
the	USPTO	
	June	29,	2017	
Dr.	Greg	P.	Smestad	
Title:	Chemistry,	materials	
science	and	technology	related	to	quantum	solar	
energy	conversion
Chemistry, materials science and technology related to photovoltaic, and photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion�
Structure	of	the	Talk	
•  Overview	of	PV	components	
•  Silicon	Technologies	
•  Thin	Film	PV	
•  Concentrator	Approaches	
•  Next	GeneraNon	PossibiliNes	
•  Future	Issues
Approach	
•  SimilariNes	and	Differences	
•  Recent	developments	and	future	trends	in	
R&D	and	innovaNon.	
•  LocaNons	&	Sources	to	find	out	more.	(e.g.,	
search	engines	listed	here:	
hWp://www.solideas.com/links.html#Journals)	
•  Thermodynamic	Limits	(ge[ng	above	the	
details)	>	Detailed	Balance.	
•  CollaboraNve,	InternaNonal
Pace	and	Flow	of	the	Talk	
•  Some	slides	are	background	and	will	be	
covered	within	15	sec.	
•  Other	sides	are	rich	in	content	and	will	be	
covered	for	a	minute	or	more.	
•  You	will	have	the	chance	to	ask	quesNons	at	
the	end.	
•  The	slides	will	be	made	available	to	you.
Solar	Energy	Emerging	as	Cheapest	Power	Source	
in	Many	Parts	of	the	World	
•  By	2025,	solar	power	in	sunny	regions	of	the	world	will	be	cheaper	than	power	
from	coal	or	gas.	Success	depends	on	stable	regulatory	condiNons	
•  By	2025,	the	cost	of	producing	power	in	central	and	southern	Europe	will	have	
declined	to	(LCOE)	between	4	and	6	cents	per	kilowaW	hour,		
•  and	by	2050	to	as	low	as	2	to	4	cents	
•  Study	by	the	Fraunhofer	InsNtute	for	Solar	Energy	Systems		
	commissioned	by	Agora	Energiewende.		
	
•  Solar	power	is	already	cost-effecNve:	
•  	In	the	sunny,	desert	country	of	Dubai,	a	long-term	power	purchase	contract	
was	signed	recently	for	5	cents	per	kilowaW	hour,		
•  In	Germany,	large	solar	plants	deliver	power	for	less	than	9	cents.		
•  Electricity	from	new	coal	and	gas-fired	plants	costs	between	5	and	10	cents	per	
kilowaW	hour		
•  and	from	nuclear	plants	as	much	as	11	cents.	
hWp://www.agora-energiewende.org
Sources	
Optoelectronics	of	Solar	Cells	
SPIE	Monograph	PM115,	
by	Greg	P.	Smestad	
ISBN	0-8194-4440-5	
118	pages;	Pub.	July	2002;	Sogcover;	
www.solideas.com/SolarCellBook.html	
	
Published	secNons	in	journals	are	here:	
	
hWp://www.solideas.com/bio/pubs.html
Solar	Cell	(N	and	P	layers)	
Chapter 16
bandgap. This bandgap is 1.1 eV for Si and corresponds to a threshold
wavelength of 1100 nm. If light of wavelengths shorter than 1100 nm enters a
thick Si wafer, it is absorbed. This produces an electron in the CB, while leaving
holes in the VB.
Fig. 1.1 A solar cell showing the processes of reflection of the incident light photons, ligh
absorption by the semiconductor, free carrier generation via the absorption of light, and
charge transport to the contacts. Electricity is produced in an external load (in this case a
Optoelectronics	of	Solar	Cells,	SPIE	Monograph	PM115,	by	Greg	P.	Smestad
Energy	Band	Diagram:	Balance	
Chapter 18
Fig. 1.4 Photoluminescent emission and nonradiative recombination compete with current
Optoelectronics	of	Solar	Cells,	SPIE	Monograph	PM115,	by	Greg	P.	Smestad
Energy	Band	Diagram:	Pump	
Solar Cell Equations 49
Optoelectronics	of	Solar	Cells,	SPIE	Monograph	PM115,	by	Greg	P.	Smestad
I(V) = ISC − I0 exp
qV
γ kT
#
$%
&
'( − 1
)
*
+
,
-
.
Courtesy:	Alexis	de	Vos
With	Technology	Advancements,	What	Parameters	Will	Change	for	
PV	modules?	
•  Open	Circuit	Voltage	(VOC)	will	
increase.	
•  Fill	Factor	(FF)	will	increase.	
•  	Series	resistance	reducNons.	
•  Slow,	but	conNnued	
improvements	in	current	density	
(mA/cm2)
Cell	to	PV	Module		
Light,	Glass,	Surfaces,	Contacts,	Semiconductor(s),	Losses,	Back	Metal	Contact.	
	
