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Metaskills Maturity for Future Workplaces - SDS presentation


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An overview of my PhD research on metaskill development in the workplace, presented to SDS PhD students in June 2020.

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Metaskills Maturity for Future Workplaces - SDS presentation

  1. 1. Metaskills Maturity for Future Workplaces KATHERINE STEPHEN K.STEPHEN@NAPIER.AC.UK | @METASKILLSPHD
  2. 2. Overview  What are metaskills?  Context  Research question and participants  Underpinning philosophies  Proposed methods  CoVID-19 challenges  Potential contributions to knowledge
  3. 3. What are metaskills? “Timeless, higher order skills” (SDS, 2018) “Faculties linked to communications, critical thinking, interpersonal communications, and leadership” (Finch et al, 2013) “Higher-order skills that enable effective use of pre-existing skills” (Grace et al, 2016) “Collateral competencies that aid in the computation and recomputation of goal trajectories across changing environments and over time” (Karoly, 1993)
  4. 4. Metaskills – Definitions 1. Abbreviation for metacognitive skill - the ability to use introspection to further develop your learning, thinking and understanding (cognitive) capabilities. 2. Skills above/beyond skills - higher-order skills that are applicable across domains and disciplines, leading you to improve or accumulate ‘hard skills’ through having built up a metaskill within one or more other ‘hard skills’.
  5. 5. Why do we need metaskills? Jobs are changing – not the roles themselves, but the tasks within those roles (Hirschi, 2018) Technical requirements within roles are changing rapidly (Gleason, 2018) Learning will therefore need to happen in the workplace • ‘Just-In-Time’ training • Self-directed learning Confidence in individual learning processes is paramount • Self-reflection • Self-positioning • Understanding and monitoring own knowledge levels
  6. 6. Psychological instruments: • Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich et al, 1991) • Self-Directed Learning Orientation scale (Gijbels et al, 2012) • Self-Regulated Learning in the Workplace Questionnaire (Fontana et al, 2015) • Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (Schraw and Dennison, 1994) Qualitative approaches: • Observations in online learning environments (Winne and Hadwin, 2013) – motivation, self- regulation • Reflective exercises (Lyubomirsky and Della Porta, 2010) - resilience • Peer feedback (Kyndt et al, 2009) – experiential learning Existing studies
  7. 7. 1. Metaskills 2. Development 3. Workplaces Pedagogy Experience Andragogy Heutagogy Teacher-led Tacit knowledge Reflection Adaptability Metacognition Phronesis Outside Home Factory Physical Non-physical Online Offline Institution (e.g. education, justice) Office Public-facing How do these capabilities (1) filter through these processes (2) in these situations (3)? Nus
  8. 8. Participants Graduate apprentices: • Early Learning and Childcare • Accounting • Data Science • Software Engineering Reasoning: • Access • Mode of learning • Scottish context
  9. 9. Underpinning Philosophies Social constructivism Feminist Standpoint • Truth is built by and between individuals • Context will alter what reality is • Guided by actions and perceptions • Legitimisation of knowledge has been restricted to those with privilege • Those without privilege have more insight into their own realities
  10. 10. Methods: Workplace studies (Suchman, 1995; Heath, Knoblauch and Luff, 2000) • Making work visible • Triangulation of methods : surveys, ethnographic observation, interviews • Typical focus on physical workplaces and processes • In my research: investigating apprentices’ understanding of intentional experiential learning
  11. 11. Methods: Institutional Ethnography (Smith, 2005) • Institutions as organised by texts • Document analysis and interviews • Typical focus on ‘fault lines’ or ‘disjunctures’ • In my research: analysing interpretations of a metaskills assessment matrix
  12. 12. Methods: The Imitation Game Participant One: Apprentice (pretender) Participant Two: existing employee/s (expert) Question setter (expert) Judge (expert) (Collins and Evans, 2014) Forms judgement on who is the ‘pretender’ • Typical focus on practice language and expertise • In my research: newcomers to workplace culture
  13. 13. Covid-19 Challenges Practicalities • How do I observe people interacting in the workplace when the workplace involves no interaction? • Participants need Internet connection and perhaps software Contexts • Everyone is adapting to new workplace cultures, not just newcomers Relevance • If the situations I describe only last for the duration of my study, is the research any use?
  14. 14. Contributions to knowledge Metaskills definition: • Gathering and analysing existing literature to create validated, workable definitions Methodologies: • Using sociological perspectives to build on existing psychological ideas • Qualitative enquiries into what apprentice participants understand about metaskills – both as a concept, and their own level Policies: • Creating best practice ideas for Scottish workplaces to enable workers to be confident about transitions
  15. 15. Thank you for listening!  Katherine Stephen  | @metaskillsphd
  16. 16. References Beckett, D., Agashae, Z., & Oliver, V. (2002). Just‐in‐time training: techne meets phronesis. Journal of Workplace Learning. Collins, H., & Evans, R. (2014). Quantifying the tacit: The imitation game and social fluency. Sociology, 48(1), 3-19. Finch, D., Nadeau, J. and O’Reilly, N. (2013). The Future of Marketing Education: A Practitioner’s Perspective. Journal of Marketing Education, [online] 35(1), pp.54–67. Available at: Fontana, R. P., Milligan, C., Littlejohn, A., & Margaryan, A. (2015). Measuring self‐regulated learning in the workplace. International Journal of Training and Development, 19(1), 32-52. Gijbels D., Raemdonck I., Vervecken D., Van Herck J. (2012) What Keeps Low- and High-Qualified Workers Competitive: Exploring the Influence of Job Characteristics and Self-Directed Learning Orientation on Work-Related Learning. In: Van den Bossche P., Gijselaers W., Milter R. (eds) Learning at the Crossroads of Theory and Practice. Advances in Business Education and Training, vol 4. Springer, Dordrecht Grace, S., Orrock, P., Vaughan, B., Blaich, R. and Coutts, R. (2016). Understanding clinical reasoning in osteopathy: a qualitative research approach. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies, 24(1). Heath, C., Knoblauch, H., & Luff, P. (2000). Technology and social interaction: the emergence of ‘workplace studies’. The British journal of sociology, 51(2), 299-320.
  17. 17. References (cont’d) Karoly, P. (1993). Mechanisms of self-regulation: A systems view. Annual Review of Psychology, 44(1), 23- 52. Kizilcec, R.F., Pérez-Sanagustín, M. and Maldonado, J.J. (2016). Recommending Self-Regulated Learning Strategies Does Not Improve Performance in a MOOC. Proceedings of the Third (2016) ACM Conference on Learning @ Scale - L@S ’16. Kyndt, E., Dochy, F., Nijs, H. (2009) Learning conditions for non‐formal and informal workplace learning. Journal of Workplace Learning. 21 (5). Lyubomirsky, S. and Della Porta, M.D. (2010). Boosting happiness, buttressing resilience. Handbook of Adult Resilience, pp.450-464. Pintrich, P.R. (1991). A Manual for the use of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Of Michigan. Schraw, G., & Dennison, R. S. (1994). Assessing metacognitive awareness. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 19(4), 460-475. Skills Development Scotland (2018). Skills 4.0. [online] Skills Development Scotland. Available at: Smith, D. E. (2005). Institutional ethnography: A sociology for people. Rowman Altamira. Suchman, L. (1995). Making work visible. Communications of the ACM, 38(9), 56-64. Winne, P.H. and Hadwin, A.F. (2013). nStudy: Tracing and Supporting Self-Regulated Learning in the Internet. In: International handbook of metacognition and learning technologies. New York, Ny: Springer.