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Effects of Porn Use

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Presenter: Mary Anne Layden PhD

We know that with the advent of the Internet, pornography is now pervasive and easily available. But do we know its impact? Research indicates that it affects the attitudes and behaviors of men, women, and children in a scope of outcomes from sexual callousness to child molestation. These outcomes can devastate individuals and relationships, damaging marriages and families and ultimately society. Understanding of these outcomes is the first step to setting us all free from these catastrophic consequences.

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Effects of Porn Use

  1. 1. Effects of Porn Use Mary Anne Layden, Ph D Director Sexual Trauma and Psychopathology Program Center for Cognitive Therapy Department of Psychiatry University of Pennsylvania layden@mail.med.upenn.edu
  2. 2. What’s the problem?
  3. 3. Pornified The Society has become Pornified
  4. 4. Pornified Sex is a product The body is a commodity
  5. 5. Pornified If it is a product, You can sell it You can steal it
  6. 6. Selling it is Sexual Exploitation Industry Stealing it is Sexual Violence
  7. 7. Pornified Sexual Exploitation Industry And Sexual Violence are a Seamless Interconnected Continuum
  8. 8. Pornified Pornography is visual invasion for money
  9. 9. Pornified Strip clubs are live visual invasion for money
  10. 10. Pornified Prostitution is live visual and physical invasion for money
  11. 11. Pornified Rape is live visual and physical invasion by force/without consent
  12. 12. Pornified Child rape is live visual and physical invasion of a child by force/without consent
  13. 13. Pornified Sex Trafficking is live visual and physical invasion for money by force/without consent
  14. 14. Pornified Seamless Interconnected Continuum
  15. 15. What’s causing these problem?
  16. 16. Learning
  17. 17. Learning • Pictures are compact carriers of meaning. • Learning is deeper if we are rewarded for behavior. The orgasm is very rewarding. • Learning is deeper if we have role models who are rewarded for behaviors.
  18. 18. Learning • Learning is deeper in the presence of arousal. • Antisocial behaviors are learned and expressed more if we are anonymous.
  19. 19. Learning Pictures Rewards Role models Aroused Anonymous
  20. 20. Learning Pornography Especially Internet Pornography Is the Perfect Learning Environment
  21. 21. Learning Except that everything it teaches you is a lie
  22. 22. Learning Psychologist’s call Internet Pornography the new Crack Cocaine
  23. 23. What is it teaching us?
  24. 24. Permission-Giving Beliefs
  25. 25. Permission-Giving Beliefs • Pornography produces Permission-Giving Beliefs • Permission-Giving Beliefs are beliefs that say what I am doing is normal, doesn’t hurt anyone, and everyone is doing it, etc. • Therefore, I don’t need to change my behavior. • Those who have a problem with my behavior are wrong, crazy, prudish.
  26. 26. Permission-Giving Beliefs Examples • All people want sex with all people all the time. • Women enjoy being raped • Women enjoy degrading sex • Children enjoy sex with adults
  27. 27. Mis-education about Sex
  28. 28. Mis-education about Sex • Sex is not about intimacy, caring, love or respect • Sex is not about marriage or having children • Sex is recreation. • You don’t need to know your partner. • Sex with strangers is the best and most intense kind of sex
  29. 29. Mis-education about Sex • Sex is adversarial • Pornography is a one-way street with focus only on one's own pleasure. There is no need to consider the others needs or feelings. • Women’s bodies are just sexual entertainment for men.
  30. 30. Mis-education about Sex • Internet Pornography tends to be designer sex. You keep clicking until you find the idealized image or the preferred image of the moment. Expecting perfect and arrangable (“clickable”) body types is unrealistic and leads to dissatisfaction in real relationships.
  31. 31. Mis-education about Sex • Pornography includes performers who never say no and never reject sexual advances. • This can – Increase unrealistic expectations about others – Entitlement to have sex – Increase frustration with others who do say no – reduce the awareness and skill of noticing the unwillingness of partners
  32. 32. What are the effects of this teaching?