or the ìidealityî factor. For a perfect diode, g is unity, but its value ranges from 1
o 2 in typical devices. The multiplier I0 is called the ìsaturation currentî and is
Fig. 3.1 Side view schematic of a solar cell showing the various layers, the process of
harge separation charge transport and, finally, charge collection by the external contacts.Optoelectronics	of	Solar	Cells,	SPIE	Monograph	PM115,	by	Greg	P.	Smestad
PV	Module:	More	Materials		ntroduction to Solar Cells 1
ig.1.5 A PV module using individual solar cells. For example, the two solar cells shown
an be individually (series) connected silicon cells.
anel, a tempered glass sheet is combined with a sheet of an encapsulant lik
ilicone or ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) and laid into an assembly machin
A	PV	module	using	individual	solar	cells.	For	example,	the	two	solar	cells	shown	can	
be	individually	(series)	connected	silicon	cells.		
	
Optoelectronics	of	Solar	Cells,	SPIE	Monograph	PM115,	by	Greg	P.	Smestad
Courtesy	of	Al	Hicks	(NREL)
InternaNonal	Technology	Roadmap	for	Photovoltaics	(ITRPV)	
Applied Materials Innolas Silicor Materials
ASM Alternative Energy ISFH Singulus Technologies
BE Semiconductor Industries Meyer Burger Sodetal AWT s.a.s
Bernreuter Research Motech Industries* SolarWorld
Centrotherm photovoltaics AG Neo Solar Power* Sol Voltaics
ECN Solar Energy Pillar Ltd. Teamtechnik
Fraunhofer ISE PV Crystalox Technology K
Gerlach New Energy Consulting REC Silicon* University of New South Wales
h.a.l.m. elektronik* RENA VDMA
Hanwha Q-Cells* Robert Bürkle Vitronic
Helios Resource Samsung SDI Von Ardenne
Heraeus Photovoltaics SAS Wafer* Wacker Chemie AG
IMEC SiCon
InternaNonal	Technology	Roadmap	for	Photovoltaics	(ITRPV).		
More	informaNon	is	available	at	www.itrpv.net
InternaNonal	Technology	Roadmap	for	
Photovoltaics	(ITRPV)	8th	ediNon:
Trends	in	Si	Cells	&	Modules	
•  Thinner	wafers	
•  Low	cost	stacks	for	metallizaNon	
– Lower	Ag	per	waW	of	PV	
•  AR	coaNngs	
•  Texturizing	surfaces	
•  PassivaNon	for	reduced	recombinaNon	
•  Polymer	materials	for	encapsulant	&	back	sheet
Trends:	Novel	TexturizaNon	28 Chapter 2
Fig. 2.10 Geometry for calculation of the absorptivity from a polished (left side) and
textured (right side) light absorber. In each case, a summation of multiple reflections must
be made in order to calculate the absorptivity. The angle q is measured from the surface
normal.
Geometry	for	calculaNon	of	the	absorpNvity	from	a	polished	(leg	side)	and	
textured	(right	side)	light	absorber.	In	each	case,	a	summaNon	of	mulNple	
reflecNons	must	be	made	in	order	to	calculate	the	absorpNvity.	The	angle	is	
measured	from	the	surface	normal.
ModificaNons	to	cell	architecture	are	
needed	for	higher	efficiencies	
“Standard cell”
Al-BSF
“PERC cell”
Passivated rear
contact
•  Rear	Al-Si	contact	
	and	reflector	
•  PVD	Al/Al	paste	
•  Rear	dielectric	layers:	
	SiOx;	AlOx;	SiNy:H
Present		
From	Al-BSF	to	PERC		
	n  Replacement	of	the	full	area	Al-
BSF	with	a	par=al	rear	contact	
(PRC)	
n  Two	addiNonal	process	steps		
n  Dielectric	passivaNon	
n  Local	contact	opening	(LCO)	
or	Laser	fired	contact	(LFC)	
	
