Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
THE ISS NATIONAL LAB
Michael Roberts, PhD
CASIS, Deputy Chief Scientist
25 October 2016
2
Research enabled
by access to space:
scientific research in
the life and physical
sciences that takes
advantage of uniqu...
THE ISS U.S. NATIONAL LAB
The ISS U.S. National Lab provides opportunity for research and discovery
targeted to a definiti...
Education
12%
OGAs
5%
Commercial
71%
Academic
12%
EVOLVING ISS NATIONAL LAB – BIG PICTURE
• Commercial engagement – 71% of...
CASIS PROJECTS AND STRATEGIC VERTICALS
5
WHO WE ENGAGE
INDUSTRIAL
MATERIALS /
CONSUMER PRODUCTS
Physical Sciences
ADDITIVE MANUF.
Life Sciences
DRUG
DEVELOPMENT
(P...
AND ON THE HORIZON…
7
Life Sciences Physical Sciences
Technology
Remote Sensing
7
SPONSORED PROGRAMS: FLIGHT AND STEM
• Tailored program aimed at solving an
organization’s challenge and/or driving new
inn...
9
FLUID DYNAMICS SPONSORED PROGRAM –
USING A SOLICITATION AS A VEHICLE
• CASIS-NSF released joint program on December 10, ...
10
GALACTIC GRANT SPONSORED PROGRAM –
USING A COMPETITION AS THE VEHICLE
Galactic Grant Competition
• Microgravity
Alters many observable phenomena
• Extreme Conditions of Space
Extreme heat and cold cycling
Ultra-vacuum
A...
CASIS User Support Includes:
• Brainstorming with researchers to identify optimal projects
• Translation of ground based s...
RETHINK YOUR SCIENCE IN SPACE…
Convection Buoyancy Sedimentation
13
• Balance disorders
• Cardiovascular deconditioning
• Decreased immune function
• Muscle atrophy
• Bone loss
Image Courtes...
FLUID DYNAMICS
15
Ear
th
Microgr
avity
CONVECTION SEDIMENTATION BUOYANCY
Protein Crystal Growth - Improved structure of biological proteins ...
Earth
LACK OF CONVECTION – BUOYANCY - SEDIMENTATION
Property Measurements & Behavior- Critical properties can be measured ...
SELF-ASSEMBLY AND
SEDIMENTATION
Nanotechnology - Smart fluids
change stiffness in response to
magnetic fields and are alre...
COMBUSTION
Earth Microgravity Flame Ball on ISS Cool Flame on ISS
Combustion - Studies on flame behavior and fuel mixtures...
SPACE EXPOSURE
Materials Exposure - Coatings
tested outside the space
station for degradation.
Extreme heat and cold
(+250...
ADVANCED MANUFACTURING
Manufacturing- The first 3-D printer ever tested in orbit may help to manufacture parts
quickly and...
ISS NL LIFE SCIENCE FOCUS AREAS: PROJECTS
SPAN THE DRUG DEVELOPMENT CYCLE
Molecular Biology
Gene Expression
Targetable
The...
PHYSICAL SCIENCES
CASIS INDUSTRIAL SECTOR
FOCUS AREAS & MATERIALS RESEARCH VERTICALS
Petroleum Consumer Products Advanced MaterialsIndustria...
DISEASE MODELS FOR THE ISS NATIONAL LAB
25 Images: Courtesy of the National Institutes of Health unless otherwise noted.
I...
EFFECTS ON BODY SYSTEMS
Bone mineral density decreases more
rapidly in space than on Earth
• Accelerated model of disease/...
PREVIOUS CASIS RFP: STEM CELLS
• Improved 3-D tissue growth and global changes in gene expression
• Ability to either main...
DRUG DISCOVERY/DEVELOPMENT
• Delivery systems/microencapsulation
• Testing (e.g., in vivo, cell culture, screening
assays)...
MACROMOLECULAR CRYSTAL GROWTH
Larger, more highly ordered crystals of proteins and large
molecules
Acta Cryst. (2010). F66...
FLUID DYNAMICS & TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
30
• Multiphase Flows
• Capillary Flow
• Diffusion
• Surface Tension
• Separation and...
REACTION CHEMISTRY IN SPACE
• Combustion
• Chemical product formulation
• Surfactants
• Foams
• Gels
• Emulsifiers
• Refri...