  33. 33. Pornified Thinking
  34. 34. What pornified men think • That women enjoy rape • That she “got what she wanted” when she was raped • That women make false accusations of rape • More acceptance of the rape myth • That rapists deserve less time in prison
  35. 35. Male Subjects Recommendation for Rape Months of Incarceration (3 weeks after exposure to pornography) 94 78 50 0 20 40 60 80 100 Male Incarceration Recommendation for Rape (in months) None Half Massive
  36. 36. What pornified men think • They have an adversarial view of sex • They have more sexually callous beliefs
  37. 37. Male Subjects Sexual Callousness toward Women (3 weeks after exposure to pornography) 10.5 15.6 23.8 0 5 10 15 20 25 Sexual Callousness toward Women None Half Massive
  38. 38. What pornified men think They have increased estimates of how often others: • group sex • sex with animals • sex with violence
  39. 39. Projections of Others Sexual Behaviors (percent; 3 weeks after exposure to pornography) 10.9 18.2 30.2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Group Sex None Half Massive
  40. 40. Projections of Others Sexual Behaviors (percent; 3 weeks after exposure to pornography) 6.6 7.9 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Bestiality None Half Massive
  41. 41. Projections of Others Sexual Behaviors (percent; 3 weeks after exposure to pornography) 7.4 8.4 14.8 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Sadomasochism None Half Massive
  42. 42. What pornified men think • They are more accepting of violence against women • They use more sexual terms to describe women • They see women as sex objects • They have reduced support for the women’s liberation movement
  43. 43. Male Subjects Support for the Female Liberation Movement (percent; 3 weeks after exposure to pornography) 71 48 25 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Male Support for the Female Liberation Movement None Half Massive
  44. 44. What pornified men think • They rate their partners as less attractive • They are less satisfied with their partner’s sexual performance
  45. 45. What pornified men think • They have a greater desire for sex without emotional involvement • They have a greater acceptance of sex outside of marriage for married individuals • They have a greater acceptance of sex before marriage • They are less child centered during marriage • They are less desiring of female children
  46. 46. What pornified men think • They are more willing to have sex with 13-14 year olds • They are more sexually attracted to children • They are less likely to think pornography needs to be restricted from children
  47. 47. Evaluation of Pornography and Recommendation for Accessibility (percent; 3 weeks after exposure to pornography) 83.5 53.6 36.8 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Need to restrict from minors None Half Massive
  48. 48. Evaluation of Pornography and Recommendation for Accessibility (Percent; 3 weeks after exposure to pornography) 75.2 42.9 26.3 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Offensive None Half Massive
  49. 49. Evaluation of Pornography and Recommendation for Accessibility (percent; 3 weeks after exposure to pornography) 70.1 47.3 28.9 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Pornographic None Half Massive
  50. 50. What pornified men think The increasing use of pornography is related to higher psychopath scores
  51. 51. Pornified Behavior
  52. 52. How pornified men behave Sexual dysfunction • Erectile dysfunction • Premature ejaculation • Retarded ejaculation • 58% of male pornography users (average age 25) had erectile dysfunction with women but not with pornography.
  53. 53. How pornified men behave • They have more sex partners • They are less interested in actual sex with their partners • They try to get their partners to act out scenes from pornographic films
  54. 54. How pornified men behave • They have affairs if they are married • They go to prostitutes
  55. 55. How pornified men behave In 19-21 year-old males almost 25% said that they had either gone to a prostitute already or planned to in the future.
  56. 56. How pornified men behave The more pornography they used the more they were willing to engage in unusual sex practices such as sadomasochism, if they thought they would not get caught
  57. 57. How pornified men behave Men who go to strip clubs are more likely to engage in non-consensual sex than those who do not go to strip clubs
  58. 58. How pornified men behave • engage in behavioral aggression • sexually abuse partners whom they have battered
  59. 59. How pornified men behave • They use violent sexual fantasies to get themselves aroused • They are more likely to sexually harass women
  60. 60. How pornified men behave • They engage in date rape • They engage in stranger rape • They engage in marital rape
  61. 61. How pornified men behave • They verbally coerce sex • They physically coerce sex • They use drugs and alcohol to coerce sex
  62. 62. How pornified men behave • The earlier male children are exposed to pornography, the more likely they are to engage in non-consensual sex as young adults.
  63. 63. How pornified men behave • Men who have been convicted of using child pornography later admitted that they sexually abused children as well.
  64. 64. How pornified men behave The diagnosis of Pedophilia is more often found in child pornography users than in child rapists.