SDE/Texture	
POCl	diffusion	
Edge	IsolaNon	
PSG	etching	
SiN	ARC	
SP	Ag	FS	
Drying	&	Firing	
SP	Al/Ag	RS	
Al2O3/	SiN	RS	
Laser	Opening
Technology	Group	1	(PERC	and	SelecNve	EmiWer)	Cells		
(20	–	22%	efficiency)	
Courtesy	of	Al	Hicks	(NREL)
n-type		versus	p-type	Si	
	
•  Pro	n-type	
–  No	light-induced	degradaNon	(no	
B-O	complexes)	
–  More	forgiving	towards	metallic	
impuriNes	(Fe)	
–  Longer	diffusion	lengths	
•  Contra	n-type	
–  B-diffusion	requires	high	
temperature	
–  EmiWer	passivaNon	
•  High-efficiency	concepts	are	ogen	
based	on	n-type	Si	(Sunpower,	
Sanyo,	Yingli	Solar)	
www.ecn.nl
Courtesy	of	“Quo	Vadis,	Crystalline	Silicon	PV?”		
IMEC,	Belgium,	Dr.	Ivan	Gordon
Fig.	10:	Trend	for	remaining	silver	per	cell	(156x156mm²).	
	
InternaNonal	Technology	Roadmap	for	Photovoltaics	(ITRPV).		
More	informaNon	is	available	at	www.itrpv.net	
Trend for remaining silver per cell (156x156mm²)
ITRPV2017
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
2016 2017 2019 2021 2024 2027
Amountofsilverpercell[mg/cell]
Advantages	of	Ni/Cu	plated	contacts	over	
Ag	screen-printed	contacts		
	
•  Potential for cost reduction, better efficiencies and
more advanced cell structures (e.g., PERC)
Ag
Screen print
Ni/Cu/Sn Advantage
Lower base material cost High Much Lower Cost reduction potential
Lower contact resistance High 10 x Lower
Permits narrow contacts +
Ns↓ homogeneous emitters
Better conductivity Higher Lower
Allows narrower lines,
Lower Rs losses
Narrower line widths >50µm <50µm Less Shading
Lower firing temperature 750-850ºC 250-400ºC
Passivation options ↑
Rear reflectance↑
Courtesy	of	“Quo	Vadis,	Crystalline	Silicon	PV?”		
IMEC,	Belgium,	Dr.	Ivan	Gordon
Technology	Group	2:	Interdigitated	Back	Contact	Cells		
(≈25%	efficiency)	
	
Courtesy	of	Al	Hicks	(NREL)
SunPower	panel,	Greg	Smestad,	Willow	Glen,	San	José,	CA
Technology Group 3: Heterojunction Intrinsic Thin Layer, or HIT, Cells
(≈24% efficiency)	
Courtesy	of	Al	Hicks	(NREL)
Think	Thin	
Courtesy	of	“Quo	Vadis,	Crystalline	Silicon	PV?”		
IMEC,	Belgium,	Dr.	Ivan	Gordon
Wafer	Thickness	
InternaNonal	Technology	Roadmap	for	Photovoltaics	(ITRPV).		
More	informaNon	is	available	at	www.itrpv.net	
140 µm. It is assumed that the thickness of mc-Si wafers will slowly approach a minimum value of
150 µm until 2027. Mono-Si wafer thickness will follow a faster thickness reduction down to 140 µm
in 2027.
Fig. 9: Predicted trend for minimum as-cut wafer thickness and cell thickness for mass production of c-Si solar cells and modules.
Metallization pastes/inks containing silver (Ag) and aluminum (Al) are the most process-critical and
most expensive non-silicon materials used in current c-Si cell technologies. Paste consumption there-
fore needs to be reduced. Fig. 10 shows our estimations regarding the future reduction of the silver
Trend for minimum as-cut wafer thickness and cell thickness
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
2016 2017 2019 2021 2024 2027
[µm]
Wafer thickness multi Wafer thickness mono limit of cell thickness in future modul technology
ITRPV2017
Future	
What	is	the	Limit	of	Silicon	Solar	Cells	
n  Shockley,	Queisser	(1961)	
Limit	for	Si		33%	(AM1.5)	
n  LimitaNons	by	thermalizaNon	
and	transmission	
n  Auger	Limit	29.4	%1	
		