32
WORKSHOP GOAL
To identify basic science requirements, strategic research objectives,
and optimum disease models for a s...
33
THE AFTERNOON AGENDA
12:30 – 2:30 Concurrent Break-Out Sessions
Session 1 – The National Microbiome Initiative and inte...
THANK YOU
Explore CASIS Online:
www.iss-casis.org
Photos provided courtesy of NASA. CASIS is the sole manager of the U.S. ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Workshop Objectives for the Iss National Lab

39 views

Published on

Presentation by Michael Roberts, Ph.D., CASIS

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Workshop Objectives for the Iss National Lab

  1. 1. THE ISS NATIONAL LAB Michael Roberts, PhD CASIS, Deputy Chief Scientist 25 October 2016
  2. 2. 2 Research enabled by access to space: scientific research in the life and physical sciences that takes advantage of unique aspects of the space environment to significantly advance fundamental scientific understanding. Research that enables space exploration: scientific research in the life and physical sciences needed to develop advanced exploration technologies and processes affected by operation in a space environment. ISS STAKEHOLDERS Mission: Science in space for the benefit of Earth. Mission: To advance exploration of the solar system, scientific research, and enable commerce in space. Mission: The use of ISS in support of respective national goals.
  3. 3. THE ISS U.S. NATIONAL LAB The ISS U.S. National Lab provides opportunity for research and discovery targeted to a definitive impact on Earth The opportunities are wide-ranging: REMOTE SENSING EDUCATION LIFE SCIENCES PHYSICAL SCIENCES TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT 3
  4. 4. Education 12% OGAs 5% Commercial 71% Academic 12% EVOLVING ISS NATIONAL LAB – BIG PICTURE • Commercial engagement – 71% of FY15 CASIS-sponsored research projects represent commercial companies • Robust portfolio – CASIS has evaluated more than 200 proposals since inception • Awarded more than $20M in seed money to ~100 projects • Sponsored program model – Leveraged the financial resources of other outlets with our ability to manifest ISS National Lab flight opportunities • NSF – $1.8 million investment in fluid physics R&D • NIH - $12 million microphysiological systems (chips in space) R&D • Network building – Developing/managing partnerships across targeted geographic ecosystems • e.g., MassChallenge in Boston, Houston Angel Network in Houston, Space Angels Network in SoCal, Lux Capital in CA 4
  5. 5. CASIS PROJECTS AND STRATEGIC VERTICALS 5
  6. 6. WHO WE ENGAGE INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS / CONSUMER PRODUCTS Physical Sciences ADDITIVE MANUF. Life Sciences DRUG DEVELOPMENT (PROTEIN CRYSTAL) DIAGNOSTICS ON CHIP TECHNOLOGIES ACCELERATED DISEASE MODELS: MUSCLE / BONE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS MICROGRAVITY ENABLED NOVEL MATERIALS EARTH OBSERVATION TECH DEMO Remote Sensing 6
  7. 7. AND ON THE HORIZON… 7 Life Sciences Physical Sciences Technology Remote Sensing 7
  8. 8. SPONSORED PROGRAMS: FLIGHT AND STEM • Tailored program aimed at solving an organization’s challenge and/or driving new innovation by finding and flying cutting edge research • $0 program cost • $7.4 million dollar value • Minimal Time to investment • Program elements • Identification of and outreach to best research and tech dev resources • Advertising and outreach to pool of relevant innovators • Information and education sessions on program goals • Cross-disciplinary and collaborative solution development • Subject matter expertise • Translation of ground based goals to space • Branding • ‘Space is in It’ Markings • Custom Flight Patch • Launch participation • Media outreach • STEM program wrappers 8
  9. 9. 9 FLUID DYNAMICS SPONSORED PROGRAM – USING A SOLICITATION AS A VEHICLE • CASIS-NSF released joint program on December 10, 2015 • 48 preliminary review forms were submitted to CASIS • CASIS invited 27 to submit a full proposal to NSF in March (all 27 submitted) • NSF Science Review Panel will occur on May 16-17 • Final funding determination will be handled by both parties • Anticipate announcing 4-6 awards by 2016 ISS R&D Conference in July ($1.8M in grants) • Potential for further collaboration with NSF in other scientific areas
