Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Scale
Appropriate
Tools
Patrick Byers
Regional Horticulture Specialist
University of Missouri Extension
Upcoming Programs of Interest
• Missouri Blueberry School, Mar. 17-18, MSU Darr
Ag Center, Springfield
• Blackberry Worksh...
Acknowledgements
• Andy Pressman, NCAT
– Equipment and tools for small-scale intensive crop
production, NCAT IP417
– Webin...
Outline – Scale Appropriate Tools
• Introduction
• Tools and equipment for soil preparation
• Tools for seed starting
• To...
Introduction
• Appropriate scale equipment and tools
contribute to the viability of farming by
enhancing production effici...
Introduction
• Small scale farmers have the opportunity to:
– Rely on the versatility of manual labor
– Utilize mechanized...
Introduction
• How much do small scale farmers invest in
tools and equipment?
– Recent study suggested a range between $20...
Introduction
• General thoughts on appropriate tools:
– Allow for speedy and efficient work with a
minimum of fatigue
– Sa...
Introduction
• Ergonomics – fit the body, designed for comfort,
safety, efficiency, and productivity
– Length of handle
– ...
Introduction
• Durability – fit the need
– Strength of the handle and tool head
– Harder metal that helps tools hold an ed...
Introduction - Handles
• Spades, forks , short
handled shovels
• Designed with
ergonomics in mind
• Should fit your hand
•...
Introduction - Tool Length
• Spades and forks
– Waist high is good
– Less than 5’6” – 39” tool
– 5’6” and taller – 43” too...
Introduction - Handle/Head Attachment
• Strap
– Wood breaths
– Prevents dry rot
• Spike and ferrule
– Spike up in wood,
cr...
Introduction - Handles
• Ash is favored wood for
handles
Introduction - Shovels and Spades
• Shovel
– Shorter blade
– Moves more soil
• Spade
– Longer blade, penetrates
deeper int...
Soil Preparation
• Consider practices that minimize tillage
• If tilling:
– Minimize soil damage
– Create a smooth, deeply...
Soil Preparation - Shovels and Spades
• Shovel
– Shorter blade
– Moves more soil
– Useful for general
digging, planting
• ...
Soil Preparation – Fork and Broadfork
• Fork tines are designed
for specific uses
• Broadfork is used for
deep tillage
Soil Preparation – Primary tillage
• Often done as custom work with 4 wheel
tractor
– Plow
– Chisel plow
– Subsoiler
– Dis...
Soil Preparation – Secondary Tillage
• Often done as custom work with 4 wheel
tractor
– Harrow
– Field cultivators
• Walk ...
Soil Preparation – Raised Beds
• Bed shaper pulled by 4
wheel tractor – can be
custom work
• Walk behind tractor can
shape...
Soil Preparation – In General
• For a farm of less than 4 acres:
– Custom work with a 4 wheel tractor - primary and
second...
Seed Starting – In General
• Small hoop house
• Grow lights
• Germination chamber
• Planting trays and
containers
• Specia...
1.5” block
Seed Starting - Planting Aids
• Lots of potential
planting aids
– Dibbles
– Soil blockers
– Widgers
– Transplanters
– Flat...
Direct Seeding
• Desirable features of a
precision seeder (Coleman)
– Easy to push in a straight line
– Precise seed place...
Direct Seeding
• Broadcast seeders
– Useful for cover crops
• Precision seeders
– Earthway seeder
• Lightweight, inexpensi...
Transplanting
• Can be done by hand on small scale farms
• Mechanical transplanters
– Generally drawn by 4 wheel tractors
...
Cultivation
• Weed control is critical to farm profitability
• Large cost associated with weed control or
lack of control
...
Cultivation
• Cultural practices
– Cover cropping
– Stale seedbeds
– Mulching
– Mowing
• Chemical control practices
– Pree...
Cultivation – Hand Tools
• Upright draw hoes
– Longer handles allow for
reach and proper hand
positioning
– Types
• Coline...
Cultivation – Hand Tools
• Wheel hoes
– Different cultivation
implements can be
attached
– Allows upright position
while c...
Cultivation – Mechanical
• For many small farms, production efficiency
begins with a cultivating tractor
– Many brands des...
Spraying, Pest Control
• Backpack sprayers
– Calibration is an issue
• Battery powered
sprayers
Harvest
• Field knives, scissors, pruners
• Hand boxes
• Bucket and bins
• Carts
• Specialized equipment
– Diggers
– Green...
Postharvest
• Bulk tank
• Grading/sorting tables
• Greens washer
• Roots washer
• Refrigeration
• Packing containers
Postharvest
Greens washer
Roots washer
Transport and Delivery
• Pickup truck or van
Other Considerations
• Small versions of many handtools (hoes, forks,
trowels) are available for small jobs
• Remember tha...
Other Considerations
• Production structures – when do you need
them?
– Low tunnels
– Caterpillar tunnels
– High tunnels
–...
Questions?
• Patrick Byers
• MU Extension – Greene
County
• 2400 S. Scenic Springfield,
MO 65807
• 417-881-8909
• byerspl@...
Scale appropriate tools 3.9.17
Scale appropriate tools 3.9.17
Scale appropriate tools 3.9.17
Scale appropriate tools 3.9.17
Scale appropriate tools 3.9.17
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Scale appropriate tools 3.9.17