	
400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
Transmission loss
Bandgap
Usable power
Thermalization loss
Intensity[Wm
-2
nm
-1
]
Wavelength [nm]
1Richter,	Hermle,	Glunz,	IEEE	J.	Photovolt.	(2013)
Future	
What	is	the	Limit	of	Silicon	Solar	Cells	
n  Shockley,	Queisser	(1961)	
Limit	for	Si		33%	(AM1.5)	
n  LimitaNons	by	thermalizaNon	
and	transmission	
n  Auger	Limit	29.4	%1	
		
	
1Richter,	Hermle,	Glunz,	IEEE	J.	Photovolt.	(2013)	
à	End	of	Silicon	Solar	Cell	Technologies?		
2010 2015 2020 2025 2030
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
Averagecellconversionefficiency[%]
~	29	%	
Passiva=ng	
Contacts	
~	25.0	%	
PERC	
~	20	%	
PERC	
~	23.5	%	
~	26.0	%	
Passiva=ng	
Contacts	BJBC	
Al-BSF
Some		future	Trends	for	crystalline	Si	
PV	CELL	DEVELOPMENT	
–  New	device	structures	for	p-type	industrial	solar	cells	to	obtain	>20%	
efficiencies	
–  TransiNon	from	p-type	to	n-type	Si	substrates	
–  Reduced	material	costs	/	improved	sustainability		
–  Thinner	Si	substrates	
–  Different	cell	architectures	for	different	applicaNons	
–  Bifacial	
–  BIPV	
Courtesy	of	“Quo	Vadis,	Crystalline	Silicon	PV?”		
IMEC	Belgium,	Dr.	Ivan	Gordon
Courtesy	of	Al	Hicks	(NREL)
Different front cover materials
World market share [%]
ITRPV2017
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
2016 2017 2019 2021 2024 2027
non-structured & non-coated front glass AR-coated front glass deeply structured front glass
Fig.	11:	Expected	relaNve	market	share	of	different	front	cover	materials.		
InternaNonal	Technology	Roadmap	for	Photovoltaics	(ITRPV).		
More	informaNon	is	available	at	www.itrpv.net
Different encapsulation materials
World market share [%]
ITRPV2017
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
2016 2017 2019 2021 2024 2027
EVA (Ethylene Vinyl Acetat) Polyolefin
PDMS (Polydimethyl Silicone) / Silicone PVB (Polyvinyl Butyral)
TPU (Thermoplastic Polyurethan)
Fig.	16:	Expected	market	shares	for	different	encapsulaNon	materials.	
InternaNonal	Technology	Roadmap	for	Photovoltaics	(ITRPV).		
More	informaNon	is	available	at	www.itrpv.net
Different backsheet materials and technologies
World market share [%]
ITRPV2017
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
2016 2017 2019 2021 2024 2027
TPT (Tedlar-Polyester-Tedlar) TPA (Tedlar-PET-Polyamid)
APA (Polyamid-PET-Polyamid) Polyolefien (PO)
KPE (Kynar (PVDF)- PET- EVA) Glas
other
Fig.	17:	Back	cover	technologies.		 InternaNonal	Technology	Roadmap	for	Photovoltaics	(ITRPV).		
More	informaNon	is	available	at	www.itrpv.net
Thin	Film	PV	
Courtesy	of	Al	Hicks	(NREL)
Thin	Film	PV	
Chapter 112
Optoelectronics	of	Solar	Cells,	SPIE	Monograph	PM115,	by	Greg	P.	Smestad
CdTe	Monolithically	Interconnected		
Courtesy	of	Al	Hicks	(NREL)
Thin	Film	vs	Wafer	PV	
Courtesy	of	Al	Hicks	(NREL)
SimilariNes	
common of which is crystalline Si. All solar cells share similarities at the
fundamental level. One side of the device is conductive for electrons, and the
opposite side of the device is conductive toward holes. Table 1.1 shows some of
the various types of materials used in solar cells.
Table 1.1 Examples of some of the types of PV Cells. The hole conductor (hole cond.) in
a DSSC is a material such as CuI, CuSCN, redox couple, or even a polymer, capable of
conducting holes. This tutorial focuses on the c-Si device as an example.
PV Cell N-type layer P-type layer
Crystalline Silicon, c-Si c-Si doped c-Si doped
Gallium Arsenide, GaAs GaAs GaAs and AlGaAs
Amorphous Silicon, a-Si a-Si doped a-Si doped
Multicrystalline Si, Poly-Si Poly-Si Poly-Si
Cadmium Telluride, CdTe CdS or ZnO CdTe
Copper indium diselenide (-sulfide),
CuInSe2, (CuInS2) CdS or ZnO CuInSe2 or CuInS2
Organic and polymer blend solar cells Organic Molecule Organic Molecule
Dye Sensitized Solar Cell, DSSC TiO2 + Dye I-
/I3
-
, or hole cond.
One type of solar cell not listed above is the Schottky barrier device, in
which only a P-type or N-type layer is used along with a metal or highly doped
transparent conductive oxide (TCO). In this case, the band diagram looks like
Optoelectronics	of	Solar	Cells,	SPIE	Monograph	PM115,	by	Greg	P.	Smestad
CdTe	
Courtesy	of	Al	Hicks	(NREL)	
Issues:	
•  CdTe	back	contact	
•  Back	contact	buffer	
•  Thermal	stability	
•  Recycling/
Availability		
	