  65. 65. How pornified men behave The factors that have been identified that are connected to sexual violence: • Hostility toward women • Sex is a casual, non-intimate, recreational, adversarial behavior • Use of pornography
  66. 66. How pornified men behave • 1 in 8 women are raped • 25% of college females experience a rape or attempted rape • 50% of women will be sexually harassed at some point in their life • By the time a female is 18 years old, 38% have been sexually molested
  67. 67. Pornified Women
  68. 68. Pornified Women Women who were exposed to pornography as children are • More likely to accept the rape myth. • More likely to have sexual fantasies that involve rape.
  69. 69. Pornified Women Women exposed to pornography: • Think rapists deserve less time in prison
  70. 70. Female Subjects Recommendation for Rape Months of Incarceration (3 weeks after exposure to pornography) 144 101 77 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Female Incarceration Recommendation for Rape (in months) None Half Massive
  71. 71. Pornified Women Women exposed to pornography: • Have reduced support for the women’s liberation movement
  72. 72. Female Subjects Support for the Female Liberation Movement (percent; 3 weeks after exposure to pornography) 82 59 52 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Female Support for the Female Liberation Movement None Half Massive
  73. 73. Pornified Women • They were more negative about their body • They believe that their partners are more critical of the women’s bodies • They had less sex
  74. 74. Pornified Women The more pornography young adult females use the more likely they are to be victims of non- consensual sex.
  75. 75. Pornified Kids
  76. 76. Pornified Kids Minors (<18) exposed to sexualized media (both pornography and sexualized TV) are more likely to: • Have engaged in oral sex • Have engaged in anal sex • Have engaged in sexual intercourse
  77. 77. Pornified Kids Minors (<18) exposed to sexualized media (both pornography and sexualized TV) are more likely to: • Have earlier initiation of sex • Have more sex partners • Have had more than one sexual partner in the last 3 months • Have sex more frequently
  78. 78. Pornified Kids Minors (<18) exposed to sexualized media (both pornography and sexualized TV) are more likely to: • Have more negative attitudes toward using condoms • Have not used contraception during the last intercourse • Have not used contraception in the past 6 months
  79. 79. Pornified Kids Minors (<18) exposed to sexualized media (both pornography and sexualized TV) are more likely to: • Have a strong desire to conceive • To become pregnant
  80. 80. Pornified Kids Minors (<18) exposed to sexualized media (both pornography and sexualized TV) are more likely to: • Test positive for Chlamydia • Have used alcohol or other substances at last sexual encounter • Have higher sexual permissiveness scores • Have less progressive gender role attitudes
  81. 81. Pornified Kids Minors (<18) exposed to sexualized media (both pornography and sexualized TV) are more likely to: • More likely to engage in sexual harassment • More likely to engage in more non-consensual sex
  82. 82. Pornified Performers
  83. 83. Pornified Performers Is this an “industry”? Is this a “job”?
  84. 84. Pornified Performers Abuse of Strippers by Customers • 91% Verbally abused • 52% Called cunt • 61% Called whore • 85% Called bitch • 88% Arm grabbed • 73% Breast grabbed • 91% Buttocks grabbed
  85. 85. Pornified Performers • 27% Hair pulled • 58% Pinched • 24% Slapped • 36% Bitten • 76% Customers flicked cigarettes, ice, coins • 70% Customers followed them home • 42% Customers stalked them
  86. 86. Pornified Performers Abuse of Strippers by Managers/Staff • 85% Verbally or physically abused • 21% Called cunt • 18% Called slut • 33% Called bitch • 12% Pinched • 12% Slapped
  87. 87. Pornified Performers Women who work in the sexual exploitation industry have about a 25% chance of making a marriage that lasts as long as 3 years.