15 views

Published on

American Small Farm Conference 2017

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Scale appropriate tools 3.9.17

  1. 1. Scale Appropriate Tools Patrick Byers Regional Horticulture Specialist University of Missouri Extension
  2. 2. Upcoming Programs of Interest • Missouri Blueberry School, Mar. 17-18, MSU Darr Ag Center, Springfield • Blackberry Workshops, 1-4pm; – 4/26, 6/21, 7/26, 11/15; Southwest Research Center, Mount Vernon – 6/28; St Louis area • Winter Vegetable Production Training Farm, Rocky Comfort – Twilight walks, 4th Thursday, 6pm; April-September • Garlic Festival, Sept 6, Botanical Center, Springfield; 6-8 pm
  3. 3. Acknowledgements • Andy Pressman, NCAT – Equipment and tools for small-scale intensive crop production, NCAT IP417 – Webinar on hand tools - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D6zNZYd7iNE • Many farmers • My Dad and Grandfathers
  4. 4. Outline – Scale Appropriate Tools • Introduction • Tools and equipment for soil preparation • Tools for seed starting • Tools for direct seeding • Tools for planting and cultivation • Tools for spraying and pest control • Tools for harvest • Tools for postharvest handling • Tools for delivery • Other considerations
  5. 5. Introduction • Appropriate scale equipment and tools contribute to the viability of farming by enhancing production efficiency • Specialty agriculture can be labor intensive – selecting the right tool for the job can increase profitability by: – Increasing crop yields – Improving crop quality – Reducing expenses
  6. 6. Introduction • Small scale farmers have the opportunity to: – Rely on the versatility of manual labor – Utilize mechanized equipment to maximize production efficiency – Diversity of production is manageable • Medium scale farmers are caught in the middle – Manual labor is not feasible at this scale – Farm has difficulty justifying the cost of additional mechanization and more expensive equipment – Conflict between specialization and diversity of production • Large scale farmers must make the transition to a high degree of mechanization and specialization
  7. 7. Introduction • How much do small scale farmers invest in tools and equipment? – Recent study suggested a range between $2011 and $26784 (Center for Integrated Agriculture) • Used equipment is a viable option for small scale farmers • Equipment and tools are frequently used for multiple tasks on small farms
  8. 8. Introduction • General thoughts on appropriate tools: – Allow for speedy and efficient work with a minimum of fatigue – Safe – Simple design – Light for easy transportation – Ready for immediate use without preparatory adjustments – Made of readily available materials
  9. 9. Introduction • Ergonomics – fit the body, designed for comfort, safety, efficiency, and productivity – Length of handle – Type of grip – Weight of the tool – Angle of tool head to tool handle • Specialty tools – Women vs men – Left hand vs right hand – Tools for physical disabilities
  10. 10. Introduction • Durability – fit the need – Strength of the handle and tool head – Harder metal that helps tools hold an edge – How the tool head and handle are joined – Can parts be replaced or repaired
  11. 11. Introduction - Handles • Spades, forks , short handled shovels • Designed with ergonomics in mind • Should fit your hand • Additional grips can be purchased and added on to handles
  12. 12. Introduction - Tool Length • Spades and forks – Waist high is good – Less than 5’6” – 39” tool – 5’6” and taller – 43” tool • Hoes – Longer handles are good – back upright and thumbs pointing up • Rakes – A fist higher than head
  13. 13. Introduction - Handle/Head Attachment • Strap – Wood breaths – Prevents dry rot • Spike and ferrule – Spike up in wood, crimped in ferrule – Not as durable • Socket – Handle tapered, held in shank with screw
  14. 14. Introduction - Handles • Ash is favored wood for handles
  15. 15. Introduction - Shovels and Spades • Shovel – Shorter blade – Moves more soil • Spade – Longer blade, penetrates deeper into soil
  16. 16. Soil Preparation • Consider practices that minimize tillage • If tilling: – Minimize soil damage – Create a smooth, deeply loosened seed bed – Reduce weeds and weed seeds in the upper 3-6 inches – Loosen and aerate the soil – Incorporate soil amendments and organic matter
  17. 17. Soil Preparation - Shovels and Spades • Shovel – Shorter blade – Moves more soil – Useful for general digging, planting • Spade – Longer blade, penetrates deeper into soil – Useful for preparing soil