Promise:	
•  Lowest	LCOE	of	PV	
•  High	volume	
producNon	
•  Experience
CdTe	
Courtesy	of	Al	Hicks	(NREL)	
•  Champion	CdTe	solar	
conversion	efficiency	is	
now	about	22.1%,	
•  and	the	PV	module	
efficiency	is	16.4%.			
•  The	JSC	is	close	to	its	
theoreNcal	maximum.	
•  Large	potenNal	for	
improvement	of	VOC	
and	FF.	
•  PotenNal	for	decreasing	
the	CdTe	thickness.	
Alan	L.	Fahrenbruch
CIGS	
•  Polycrystalline	Thin	Film	Photovoltaic	
Solar	Cell	Based	on	the	Copper	Indium	
Gallium	Diselenide	(CIGS)	Material	
System	
•  Typical	Structure	
–  Molybdenum/CIGS/	
Cadmium	Sulfide/Indium	Tin	Oxide	
•  Formed	on	Substrates	
–  Glass	
–  Stainless	Steel	
–  Polymer	
•  Good	low-light-level	performance	
•  CIGS-based	tandem	solar	cells	
•  Flexible	and	lightweight	CIGS	modules	
1.257 m  0.977 m, and 1.65 m  0.65 m sizes just for glass–
designs) and substrate type, as mentioned. Additionally, a
native device designs may be employed. For example, althoug
sputtered i-ZnO/AZO front contact is common in CIGS m
facturing and the literature, the majority of commercial
Fig. 1. Schematic of a monolithic CIGS device. For our reference case, we ass
framed, glass–glass module with a 1.5-micron-thick CIGS layer.Courtesy	of	Al	Hicks	(NREL)
CIGS	
designs) and substrate type, as mentioned. Additionally, a
native device designs may be employed. For example, althoug
sputtered i-ZnO/AZO front contact is common in CIGS m
facturing and the literature, the majority of commercial
Fig. 1. Schematic of a monolithic CIGS device. For our reference case, we ass
framed, glass–glass module with a 1.5-micron-thick CIGS layer.Courtesy	of	Al	Hicks	(NREL)	
Issues:	
•  Moisture	sensiNvity	
of	AZO/ZnO	
•  Ternary	system	
•  Alkali	(Na)	post-	
deposiNon	
treatment		
•  ComposiNon	grading	
in	CIGS	
•  Surface	passivaNon	
•  Buffer	layers	
•  Recycling/Availability	
(Ga)
BeWer	Together	
CitaNon:	Semi-transparent	Perovskite	Solar	Cells	for	Tandems	with	Silicon	and	CIGS,		
Colin	D.	Bailie,	Michael	Grätzel,	Rommel,	Noufi	et.	al,	Energy	Environ.	Sci.,	2015,	8,	
956-963.	DOI:	10.1039/C4EE03322A
Earth	Abundance	CZTS(e)	
Figure 3 - EBIC image of CZTSSe device.
Sintered	CZTS	
NanoparNcle	Solar	Cells	
on	Metal	Foil,	
Subcontract	Report	
NREL/SR-5200-56501,	
September	2012	
Contract	No.	DE-
AC36-08GO28308.	
Compound	semiconductor	
Cu2ZnSn(S,	Se)4	[CZT(S,	Se)]	
	is	a	cousin	to	Cu(In,	Ga)Se2	
(CIGS)
Courtesy	of	Al	Hicks	(NREL)	
Recycling	and	ReclamaNon
Courtesy	of	Al	Hicks	(NREL)
What	about	PV	Technologies	that	
concentrate	the	sunlight?
A	concentrator	transfers	light	from	one	area	to	another	
Graphic:	Al	Hicks/NREL		
based	on:		R.	Winston,	J.C.	Miñano,	and	P.	Benítez,	Nonimaging	OpNcs	(Elsevier,	2005).	
EquaNon	
Exit	aperture	Entrance	aperture
For	a	Linear	System	(2D	Concentrator)	
n	is	the	index	of	refracNon.	
Concentrator	equaNon
Figure	Adapted	From:	Renewable	Energy	—	Sources	for	Fuel	and	Electricity,	Thomas	B.	Johansson,	Henry	Kelly,	Amulya	
K.N.	Reddy,	and	Robert	H.	Williams,	Island	Press,	1993.	
2D	trough	concentrator	-	Parabola	dragged	along	a	line	
Courtesy	of	Al	Hicks	(NREL)
LCPV	system:	SunPower	C7	(Ar=st	Rendering)		
Courtesy	of	Al	Hicks	(NREL)
CURRENT STATUS OF CONCENTRATOR
PHOTOVOLTAIC (CPV) TECHNOLOGY
FRAUNHOFER INSTITUTE FOR SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS ISE
NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY NREL
A	RepresentaNve	Module	for	III-V	Cells	(the	Fresnel	Lens	Box)	
Courtesy	of	Al	Hicks	(NREL)
Energy	band-gap	versus	la[ce	constant	for	several	
semiconductors	used	in	MJ	HCPV	cells.		
Source:	Eduardo	F.	Fernández,	Antonio	J.	García-Loureiro,	Greg	P.	Smestad,	MulNjuncNon	Concentrator	Solar	Cells:	Analysis	and	
Fundamentals,	Ch.	2	in	P.	Pérez-Higueras,	E.F.	Fernández	(Eds.)	High	Concentrator	Photovoltaics	Fundamentals,	Engineering	and	
Power	Plants
Source:	Eduardo	F.	Fernández,	Antonio	J.	García-Loureiro,	Greg	P.	Smestad,	MulNjuncNon	Concentrator	Solar	Cells:	Analysis	
and	Fundamentals,	Ch.	2	in	P.	Pérez-Higueras,	E.F.	Fernández	(Eds.)	High	Concentrator	Photovoltaics	Fundamentals,	
