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Native Plants For Streamside Gardens In Western Oregon For Web (Pp Tminimizer)

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Native Plants For Streamside Gardens In Western Oregon For Web (Pp Tminimizer)

  1. 1. Native Plants for Streamside Gardens in Western Oregon
  2. 2. Native Plants for Streamside Gardens <ul><li>Why native plants </li></ul><ul><li>Selection criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Best streamside garden plants </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shrubs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Herbaceous plants </li></ul></ul></ul>Osoberry
  3. 3. Native Plants for Streamside Gardens <ul><li>Why native plants </li></ul><ul><li>Selection criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Best streamside garden plants </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shrubs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Herbaceous Plants </li></ul></ul></ul>Wood sorrel
  4. 4. Why native plants? <ul><li>Satisfaction-protecting streams </li></ul><ul><li>Connecting to history/culture </li></ul><ul><li>Developing a new aesthetic </li></ul><ul><li>Observing nature </li></ul><ul><li>Providing shelter & food for wildlife </li></ul><ul><li>Bank stabilization </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why native plants? <ul><li>Satisfaction of protecting streams - Water quality </li></ul>Clean water benefits everyone
  6. 6. Why native plants? <ul><li>Connection to history and culture </li></ul>Native plants such as salal, cedar, and camas (right) are a foundation of our region’s cultural heritage
  7. 7. Why native plants? <ul><li>Develop a new aesthetic </li></ul>&quot; To me a lush carpet of pine needles or spongy grass is more welcome than the most luxurious Persian rug.” - Helen Keller
  8. 8. Why native plants? <ul><li>Observe natural processes </li></ul>Watching the cycles of life brings intellectual and emotional enjoyment Snowberry Decaying leaf “skeleton”
  9. 9. Why native plants? <ul><li>Shelter </li></ul>Native plants are a foundation of habitats
  10. 10. Why Native Plants? <ul><li>Food for wildlife: Nectar, butterfly h ost plants, food for insects; fruits/nuts for birds & mammals </li></ul>Blue elderberry Sara orange tip butterfly
  11. 11. Why Native Plants? <ul><li>Bank stabilization </li></ul>A network of roots help stabilize the soil
  12. 12. Native Plants for Streamside Gardens <ul><li>Why native plants </li></ul><ul><li>Selection criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Best streamside garden plants </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shrubs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Herbs </li></ul></ul></ul>Red flowering currant
  13. 13. Selection Criteria for native streamside garden plants <ul><li>Grow naturally in or near water </li></ul><ul><li>Stabilize stream banks </li></ul><ul><li>Attractive garden plants </li></ul><ul><li>Contribute to wildlife habitat </li></ul>Plants stabilize banks at A public garden in Oregon
  14. 14. Native Plants for Streamside Gardens <ul><li>Why native plants </li></ul><ul><li>Selection criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Best streamside garden plants </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shrubs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Herbs </li></ul></ul></ul>White alder
  15. 15. Native Trees for Streamside Gardens
  16. 16. Value of Trees <ul><li>Shade maintains cool stream temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of nature and peace </li></ul><ul><li>Bank stabilization from roots </li></ul><ul><li>Wildlife shelter </li></ul>Old growth trees along Opal Creek, OR
  17. 17. Bitter cherry – Prunus emarginata
  18. 18. Bitter cherry <ul><li>Tree/large shrub to 50 feet </li></ul><ul><li>Forms thickets </li></ul><ul><li>Red bark </li></ul><ul><li>Wildlife value, shelter & food </li></ul><ul><li>Sun/part shade </li></ul>
  19. 19. Pacific crabapple – Malus fusca Photos: USDA-NRCS Plants Database
  20. 20. Pacific crabapple <ul><li>Small deciduous tree </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerates moist soils </li></ul><ul><li>Grows at stream edges </li></ul><ul><li>Wildlife value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nesting site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nectar </li></ul></ul>Photos: USDA-NRCS Plants Database
  21. 21. Oregon ash – Fraxinus latifolia
  22. 22. Oregon ash <ul><li>Tree to 80 ft </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerates moist / seasonally wet soils </li></ul><ul><li>Wildlife value: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nesting sites </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Red alder – Alnus rubra Male catkins Leaves and female “cones”
  24. 24. Red alder <ul><li>Good colonizer </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneer tree in wet areas </li></ul><ul><li>Best in full sun </li></ul><ul><li>Fixes atmospheric nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Association with grayish-white lichens produces bark appearance </li></ul>
  25. 25. White Alder – Alnus rhombifolia
  26. 26. White alder <ul><li>Taller than red alder </li></ul><ul><li>Full sun preferred </li></ul><ul><li>Dominate alder in the Willamette Valley before European settlement </li></ul>
  27. 27. Ponderosa pine – Pinus ponderosa
  28. 28. Ponderosa pine <ul><li>Tall, but usually ok near structures </li></ul><ul><li>Full sun </li></ul><ul><li>Dry sites east of Cascades </li></ul><ul><li>West of Cascades, the Willamette Valley form withstands wetter sites </li></ul>
  29. 29. Vine maple – Acer circinnatum
  30. 30. Vine maple <ul><li>Graceful under-story tree, prefers part shade </li></ul><ul><li>Slow growing </li></ul><ul><li>Readily available </li></ul>
  31. 31. Western red cedar – Thuja plicata
  32. 32. Western red cedar <ul><li>Grows near but not in water </li></ul><ul><li>Sun, part sun </li></ul><ul><li>Mature tree can by 165 ft </li></ul>
  33. 33. Native Shrubs for Streamside Gardens
  34. 34. Value of Shrubs <ul><li>Shelter for wildlife </li></ul><ul><li>Provide erosion control </li></ul><ul><li>Food for birds and other pollinators </li></ul><ul><li>Ornamental features at eye level </li></ul>Red flowering currant
  35. 35. Douglas spirea – Spiraea douglasii
  36. 36. Douglas spirea <ul><li>Best in moist soil, full sun </li></ul><ul><li>Good in slow-moving </li></ul><ul><li>streams or pools </li></ul><ul><li>Attracts bees and </li></ul><ul><li>other insects </li></ul><ul><li>Can be vigorous, </li></ul><ul><li>out-competing other </li></ul><ul><li>vegetation </li></ul>
  37. 37. Nootka Rose – Rosa nutkana
  38. 38. Nootka rose <ul><li>Full sun in drier areas </li></ul><ul><li>Bank stabilizer, spreads underground </li></ul><ul><li>Flowers provide necter, hips food for wildlife </li></ul>
  39. 39. Other roses <ul><li>Rosa gymnocarpa for shady sites </li></ul><ul><li>Rosa woodsii for sun </li></ul><ul><li>Rosa pisocarpa for wet spots </li></ul>Rosa gymnocarpa
  40. 40. Osoberry – Oemleria cerasiformis
  41. 41. Osoberry <ul><li>Best in part shade </li></ul><ul><li>Grows in drier areas, spreads slowly underground </li></ul><ul><li>March blooms, “plums” for bird food </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to grow </li></ul>
  42. 42. Ninebark – Physocarpus capitatus
  43. 43. Ninebark <ul><li>Mid-height shrub </li></ul><ul><li>Wet sites </li></ul><ul><li>Older bark has shredded look </li></ul><ul><li>Attractive maple-like leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Butterfly host </li></ul>
  44. 44. Oregon grape – Berberis aquifolium
  45. 45. Oregon grape <ul><li>Evergreen, forms colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Berries and nectar support wildlife </li></ul><ul><li>State flower of Oregon </li></ul><ul><li>Widely available </li></ul>
  46. 46. Red elderberry – Sambucus racemosa
  47. 47. Red elderberry <ul><li>Dry or moist, sun </li></ul><ul><li>Drupes (berry-like fruit) feed birds </li></ul><ul><li>Large spread </li></ul>
  48. 48. Blue elderberry – Sambucus mexicana
  49. 49. Blue elderberry <ul><li>Tall, multi-stalked </li></ul><ul><li>Sun, part sun </li></ul><ul><li>Average to dry site </li></ul><ul><li>White, flat-topped flower clusters </li></ul><ul><li>Blue berries feed wildlife </li></ul>
  50. 50. Red flowering currant – Ribes sanguineum
  51. 51. Red flowering currant <ul><li>Blooms Feb/Mar </li></ul><ul><li>Shade/part-sun, banks and drier areas </li></ul><ul><li>Fast growing, readily available </li></ul><ul><li>Drupes in late summer for birds </li></ul><ul><li>Hummingbird pollinated </li></ul>
  52. 52. Red osier dogwood – Cornus sericea
  53. 53. Red osier dogwood <ul><li>Occurs naturally along streams but tolerates drier conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Full to part sun </li></ul><ul><li>Red winter twigs </li></ul><ul><li>Host for native butterflies </li></ul><ul><li>Look for local plants </li></ul>
  54. 54. Salal – Gaultheria shallon
  55. 55. Salal <ul><li>Good for bank stabilization </li></ul><ul><li>Shade, part-shade </li></ul><ul><li>Spring flowers nurture bees </li></ul><ul><li>Berries feed birds </li></ul><ul><li>Evergreen, provides year-round cover </li></ul>
  56. 56. Snowberry - Symphoricarpos alba
  57. 57. Snowberry <ul><li>Spreads to stabilize banks </li></ul><ul><li>Spreads to increase cover </li></ul><ul><li>Bluish, soft foliage </li></ul><ul><li>Fruits provide food for birds through winter </li></ul>
  58. 58. Twinberry - Lonicera involucrata
  59. 59. Twinberry <ul><li>Evergreen, mid-height </li></ul><ul><li>Best in wet sites in Willamette Valley, coast, along Deschutes River and other locations </li></ul><ul><li>Berries eaten by birds </li></ul>
  60. 60. Native Herbaceous Plants for Streamside Gardens
  61. 61. Value of the Herbaceous Layer <ul><li>Garden interest </li></ul><ul><li>Cover for small creatures </li></ul><ul><li>Protection from rain compaction </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents bank erosion </li></ul>Mimulus guttatus
  62. 62. Camas - Camassia species
  63. 63. Camas <ul><li>Commercially available bulb </li></ul><ul><li>Spring blooming </li></ul><ul><li>Needs spring moisture </li></ul><ul><li>Needs summer dry </li></ul>
  64. 64. Cattail - Typha latifolia
  65. 65. Coltsfoot – Petasites frigidus
  66. 66. Coltsfoot <ul><li>Late winter, early spring bloom </li></ul><ul><li>Spreads slowly underground </li></ul><ul><li>Sends up flower stems first, then leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves persist after flowers die back </li></ul><ul><li>Nectar for butterflies </li></ul>
  67. 67. Oregon iris – Iris tenax
  68. 68. Oregon iris <ul><li>Reliable native iris, late spring blooms </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerates drier sites </li></ul>
  69. 69. Cow parsnip – Heracleum lanatum
  70. 70. Cow parsnip <ul><li>Good for sun </li></ul><ul><li>Bold, spreading into clumps </li></ul><ul><li>Larval host plant for butterflies </li></ul><ul><li>Nectar </li></ul>
  71. 71. Yellow monkey flower – Mimulus guttatus
  72. 72. Yellow monkey flower <ul><li>Moist soil </li></ul><ul><li>Sun/part-shade </li></ul><ul><li>Spreads to become a ground cover </li></ul><ul><li>Nectar </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds provide food for wildlife </li></ul>
  73. 73. Skunk cabbage – Lysichitum americanum
  74. 74. Skunk cabbage <ul><li>Slow moving streams or seeps </li></ul><ul><li>Fly pollinated </li></ul><ul><li>Early spring bloom </li></ul>
  75. 75. Stream violet, Viola glabella
  76. 76. Stream violet <ul><li>Forms groundcover </li></ul><ul><li>Butterfly host </li></ul><ul><li>Deciduous to 6’’ </li></ul>
  77. 77. Wild strawberries – Fragaria— 3 native species <ul><li>Ground cover, spreading by runners </li></ul><ul><li>Some species prefer shade; others sun </li></ul><ul><li>Nectar for butterflies and other insects </li></ul><ul><li>Butterfly caterpillar hosts </li></ul>
  78. 78. Coast strawberry – Fragaria chiloensis for sun--vigorous
  79. 79. Wood strawberry – Fragaria vesca Prefers shade
  80. 80. Wild strawberry – Fragaria virginiana Prefers sun
  81. 81. Sword fern – Polystichum munitum
  82. 82. Sword fern <ul><li>Part or full shade </li></ul><ul><li>One of the best plants for bank stabilization </li></ul><ul><li>Ornamental </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to find </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to transplant and relocate </li></ul>
  83. 83. OSU campus Sword fern
  84. 84. Lady fern – Athyrium felix-femina Unfurling spring fronds
  85. 85. Lady fern <ul><li>Prefers sun/part sun </li></ul><ul><li>Stabilizes banks </li></ul><ul><li>Winter deciduous </li></ul><ul><li>Moist locations or shallow, slow moving stream </li></ul>
  86. 86. Wood sorrel – Oxalis oregana
  87. 87. Wood sorrel <ul><li>Aggressive groundcover </li></ul><ul><li>Full to part shade </li></ul><ul><li>Once established, difficult to remove </li></ul><ul><li>Will tolerate dry shade and go dormant in dry summers </li></ul>
  88. 88. Private native plant garden Wood sorrel
  89. 89. Resources <ul><li>Kruckeberg, Arthur, 1996. Gardening with Native Plants , 2nd Edition, University of Washington Press, Seattle ISBN 0-295-97476-1 </li></ul><ul><li>Pojar, Jim and Andy MacKinnon, 1994. Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast , Lone Pine Publishing, Redmond, WA ISBN 1-55105-040-4 </li></ul><ul><li>Native Plant Society of Oregon - www.npsoregon.org find gardening guidelines and more! </li></ul><ul><li>Oregon State University, Yamhill County - http://extension.oregonstate.edu/yamhill/pages/gardening_natives.html </li></ul><ul><li>Find information on landscaping with native plants </li></ul>
  90. 90. More Resources <ul><li>The Berry Botanic Garden, 2004. Gardening for Wildlife Native Plant Flashcards, produced in partnership with The Bureau of Land Management and the OSU 4-H Wildlife Stewards </li></ul><ul><li>Oregon State University EC 1577, 2005, Gardening with Oregon Native Plants West of the Cascades. Prepared by Linda R. McMahan. Available for download or purchase as a CD at http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/abstract.php?seriesno=EC+1577 </li></ul>
  91. 91. Summary: Native Plants for Streamside Gardens <ul><li>Why native plants </li></ul><ul><li>Selection criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Best streamside garden plants </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shrubs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Herbs </li></ul></ul></ul>Osoberry
  92. 92. Linda R. McMahan, Ph.D. Horticulturist, Yamhill County OSU Extension Service 2050 Lafayette Ave McMinnville, OR 97128 503-434-8910 [email_address] http://extension.oregonstate.edu/yamhill Photo Credits: Linda R McMahan, Brad Withrow-Robinson, Carolyn Devine, OSU Landscape Plants ID website, & USDA-NRCS Plant Database

Editor's Notes

  • This portion of the Streamside Gardening Workshop was prepared by Linda McMahan, Extension Horticulturist in Yamhill County. Please note that there are many more plant species in this presentation than can be presented in a typical 90 minute presentation. Please select the plants most appropriate to your area of Oregon and feel free to substitute other species you consider to be more appropriate or to use your own photographs. The OSU Landscape Plants ID site at http://oregonstate.edu/dept/ldplants is an excellent source of photos and information. For statewide distribution of species, check The Oregon Flora mapping functions at http://www.oregonflora.org/atlas.php

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