  10. 10. 10 GALACTIC GRANT SPONSORED PROGRAM – USING A COMPETITION AS THE VEHICLE Galactic Grant Competition
  11. 11. • Microgravity Alters many observable phenomena • Extreme Conditions of Space Extreme heat and cold cycling Ultra-vacuum Atomic oxygen High energy radiation Debris impact • Vantage Point/Earth Observation Orbital path over 90% of Earth’s population Altitude ~240 mi (400 km) Improved spatial resolution Variable lighting conditions SpaceEarth Flame StructureThermo-capillary flows SpaceEarth Structural Degradation Globally mapped ozone distributions NEW FRONTIERS FOR CUTTING-EDGE SCIENCE 11
  12. 12. CASIS User Support Includes: • Brainstorming with researchers to identify optimal projects • Translation of ground based science goals to space based environment • Use of labs (if needed) at Kennedy Space Center and other NASA facilities • Logistics for data acquisition, sample recovery, data/software interfaces • Transportation to and from the ISS • Support of real-time, in-orbit operations (video, astronaut involvement, etc) • Working with 3rd Party hardware companies to provide hardware and facilities that support the project • Coordinating contingency plans to preserve science objectives Images courtesy of NASA FOCUSED RESOURCES ENABLING DISCOVERY SUBSIDIZED VALUE OF $7.4 MILLION 12
  13. 13. RETHINK YOUR SCIENCE IN SPACE… Convection Buoyancy Sedimentation 13
  14. 14. • Balance disorders • Cardiovascular deconditioning • Decreased immune function • Muscle atrophy • Bone loss Image Courtesy: Dr. Clarence Sams Humans Plants Cells Microbes RETHINK LIVING SYSTEMS… 14
  15. 15. FLUID DYNAMICS 15
  16. 16. Ear th Microgr avity CONVECTION SEDIMENTATION BUOYANCY Protein Crystal Growth - Improved structure of biological proteins grown in microgravity can lead to better pharmaceuticals on Earth. 16
  17. 17. Earth LACK OF CONVECTION – BUOYANCY - SEDIMENTATION Property Measurements & Behavior- Critical properties can be measured more accurately in microgravity, leading to more exact design models 17
  18. 18. SELF-ASSEMBLY AND SEDIMENTATION Nanotechnology - Smart fluids change stiffness in response to magnetic fields and are already used in buildings and bridges in earthquake-prone regions. 18
  19. 19. COMBUSTION Earth Microgravity Flame Ball on ISS Cool Flame on ISS Combustion - Studies on flame behavior and fuel mixtures on the space station may lead to improved fuel efficiency and reduced pollution on Earth. 19
  20. 20. SPACE EXPOSURE Materials Exposure - Coatings tested outside the space station for degradation. Extreme heat and cold (+250 to -250 C), ultra-vacuum, atomic oxygen and radiation debris 20
  21. 21. ADVANCED MANUFACTURING Manufacturing- The first 3-D printer ever tested in orbit may help to manufacture parts quickly and cheaply in space. 21
  22. 22. ISS NL LIFE SCIENCE FOCUS AREAS: PROJECTS SPAN THE DRUG DEVELOPMENT CYCLE Molecular Biology Gene Expression Targetable Therapeutics Biomarkers - “OMICS” Cell Lines Cell replication rather than differentiation Gene Expression Stem Cell research and genetic engineering Mechanistic Assays Disease Modeling Osteoporosis Muscle Wasting Aging Immunosuppression Drug Development and Delivery Systems Microencapsulation Testing (in vivo, cell culture, screening assays) Protein Crystal Growth Physiology Absences of sedimentation, thermal convection, buoyance, hydrostatic pressure gradients Alterred capillary fluid flow Marangoni forces Clinical CommercializationPre-ClinicalLead Discovery 22
  23. 23. PHYSICAL SCIENCES
  24. 24. CASIS INDUSTRIAL SECTOR FOCUS AREAS & MATERIALS RESEARCH VERTICALS Petroleum Consumer Products Advanced MaterialsIndustrial Chemicals 24