Engineering	and	Power	Plants
Single junction vs. Multijunction solar cell
ü  Single junction (silicon conventional PV)→ “one size fits all”
ü  Multijunctions → better exploitation of the solar spectrum and higher efficiency
The efficiency limit
for an ideal Si solar
cell is η=29%
The efficiency limit
for an ideal MJ solar
cell is η=86%
Thermalisation
Non absorbed light
Output power
Non
absorbed
light
Thermalisation
Output power
Prof.	Ignacio	Rey-Stolle
What	can	be	expected?:	
•  Improved	coaNngs.	
•  Advances	in	contacts.	
•  III-V	alloy	subsNtuNons	
and	process	
improvements.	
•  InnovaNons	for	use	as	
PV	modules	used	for	
aerospace	applicaNons	
(its	main	market).	
•  Re-usable	substrates	
•  Tandem	concepts.	
Courtesy	of	Al	Hicks	(NREL)
Courtesy	of	Al	Hicks	(NREL)
Single-Junction III-Vs
Proof-of-Concept Within the Published Literature:
2” diameter single-junction GaAs on a flexible carrier (right). The solar cell
was grown from (100)	GaAs	wafers	with	a	misorientaNon	of	2°	towards	[110]	
(leg	figure).		From	J	J	Schermer,	G	J	Bauhuis,	P	Mulder,	E	J	Haverkamp,	J	van	Deelen,	A	T	J	van	Nigrik,	P	
K	Larsen	‘Photon	confinement	in	high-efficiency,	thin-fill	III-V	solar	cells	obtained	by	epitaxial	lig-off’.	Thin	
Solid	Films	511-512	(2006)	645-653.
III-Vs on Cz-Si
NREL Model Device Diagram
9/13/2013
Device concept inspired by “Epitaxially-Grown Metamorphic GaAsP/Si Dual-Junction Solar Cells” from
T J Grassman, J A Carlin, C Ratcliff, D J Chmielewski, and S A Ringel Proceedings of the IEEE PVSC (2013).
§  The space market for III-V MJSCs
o  Providing satellite power is how PV began
o  Power to weight ratio (Wp/kg) is the key
o  Power cost (at cell level) is ~150$/Wp
o  Large area (~20 to ~70 cm2)
o  Designed for end-of-life
(i.e. degradation is key)
ü  Large thermal variations
ü  Particle radiation hardness
o  State of the art efficiencies are ~30% (AM0)
o  ~250.000 cells/yr (Europe)
o  115 satellites per year in 2014-2024
Space power is a captive
market for III-V multijunction
solar cells, which allows to
further develop the learning
curve of these devices
III-V Solar Cells: Architectures and Fields of Application
Prof.	Ignacio	Rey-Stolle
Xing	Ju,	Chao	Xu,	Yangqing	Hu,	Xue	Han,	Gaosheng	Wei,	Xiaoze	Du,	A	review	on	the	development	of	photovoltaic/
concentrated	solar	power	(PV-CSP)	hybrid	systems,		
Solar	Energy	Materials	and	Solar	Cells,	Volume	161,	March	2017,	Pages	305-327.	
H.M.	Branz,	W.	Regan,	K.J.	Gerst,	J.B.	Borak,	E.A.	Santori	
Hybrid	solar	converters	for	maximum	exergy	and	inexpensive	dispatchable	electricity	
Energy	Environ.	Sci.	(2015).
New	Approaches?
In	1839,	at	age	19,	experimenNng	in	his	father's	laboratory,	Alexandre-Edmond	
Becquerel	created	the	world's	first	photovoltaic	cell.	
	In	this	experiment,	silver	chloride	was	placed	in	an	acidic	soluNon	and	illuminated	
while	connected	to	plaNnum	electrodes,	generaNng	voltage	and	current.		
Because	of	this	work,	the	photovoltaic	effect	has	also	been	known	as	the	"Becquerel	
effect".	
E.	Becquerel	(1839).	"Mémoire	sur	les	effets	électriques	produits	sous	l'influence	des	rayons	solaires".	
Comptes	Rendus.	9:	561–567.	
hWp://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k2968p/f561.chemindefer
ChrisNana	Honsberg	and	Stuart	Bowden	
hWp://www.pveducaNon.org/pvcdrom/manufacturing/first-photovoltaic-devices	
Accessed	on	June	22,	2017,	
Nihil	sub	sole	novum
4.2 Operation of the dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2
solar cell. Light is absorbed
he dye molecule (sensitizer) and the resulting excited electron is “injected” into the
. The electrons then diffuse within the porous TiO2
structure and are collected at the
k contact (conductive transparent glass). The resulting positive charge on the dye is
pensated by the mediator, which itself is reduced after the electron has passed
OperaNon	of	typical	
nanopar=cle	solar	cell.	
Light	is	absorbed,	for	example	
by	a	dye,	and	the	electron	is	
“injected”	into	the	acceptor	
such	as	TiO2.		
The	resulNng	posiNve	charge	
needs	a	“hole”	conductor	to	
complete	the	circuit.	
	