  88. 88. Pornified Performers Prostitution
  89. 89. Prostituted Females Have been or currently are homeless 84%
  90. 90. Prostituted Females Sexually abused as a child 55%-90%
  91. 91. Prostituted Females Prostituted women who are physically assaulted 70-95% Physically assaulted by a customer 55%
  92. 92. Prostituted Females Prostituted women who received head injuries 77%
  93. 93. Prostituted Females Threatened with a weapon 64%
  94. 94. Prostituted Females Prostituted women who die from murder 29%-100% Death rate is 40 X’s higher than the general population
  95. 95. Prostituted Females Drug abuse problems 75% Alcohol abuse 27% Duration 3 months to 30 years
  96. 96. Prostituted Females Raped 73%-85% Raped more than 5 times 48%
  97. 97. Prostituted Females Post Traumatic Stress Disorder 68% Want to commit suicide 5%
  98. 98. Pornified Performers Strippers Prostitutes Sexual abuse 65% 55% Multiple personality disorder 35% 5 % Borderline Personality Disorder 55% 11% Depression 60% 60% Substance abuse 40% 80%
  99. 99. Prostituted Females Wish to leave prostitution 87%
  100. 100. Prostituted Females
  101. 101. Prostituted Females
  102. 102. Prostituted Females
  103. 103. Prostituted Females
  104. 104. Prostituted Females
  105. 105. Prostituted Females
  106. 106. Prostituted Females
  107. 107. Prostituted Females
  108. 108. Prostituted Females
  109. 109. Prostituted Females
  110. 110. Prostituted Females The average age for entry into prostitution is 13.
  111. 111. Why do they do it?
  112. 112. Why do they do it? Permission-Giving Beliefs
  113. 113. Why do they do it? Permission-giving beliefs •Sex is a right (Sexual entitlement) •Sex is a need (Myth of need) •My pleasure is more important than someone else’s pain (Sexual narcissism) •Male sexuality is so powerful that you can’t control it (Myth of male sexuality) •The sexual exploitation industry doesn’t cause any problems (Denial)
  114. 114. Why do they do it? I have a right to meet my “needs” in the most pleasurable way possible even if it hurts someone else but it doesn’t hurt anyone
  115. 115. Why do they do it? Tool Brain
  116. 116. Why do they do it? Brain Imaging Studies Pornography Use • Teen brain • Cocaine brain • Less gray matter • Less brain sensitivity to sexual stimuli • Less connectivity
  117. 117. Why do they do it? Brain arousal (amygdala) Shuts down the executive/rational brain (prefrontal cortex)
  118. 118. Why do they do it? Blocking of the disgust response
  119. 119. What will solve the problem?
  120. 120. De-Pornified
  121. 121. De-pornified Many types of solutions • Solutions that fix the problems • Solutions that prevent the problems • Solutions that target victims • Solutions that target perpetrators • Solutions for yourself • Solutions for the society
  122. 122. De-pornified The solutions you pick send a message Be careful of the message you are sending or believing
  123. 123. De-pornified Legal Solutions
  124. 124. De-pornified Encourage the FCC to enforce the decency laws (First enforcement in 8 years happened on 3/23/2015)
  125. 125. De-pornified Encourage the Department of Justice to enforce the laws against obscenity. Re-establish the obscenity prosecution team
  126. 126. De-pornified When you legalize behavior or when you do not enforce a law, you send the message that the behavior is ok and doesn’t hurt anybody so go ahead and do it
  127. 127. De-pornified Pornography laws in Australia and rape Increase in rape South Australia 284% liberal laws on pornography. Queensland 23% conservative laws on pornography.
  128. 128. De-pornified Hawaii laws on pornography State laws became less restrictive, then more restrictive, then less restrictive. The rape rate went up, then went down, then went up again.
  129. 129. De-pornified • Oklahoma City closed 150 SOB’s in the county 26% drop in rape • Tulsa closed no SOB’S in the county 0% drop in rape
  130. 130. De-pornified Bad “Solutions” Netherlands 1996 4000 prostituted children 2001 15,000 prostituted children (5000 trafficked in from Nigeria) 80% of women are trafficked Legalized prostitution
  131. 131. De-pornified Bad “Solutions” Germany 1996 60,000-200,000 Prostituted women 2004 400,000 Prostituted women 90% from foreign countries Legalized prostitution
  132. 132. De-pornified Sweden 1999 2500 prostituted women (650 on the street) 2002 1500 prostituted women 2008 300 prostituted women on the street 300 prostituted women on the Internet Criminalized the purchase of sex
  133. 133. De-pornified Sweden 1996 13.6% of men said they had bought sex 2008 8% of men said they had bought sex 70% had a positive view of the ban (greatest among young people)
  134. 134. De-pornified Sweden Approximately 60% of buyers reported a feeling of guilt or shame after buying sex
  135. 135. De-pornified In the US, arresting men who prostituted women reduced the likelihood of future prostituting arrests by 70%
  136. 136. De-pornified What would deter men from buying sex • Being added to the sex offender registry 89% • Having your picture and/or name on a billboard 86% • Having your picture and/or name in the local newspaper 84% • Having to spend time in jail 79% • Having your picture and/or name posted on the Internet 78% • A letter being sent to your family saying you were arrested 77% • Greater criminal penalties 72% • Having your car impounded 70%
  137. 137. Activist strategies
  138. 138. De-pornified Media • Do interviews • Thank reporters who do good articles • Email concerns to reporters who give mis- information • Send information to reporters
  139. 139. De-pornified Focus on self interest first • Erectile dysfunction
  140. 140. De-pornified Don’t make your vote invisible Increase the realization of how many groups are protesting. If the target (reporter, Senator, business, etc) has already heard the “moral argument”, talk about crime. If they have already heard the “legal argument”, talk about social problems.
  141. 141. De-pornified Change your language • Sexual Exploitation Industry: Making money by hurting women and men and children • Women are prostituted; not prostitutes
  142. 142. De-pornified Golden rule Would you want your wife, your daughter, your sister, your mother to be a part of the sexual exploitation industry? You want someone else’s wife, someone else’s daughter, someone else’s sister, someone else’s mother to do that.
  143. 143. Social Solutions
  144. 144. Challenge the Pornography of Everyday Life
  145. 145. De-pornified Put your money where your heart is
  146. 146. De-pornified Don’t only focus on the worst offenders (i.e., pornography companies) Don’t ignore the “lighter” end (i.e., Victoria’s Secret) People assume when you are targeting a certain level of a problem that anything “less bad” than that is ok. If you only target the impact on children, then they assume that it doesn’t hurt adults.
  147. 147. De-pornified Examples • AT & T, Verizon • Comcast, Direct TV, Dish Network • Backpage.com • Hooters Restaurant • Victoria’s Secret Catalog and Stores • Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue • Dirty Dozen List
  148. 148. De-pornified Personal Solutions
  149. 149. De-pornified • Therapy • Bystander intervention programs • Empathy training programs
  150. 150. De-pornified • Filtering software • Accountability software • Online programs
  151. 151. Teach the Children Well
  152. 152. De-pornified Ask young people What kind of partner do you want have? What kind of partner do you want to be?
  153. 153. Father’s Advice Don't Follow Your Peers If your friends try to talk you into coming along with them to a strip club, please say NO. These places only serve to objectify women. The men who frequent those places consider women as property and not individuals with needs and feelings. Also, it may seem funny when your friends talk about "banging" women as if they're a piece of meat, but I assure you it's anything but funny. Capturing a woman's heart is a valuable and appreciated skill; treating her like a "conquest" is an immature fantasy.
  154. 154. Father’s Advice Beware Of What You Allow Into Your Eyes And Mind Men are visual creatures, and nothing arouses men more than pornography. Some might say it's harmless, but the truth is, the more you watch or read porn, the more you'll be desensitized to the actual physical experience of making love. It will blind you to the real wonders of a woman's body. Nothing on this earth is more amazing then the real touch of a woman who loves you and wants you.
  155. 155. Father’s Advice Don't Accept A Cheap Thrill One-night-stands may seem exciting in the moment, but you're usually left with a ton of regret in the morning. You'll be tempted to sleep with as many women as you can because you'll want to "prove" something about yourself. There's nothing to prove. Although your friends and the media will disagree with me, it's more of an achievement to sleep with one woman a thousand ways than to sleep with a thousand women
  156. 156. Father’s Advice Make Love, Not Sex Nothing really compares to the mind-blowing experience of making love with the one special woman you deeply care about. When you are fully present physically and emotionally, that's making love. Sex is just a physical experience. Having sex may feel good, but making love is heaven on earth. Take time to nurture a relationship. Be friends first and foremost. It will be so worth it.
  157. 157. National Center on Sexual Exploitation http://endsexualexploitation.org/ www.PornHarms.org
  158. 158. Pornography threatens the loss of love in a world where only love brings happiness Roger Scruton
  159. 159. Let us see what love can do William Penn
  160. 160. layden@mail.med.upenn.edu

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