  25. 25. DISEASE MODELS FOR THE ISS NATIONAL LAB 25 Images: Courtesy of the National Institutes of Health unless otherwise noted. Image: Ranga et al. (2014) Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 70:19–28 25 S. mediterraneaG. tigrina Caenorhabditis elegans Danio rerio Oryzias latipes Drosophila melanogaster Mus musculus Non-human Model Organisms Rattus norvegicus Dictyostelium spp. 3D Mammalian Cell-based, Spheroid, and Organotypic Models Arabidopsis thaliana N. crassa S. cerevisiae ARCHAEA BACTERIA VIRUSES Xenopus laevis iPS cellsFibroblast cells Image: Kim et al. (2012) PLoS ONE. TUMOR SPHEROID MODELS ORGANOTYPIC MODELS transformation factors Human stem cells grown into early-stage ureteric buds, kidney precursors. Mouse embryonic kidney cells (red) coaxed human stem cells to form buds (blue and green). (Xia et al. (2013) Nature Cell Biol.) endoderm mesoderm ectoderm 3D culture ORGANOID MODELS
  26. 26. EFFECTS ON BODY SYSTEMS Bone mineral density decreases more rapidly in space than on Earth • Accelerated model of disease/aging Muscle mass and strength decline in microgravity • Phenotypes similar to disuse and age- related muscle atrophy Images courtesy of NASA Osteoprotegerin testing in mice on Shuttle Myostatin knockout Normal Experiments involving muscular dystrophy therapeuticsNumerous changes to the immune system occur, mainly related to immunosuppression, and research has shown increased virulence of pathogens 26
  27. 27. PREVIOUS CASIS RFP: STEM CELLS • Improved 3-D tissue growth and global changes in gene expression • Ability to either maintain pluripotency or improve differentiation Images courtesy of NASA Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth become too large to stay suspended. In orbit, the cells remain suspended 27
  28. 28. DRUG DISCOVERY/DEVELOPMENT • Delivery systems/microencapsulation • Testing (e.g., in vivo, cell culture, screening assays) • Protein crystal growth (PCG) Previous RFP: Advancing Microgravity (2012) sought projects aimed at improving crystallization of medically relevant proteins Nucleosome core particle Microcapsules synthesized in space Images courtesy of NASA28
  29. 29. MACROMOLECULAR CRYSTAL GROWTH Larger, more highly ordered crystals of proteins and large molecules Acta Cryst. (2010). F66, 846–850 Earth Space H-PGDS crystallized with novel inhibitors Source: Yoshido Urade, Osaka Bioscience Institute HQL-79 , part of a candidate treatment for inhibiting the effects of Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy 29
  30. 30. FLUID DYNAMICS & TRANSPORT PHENOMENA 30 • Multiphase Flows • Capillary Flow • Diffusion • Surface Tension • Separation and Agglomeration • Interfacial Behavior 3D rendition of the diffusion of nanoparticles through a confining slit-nanochannel Image courtesy of MHRI Water droplet on a leaf on the BIO-5 Rasteniya- 2/Lada-2 (Plants-2) experiment. Photo taken on March 9th, 2003.
  31. 31. REACTION CHEMISTRY IN SPACE • Combustion • Chemical product formulation • Surfactants • Foams • Gels • Emulsifiers • Refrigerants • Aerosols • Mixing Behavior • Interfacial phenomena • Corrosion 31
  32. 32. 32 WORKSHOP GOAL To identify basic science requirements, strategic research objectives, and optimum disease models for a sustainable microbiome, immunome, and disease research program aboard the International Space Station U.S. National Lab. Based on the current status of microbiome research, we intend to define focus areas for research, resources (flight/ground) and hardware required to support research in microgravity with consideration for STEM education and collaborative funding opportunities. Ultimately, this workshop will lead to an ISS National Laboratory initiative for microbiome research in microgravity that provides a platform for accelerating discovery and translational research for industry, other government agencies, and academic institutions.
  33. 33. 33 THE AFTERNOON AGENDA 12:30 – 2:30 Concurrent Break-Out Sessions Session 1 – The National Microbiome Initiative and interagency research on ISSNL. Session Lead: Elizabeth Stulberg Session 2 – Microbiology of the built environment: Earth and Space. Session Lead: Julie Robinson Session 3 – Microbiology of the human environment. Session Lead: Mark Ott Session 4 – What's Next for Microbiome Research in Space? Session Lead: Michael Roberts 2:30 – 2:45PM BREAK 2:45 – 3:45PM Session Leads Present Summary 3:45 – 4:30PM Next steps and Closing
  34. 34. THANK YOU Explore CASIS Online: www.iss-casis.org Photos provided courtesy of NASA. CASIS is the sole manager of the U.S. National Laboratory on the International Space Station. /ISSCASIS @ISS_CASIS CASIS @ISS_CASIS

×