Optoelectronics	of	Solar	Cells,	SPIE	Monograph	PM115,	by	Greg	P.	Smestad
NanoparNcle	zoo	
MulNple	exciton	generaNon	for	photoelectrochemical	hydrogen	evoluNon	reacNons	with	
quantum	yields	exceeding	100%,	Yong	Yan,	Ryan	W.	Crisp,	Jing	Gu,	Boris	D.	
Chernomordik,	Gregory	F.	Pach,	Ashley	R.	Marshall,	John	A.	Turner	&	MaWhew	C.	Beard,	
Nature	Energy	2,	ArNcle	number:	17052	(2017).	
Courtesy	of	Al	Hicks	(NREL)
Courtesy	of	Al	Hicks	(NREL)
Polymer	and	organic	
molecule-based	solar	cells	
that	can	be	printed	on	
various	flexible	substrates.		
Courtesy	of	Al	Hicks	(NREL)
Si	nanowire	PV	
Courtesy	of	Al	Hicks	(NREL)
Perovskite	Solar	Cells		
•  The	stability	and	efficiency		
•  CH3NH3PbI3	structure
Bonding	 Crystal	structure	
Courtesy	of	Al	Hicks	(NREL)
Courtesy	of	Al	Hicks	(NREL)
Courtesy	of	Al	Hicks	(NREL)
Metal-halide	perovskite	solar	cells		
Crystal	structure	of	CH3NH3PbX3	
perovskites	(X=I,	Br	and/or	Cl).	The	
methylammonium	caNon	(CH3NH3
+)	
is	surrounded	by	PbX6	octahedra.		
Now:	
•  Cu	(I/II)	complexes		
•  	redox	shuWles	in	liquid	
electrolytes		
•  	solid	hole	conductors		
•  Power	conversion	efficiency	
(PCE)	>	22%.	
•  Open-circuit	voltages	>	1.24	V		
(excepNonal	for	a	material	
with	a	bandgap	of	1.6	eV).
Fuels	&	Chemicals	from	Solar+Biology	
Courtesy	of	Al	Hicks	(NREL)
Future	Intellectual	Property:	The	method	to	find	new	materials	for	solar		
•  High-throughput	
combinatorial	methods	
•  Materials	by	Design	and	
Materials	Genome	
Courtesy	of	Al	Hicks	(NREL)
PrinNng	Inks	of	varying	composiNon	
Courtesy	of	Al	Hicks	(NREL)
ComputaNonal	Science	+	Materials	
Stock	NREL	25944-FP.jpg
Conclusions	
•  Solar	Cells	consist	of	a	region	of	electron	
conducNon	separated	by	a	barrier	from	a	hole	
conducNon	region.	
•  Certain	materials	and	configuraNons	have	
favorable	properNes	for	large-scale	
commercial	development	of	PV.	
•  Techniques	are	emerging	to	predict,	screen	
and	characterize	large	numbers	of	potenNally	
viable	chemistries	and	materials.
Acknowledgements	
Alfred	Hicks		
Graphics	ArNst,	Illustrator	Specialist	
NaNonal	Renewable	Energy	Laboratory,	NREL	
Tel.	303-384-6410	
	