  18. 18. Soil Preparation – Fork and Broadfork • Fork tines are designed for specific uses • Broadfork is used for deep tillage
  19. 19. Soil Preparation – Primary tillage • Often done as custom work with 4 wheel tractor – Plow – Chisel plow – Subsoiler – Disc – Rotary tiller – Spading machine
  20. 20. Soil Preparation – Secondary Tillage • Often done as custom work with 4 wheel tractor – Harrow – Field cultivators • Walk behind tractors can perform here
  21. 21. Soil Preparation – Raised Beds • Bed shaper pulled by 4 wheel tractor – can be custom work • Walk behind tractor can shape beds • Covering bed with plastic can be done with hand pulled equipment or attachment to a walk behind tractor
  22. 22. Soil Preparation – In General • For a farm of less than 4 acres: – Custom work with a 4 wheel tractor - primary and secondary tillage – Walk behind tractor for farm use • Affordable • Easy to operate and maintain • Appropriately scaled • Many associated implements – Hand tools - broadfork
  23. 23. Seed Starting – In General • Small hoop house • Grow lights • Germination chamber • Planting trays and containers • Special aids
  24. 24. 1.5” block
  25. 25. Seed Starting - Planting Aids • Lots of potential planting aids – Dibbles – Soil blockers – Widgers – Transplanters – Flats – wooden and plastic
  26. 26. Direct Seeding • Desirable features of a precision seeder (Coleman) – Easy to push in a straight line – Precise seed placement – Accurate depth adjustments – Easy to fill and empty – Flexible and adaptable – Visible seed level and seed drop – Dependable row marker
  27. 27. Direct Seeding • Broadcast seeders – Useful for cover crops • Precision seeders – Earthway seeder • Lightweight, inexpensive • Plate seeder – Jang seeder • Expensive • Roller seeder – Planet Junior seeder • Plate seeder – Johnny’s Six Row • Plant multiple rows at same time • Close spacing on rows • Can offset the handle Planet Junior Seeder
  28. 28. Transplanting • Can be done by hand on small scale farms • Mechanical transplanters – Generally drawn by 4 wheel tractors – Can be custom work, but timing is critical
  29. 29. Cultivation • Weed control is critical to farm profitability • Large cost associated with weed control or lack of control • Minimize weed growth in both short and long term
  30. 30. Cultivation • Cultural practices – Cover cropping – Stale seedbeds – Mulching – Mowing • Chemical control practices – Preemergent herbicides – Postemergent herbicides • Mechanical cultivation – “steel in the field”
  31. 31. Cultivation – Hand Tools • Upright draw hoes – Longer handles allow for reach and proper hand positioning – Types • Coliner hoe • Swan neck hoe • Half moon hoe • Diamond hoe • Stirrup hoe
  32. 32. Cultivation – Hand Tools • Wheel hoes – Different cultivation implements can be attached – Allows upright position while cultivating – May have one or two wheels – Smaller wheeled types are easier to direct and less tiring
  33. 33. Cultivation – Mechanical • For many small farms, production efficiency begins with a cultivating tractor – Many brands designed for accuracy of cultivation – Broad range of implements for cultivation • Sweeps • Discs • Torsion hoes • Brush hoes • Spider wheels • Finger weeders • S-tines • Basket weeders • Rolling cultivators • Others
  34. 34. Spraying, Pest Control • Backpack sprayers – Calibration is an issue • Battery powered sprayers
  35. 35. Harvest • Field knives, scissors, pruners • Hand boxes • Bucket and bins • Carts • Specialized equipment – Diggers – Greens harvesters – Green bean harvesters
  36. 36. Postharvest • Bulk tank • Grading/sorting tables • Greens washer • Roots washer • Refrigeration • Packing containers
  37. 37. Postharvest Greens washer Roots washer
  38. 38. Transport and Delivery • Pickup truck or van
  39. 39. Other Considerations • Small versions of many handtools (hoes, forks, trowels) are available for small jobs • Remember that a good quality tool doesn’t cost, it pays! • Remember marketing needs – scales, register, tents, tables, displays
  40. 40. Other Considerations • Production structures – when do you need them? – Low tunnels – Caterpillar tunnels – High tunnels – Heated greenhouses • When do you need a 4 wheel tractor? – General thought – more than 4 acres – When you don’t want to rely on custom work
  41. 41. Questions? • Patrick Byers • MU Extension – Greene County • 2400 S. Scenic Springfield, MO 65807 • 417-881-8909 • byerspl@missouri.edu

×