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SWAN: the Hidden Harms of Human Trafficking, Dr. Hayli Millar & Dr. Tamara O'Doherty

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SWAN: the Hidden Harms of Human Trafficking, Dr. Hayli Millar & Dr. Tamara O'Doherty

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SWAN: the Hidden Harms of Human Trafficking, Dr. Hayli Millar & Dr. Tamara O'Doherty

  1. 1. The Palermo Protocol and Canada: The evolution and human rights impacts of Canadian anti-trafficking laws Hayli Millar & Tamara O’Doherty, School of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of the Fraser Valley SWAN Vancouver Society, ‘The Hidden Harms of Anti-Trafficking: Critical and Evidence- Based Perspectives on Human Trafficking to Enable Ethical and Responsible Anti-trafficking Efforts’, 15 October 2015, SFU Harbour Centre, 515 West Hastings, Segal Centre, Room 1430, 7:00 to 9:00 PM
  2. 2. 2 Our Study General Scope Purpose & Objectives Methods Image URL: http://www.cyber-rights.org/news/palermo.jpg
  3. 3. 3 Legislative Findings: UN Trafficking Protocol Image URL: http://wiki.clicklaw.bc.ca/images/a/a3/Trafficking_graphic_3.JPG 1. History/intent & main provisions: debates about migration 2. Debates during negotiations: sex as work v. sex work as exploitation 3. Post-Palermo effects of anti-trafficking measures: ‘collateral damage’?
  4. 4. 4 Legislative Findings: Canadian Trafficking Offences IRPA section 118 Criminal Code sections 279.01-.04 Departures IRPA: excludes purpose & applies to transnational only Criminal Code: excludes means & provides a unique standalone definition of exploitation (‘fear for safety test’), but applies to domestic & transnational Conflation Trafficking and sexual exploitation Legislative Amendments 1. 2010: Bill C-268 2. 2012: Bill C-310 3. 2014: Bill C-36 PCEPA 4. 2015: Bill C-452 [not yet in force]  Increase from 3 to 6 offences  Increase in penalties, including consecutive sentences [section 279.05 not yet in force]  Presumption of exploitation [not yet in force]
  5. 5. IRPA & Criminal Code Prosecutions 2007-2014 03 A 01 MV 01 MV 11 C 11 OLO 04 C 02 OLO Sentence range: 24 months less one day (Vilutis, 2009) to 105 months custody (McFarlane, 2012) One case of migrant women involved in sex work in Ng (2007); acquitted on trafficking-specific charges Convictions OLO Mixed Verdict Total 2007 0 1 ----- 1 2008 3 0 ----- 3 2009 2 1 ----- 3 2010 1 1 ----- 2 2011 1 2 ---- 3 2012 4 1 ----- 5 2013 1 8 ----- 9 2014 3 2 2 7 Total 15 16 2 33 Human traffickers going unpunished in Canada, experts say Case Findings
  6. 6. 6 Interview Findings Politicization & Knowledge Production Conceptual and Definitional Challenges Factors Affecting Investigation and Prosecution CJS Personnel Recommendations IMAGE MODIFIED BY @PHOTOGRAFFEE AS PART OF AN ADVOCACY CAMPAIGN HTTP://TWICSY.COM/I/SBBTWI
  7. 7. 7 Moving Forward: Project Recommendations Empirically-based knowledge production Complexity of migration & trafficking Open & inclusive dialogue Massage parlour, body rub investigation leads to 11 deportations Canada Border Services Agency to deport women working in Canada without a valid permit CBC News Posted: May 08, 2015 3:23 PM ET Last Updated: May 08, 2015 3:26 PM ET Ottawa police say 11 women will be deported after a human trafficking investigation into commercial massage parlours and body rub facilities. Police say they investigated 20 locations from April 27 to 29 resulting in 11 bylaw charges for improper licensing. Canada Border Services Agency also detained 11 women for immigration-related matters who appeared for admissibility and detention hearings last week. Rights-based framework & access to justice Source: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/ottawa/massage-parlour-body-rub-investigation-leads-to-11-deportations- 1.3067083
  8. 8. Thank you IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS OR WOULD OTHERWISE LIKE TO DISCUSS THIS RESEARCH, PLEASE CONTACT THE PRIMARY RESEARCHERS FROM UFV AT HAYLI.MILLAR@UFV.CA AND TAMARA.ODOHERTY@UFV.CA.

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