Dr.	Ivan	Gordon		imec	I		Belgium	
Manager	Silicon	Photovoltaics	Group	
Ivan.Gordon@imec.be	I		www.imec.be	
	
Dr.	MarNn	Hermle	
Head	of	"High-Efficiency	Silicon	Solar	Cells”	Dept.	
Fraunhofer-InsNtut	für	Solare	Energiesysteme	ISE	
	
JuWa	Trube,	Managing	Director	
VDMA	Photovoltaic	Equipment	
Int’l	Technology	Roadmap	for	Photovoltaics	(ITRPV)	8th	ed.	
PV	Manufacturing	in	Europe	Conference	Brussels,	May	19th	2017
Acknowledgements	
Prof.	Ignacio	Rey-Stolle	
Solar	Energy	InsNtute	
Technical	University	of	Madrid	*	Madrid,	Spain
Greg	P.	Smestad,	Sol	Ideas	Technology	Development		
San	José,	California,	USA		
smestad@solideas.com		—	hDp://www.solideas.com/		
Greg	P.	Smestad,	Ph.D.	was	the	Associate	
Editor	of	the	journal	Solar	Energy	Materials	
and	Solar	Cells	from	1990-2016.		He	is	the	
author	of		Optoelectronics	of	Solar	Cells	(SPIE	
Press),	and	the	sole	proprietor	of	Sol	Ideas	
Technology	Development.
To	contact	today’s	speaker:

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Chemistry, materials science and technology related to photovoltaic, and photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion