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Assistant Professor, School of Optometry, Université de Montréal, Canada
Resident Researcher, CRIR/Centre de réadaptation Lethbridge-Layton-Mackay du CIUSSS du Centre-Ouest-de-l’Île-de-Montréal
Resident Researcher, CRIR/Institut Nazareth et Louis-Braille du CISSS de la Montérégie-Centre
Adjunct Professor, School of Physical and Occupational Therapy, McGill University
Affiliate Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Concordia University
Director, Vision Impairment & Rehabilitation Axis, Quebec Vision Health Research Network
Chair, Research Network, Deafblind International
Dual Sensory Loss
And Assistive Technology Use
In The Canadian Longitudinal Study On Aging
Walter Wittich, PhD FAAO CLVT
Meet the team – CCNA Team 17
Interventions at the Sensory and Cognitive Interface.
Our Post-docs
Anni Hämäläinen
Andrea Urqueta Alfaro
Nathalie Giroud
Our Trainees
Sana Rehan
Maksim Parfyonov
Samantha Layson
Faisal Al-Yawer
Lebo Kolisang
Our Staff
Samantha Bishundayal
Karine Elalouf
http://ccna-ccnv.ca/www.ccnateam17.ca
Why study Dual Sensory Impairment & Aging?
• 1+1 does NOT equal 2
• DSI & Cognition
• DSI & Social Isolation
• DSI & Rehabilitation
• DSI & Policy
• DSI & …
Wittich, W., & Simcock, P. (2019). Aging and combined vision and hearing loss. In J. Ravenscroft (Ed.),
The Routledge Handbook of Visual Impairment (pp. 438–456). London ; New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.
DSI Prevalence
• Population stats 0.2% to 2%
depending on development stats
of country
• Aging stats: Age 50+ around 5%
• Using VA and dB HL
• Higher in sub-populations
• Residential care
• Rural populations
• Those with hip fractures
World Federation of the Deafblind. (2018)
And it matters …but this does not always replicate
– smell may be a better indicator!
Impairments in hearing and vision
impact on mortality in older
people
CLSA baseline data (collection finished 2015)
• Comprehensive cohort
• ~ 30 000 participants (English- & French-speakers)
• Home visit, data collection site visit (interviews + functional testing)
• >4000 variables recorded
• Age @ baseline 45-85 years
• Representative sample around 11 data collection sites
• Provide BOTH
• performance/behaviour-based and self-report
• vision & hearing data
n = 29,002 (96.4%)
Vision and Hearing in the CLSA
• Hearing - performance-based
• Automated pure tone
audiometry in quiet room at
frequencies 500, 1000, 2000,
3000, 4000, 6000, 8000 Hz
• Hearing – self-report
• Is your hearing, using a
hearing aid if you use one…
• Excellent, Very good, Good,
Fair, Poor
• Do you find it difficult to
follow a conversation if there
is background noise, such as
TV, radio or children playing,
even if using a hearing aid as
usual?
• Yes, No
Vision and Hearing in the CLSA
• Vision - performance-based
• Habitual correction visual acuity,
ETDRS @ 2 meters
• Pinhole-correction visual acuity,
ETDRS @ 2 meters
• Vision - self-report
• Is your eyesight, using glasses or
corrective lenses if you use them…
• Excellent, Very good, Good, Fair, Poor
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XaR_era5IMg&t=5s
Our definitions of behavioural VI, HI, DSI
• Vision impairment (binocular/habitual correction):
• ≥ 0.2 logMAR – mild VI (clinical interest) – 20/32 or 6/10
• > 0.3 logMAR – common in epidemiology – 20/40 or 6/12
• > 0.48 logMAR – WHO for moderate VI – 20/60 or 6/18
• Hearing impairment (unaided):
• 25.1-40 dB HL – WHO mild HI
• 40.1-59.9 dB HL – WHO moderate HI
• ≥ 60 dB HL – WHO severe HI
• Dual Sensory Impairment:
• >25 dB HL (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) and ≥ 0.2 logMAR; Mild/Mild
• >25 dB HL (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) and > 0.3 logMAR; Mild/Common
• >40 dB HL (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) and > 0.3 logMAR; Moderate/Common
• [ >40 dB HL (1, 2, 3 and 4 kHz) and > 0.48 logMAR => n = 89 ] Moderate/Moderate
Results
• Data distribution & prevalence
• Subjective reports versus behavioural measures
• Vision
• Hearing
• DSI
• Why it is important to use both in combination !
• What do we know about assistive device use?
How prevalent is vision, hearing, and dual sensory
loss (DSL)?
Wittich et al., ARVO 2018, Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 59 (9), 1068 Wittich et al., 2012, Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics, 32(3), 242-251
Normal Mild Moderate/Severe
Hearing Loss
Moderate/
Sever
Vision Loss
Mild
Vision Loss
Normal
Vision
Pure Tone Average (better ear, uncorrected)
VisualAcuity(logMAR)
> 25 dB HL
> 40 dB HL
>= 0.4 logMAR
>= 0.2 logMAR
Prevalence of hearing and vision loss
according to age and sex
• Dashed lines: prevalence COUNT (left axis)
• Solid lines: prevalence PROPORTION (right axis)
• Red: Females; Blue: Males
• Dashed lines: prevalence COUNT (left axis)
• Solid lines: prevalence PROPORTION (right axis)
• Red: Females; Blue: Males
-.50.511.5
Excellent Very good Good Fair Poor or non-existent/blind
-.50.511.5
Excellent Very good Good Fair Poor or non-existent/blind
-.50.511.5
Excellent Very good Good Fair Poor or non-existent/blind
-.50.511.5
Excellent Very good Good Fair Poor or non-existent/blind
Age 45-54 Age 65-74
Age 55-64 Age 75+
Behavioural vs. Subjective Vision Measures
VisualAcuity(logMAR)
Is your eyesight, using glasses or corrective lens if you use them…
With “normal” acuity,
you can perceive your
vision as fair or poor
With “poor” acuity,
you can perceive your
vision as excellent,
very good, or good
Blue Line =
Moderate VA loss
Orange Line =
Mild VA loss
Pure-toneAverage(dBHearingLoss)
Behavioural vs. Subjective Hearing Measures
Is your hearing, using a hearing aid if you use one…
Within a normal audiogram range, participants can provide any functional answer
Participants perceiving their hearing as poor may have almost any pure-tone average on an audiogram
The proportion of people self-reporting their
sensory status
Most CLSA participants do not perceive
any sensory impairment
N total = 29,002
The proportion of people self-reporting their
sensory loss
Slight increase in
Perceived VI with age
Slight increase in
Perceived DSI with age
Larger increase in
Perceived HI with age
N total = 29,002
The proportion of people with behavioral DSI
self-reporting their sensory loss
Remember pinhole
versus habitual correction
Have the individuals
successfully adapted?
Or are they all in denial?
Response shift:
Down-ward comparison?
Disability Paradox
(see Albrecht & Devlieger, 1999)
N total = 1,624
Comparing Behavioural vs. Subjective Measures
• Behavioural DSI (acuity & PTA)
increases exponentially with age
• Self-reported DSI slightly increases
with age
• Under age 60, behavioural measures
“under”-estimate the perceived
impairment
• Over age 60, behavioural measures
“over”-estimate the perceived
impairment
• Most people without loss do not use devices – makes sense! BUT !
• You do not need a measurable sensory loss to benefit from an assistive device
• Most people with single or dual sensory loss do NOT report using devices
Who uses Assistive Devices?
• Those with VL only use more Vision devices – makes sense
• Those with HL only use more Hearing devices, but ALSO Vision devices
• Device use by those with DSL depends on severity
Most commonly used device categories
Most commonly used HEARING devices
• Hearing aids is choice #1 of persons with hearing/dual loss
• Computer as communication aid is choice # 2
Most commonly used VISION devices
• Magnifiers are choice #1 of all persons
• Large-print books are choice # 2 for persons with vision/dual loss
Extrapolation, using census data
• In 2016, among Canadian males aged 45-85 years, approximately
570,000 males had both vision & hearing impairments.
• In 2016, among Canadian females aged 45-85 years, approximately
450,000 females had both impairments.
• Prevalence increased 8.7-16.9% between 2011 and 2016.
• Dual sensory loss prevalence proportion increased exponentially with
age.
• Men were more likely to have hearing loss and dual sensory loss,
whereas women were more likely to have vision loss only.
Next Directions
• Sensory Impairments as Multimorbidity
• Wave 2 of CLSA data:
• Predictors of sensory decline
• Predictors of cognitive decline
• Predictors of social participation/loneliness
• …
Thank you - Merci
• Collaborators
• Paul Mick (USask)
• Natalie Phillips (Concordia U)
• Kathy Pichora-Fuller (UofT)
• Dawn Guthrie (Wilfrid Laurier U)
• Kathy McGilton (UofT)
• Jean-Pierre Gagné (U Montréal)
• Post-doc
• Sarah Fraser (McGill)
• Andrea Urqueta Alfaro (UdeM)
• Anni Hämäläinen (UdeM)
• Research Assistants
– Karine Elalouf (UdeM)
– Don Watanabe (MMRC)
– Geneviève Groulx (MMRC)
– Alexandre Beaulieu (MMRC)
– Eve-Julie Rioux (IRD)
– Johanne St.-Gelais (IRD)
– Martine Gendron (IRD)
– Rollande Grondin (INLB)
– Les employées du service
des Archives de l'INLB
• Trainees
– Marie-Celine Lorenzini (UdeM)
– Natalie Martiniello (UdeM)
– Christine Lehane (UCopenhagen)
– Vanessa Bachir (UdeM)
– Elliott Morrice (Concordia U)
– Lorie St.Amour (UdeM)
Find out more about us
http://www.opto.umontreal.ca/wittichlab/en/index.html
Walter.Wittich@umontreal.ca

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DBI World Conference 2019 - Dual sensory loss and assistive technology use in the Canadian Longitudinal Study On Aging

  • 1. Assistant Professor, School of Optometry, Université de Montréal, Canada Resident Researcher, CRIR/Centre de réadaptation Lethbridge-Layton-Mackay du CIUSSS du Centre-Ouest-de-l’Île-de-Montréal Resident Researcher, CRIR/Institut Nazareth et Louis-Braille du CISSS de la Montérégie-Centre Adjunct Professor, School of Physical and Occupational Therapy, McGill University Affiliate Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Concordia University Director, Vision Impairment & Rehabilitation Axis, Quebec Vision Health Research Network Chair, Research Network, Deafblind International Dual Sensory Loss And Assistive Technology Use In The Canadian Longitudinal Study On Aging Walter Wittich, PhD FAAO CLVT
  • 2. Meet the team – CCNA Team 17 Interventions at the Sensory and Cognitive Interface. Our Post-docs Anni Hämäläinen Andrea Urqueta Alfaro Nathalie Giroud Our Trainees Sana Rehan Maksim Parfyonov Samantha Layson Faisal Al-Yawer Lebo Kolisang Our Staff Samantha Bishundayal Karine Elalouf http://ccna-ccnv.ca/www.ccnateam17.ca
  • 3. Why study Dual Sensory Impairment & Aging? • 1+1 does NOT equal 2 • DSI & Cognition • DSI & Social Isolation • DSI & Rehabilitation • DSI & Policy • DSI & … Wittich, W., & Simcock, P. (2019). Aging and combined vision and hearing loss. In J. Ravenscroft (Ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Visual Impairment (pp. 438–456). London ; New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.
  • 4. DSI Prevalence • Population stats 0.2% to 2% depending on development stats of country • Aging stats: Age 50+ around 5% • Using VA and dB HL • Higher in sub-populations • Residential care • Rural populations • Those with hip fractures World Federation of the Deafblind. (2018)
  • 5. And it matters …but this does not always replicate – smell may be a better indicator! Impairments in hearing and vision impact on mortality in older people
  • 6. CLSA baseline data (collection finished 2015) • Comprehensive cohort • ~ 30 000 participants (English- & French-speakers) • Home visit, data collection site visit (interviews + functional testing) • >4000 variables recorded • Age @ baseline 45-85 years • Representative sample around 11 data collection sites • Provide BOTH • performance/behaviour-based and self-report • vision & hearing data n = 29,002 (96.4%)
  • 7. Vision and Hearing in the CLSA • Hearing - performance-based • Automated pure tone audiometry in quiet room at frequencies 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 6000, 8000 Hz • Hearing – self-report • Is your hearing, using a hearing aid if you use one… • Excellent, Very good, Good, Fair, Poor • Do you find it difficult to follow a conversation if there is background noise, such as TV, radio or children playing, even if using a hearing aid as usual? • Yes, No
  • 8. Vision and Hearing in the CLSA • Vision - performance-based • Habitual correction visual acuity, ETDRS @ 2 meters • Pinhole-correction visual acuity, ETDRS @ 2 meters • Vision - self-report • Is your eyesight, using glasses or corrective lenses if you use them… • Excellent, Very good, Good, Fair, Poor
  • 10. Our definitions of behavioural VI, HI, DSI • Vision impairment (binocular/habitual correction): • ≥ 0.2 logMAR – mild VI (clinical interest) – 20/32 or 6/10 • > 0.3 logMAR – common in epidemiology – 20/40 or 6/12 • > 0.48 logMAR – WHO for moderate VI – 20/60 or 6/18 • Hearing impairment (unaided): • 25.1-40 dB HL – WHO mild HI • 40.1-59.9 dB HL – WHO moderate HI • ≥ 60 dB HL – WHO severe HI • Dual Sensory Impairment: • >25 dB HL (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) and ≥ 0.2 logMAR; Mild/Mild • >25 dB HL (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) and > 0.3 logMAR; Mild/Common • >40 dB HL (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) and > 0.3 logMAR; Moderate/Common • [ >40 dB HL (1, 2, 3 and 4 kHz) and > 0.48 logMAR => n = 89 ] Moderate/Moderate
  • 11. Results • Data distribution & prevalence • Subjective reports versus behavioural measures • Vision • Hearing • DSI • Why it is important to use both in combination ! • What do we know about assistive device use?
  • 12. How prevalent is vision, hearing, and dual sensory loss (DSL)? Wittich et al., ARVO 2018, Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 59 (9), 1068 Wittich et al., 2012, Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics, 32(3), 242-251 Normal Mild Moderate/Severe Hearing Loss Moderate/ Sever Vision Loss Mild Vision Loss Normal Vision Pure Tone Average (better ear, uncorrected) VisualAcuity(logMAR)
  • 13. > 25 dB HL > 40 dB HL >= 0.4 logMAR >= 0.2 logMAR Prevalence of hearing and vision loss according to age and sex • Dashed lines: prevalence COUNT (left axis) • Solid lines: prevalence PROPORTION (right axis) • Red: Females; Blue: Males
  • 14. • Dashed lines: prevalence COUNT (left axis) • Solid lines: prevalence PROPORTION (right axis) • Red: Females; Blue: Males
  • 15. -.50.511.5 Excellent Very good Good Fair Poor or non-existent/blind -.50.511.5 Excellent Very good Good Fair Poor or non-existent/blind -.50.511.5 Excellent Very good Good Fair Poor or non-existent/blind -.50.511.5 Excellent Very good Good Fair Poor or non-existent/blind Age 45-54 Age 65-74 Age 55-64 Age 75+ Behavioural vs. Subjective Vision Measures VisualAcuity(logMAR) Is your eyesight, using glasses or corrective lens if you use them… With “normal” acuity, you can perceive your vision as fair or poor With “poor” acuity, you can perceive your vision as excellent, very good, or good Blue Line = Moderate VA loss Orange Line = Mild VA loss
  • 16. Pure-toneAverage(dBHearingLoss) Behavioural vs. Subjective Hearing Measures Is your hearing, using a hearing aid if you use one… Within a normal audiogram range, participants can provide any functional answer Participants perceiving their hearing as poor may have almost any pure-tone average on an audiogram
  • 17. The proportion of people self-reporting their sensory status Most CLSA participants do not perceive any sensory impairment N total = 29,002
  • 18. The proportion of people self-reporting their sensory loss Slight increase in Perceived VI with age Slight increase in Perceived DSI with age Larger increase in Perceived HI with age N total = 29,002
  • 19. The proportion of people with behavioral DSI self-reporting their sensory loss Remember pinhole versus habitual correction Have the individuals successfully adapted? Or are they all in denial? Response shift: Down-ward comparison? Disability Paradox (see Albrecht & Devlieger, 1999) N total = 1,624
  • 20. Comparing Behavioural vs. Subjective Measures • Behavioural DSI (acuity & PTA) increases exponentially with age • Self-reported DSI slightly increases with age • Under age 60, behavioural measures “under”-estimate the perceived impairment • Over age 60, behavioural measures “over”-estimate the perceived impairment
  • 21. • Most people without loss do not use devices – makes sense! BUT ! • You do not need a measurable sensory loss to benefit from an assistive device • Most people with single or dual sensory loss do NOT report using devices Who uses Assistive Devices?
  • 22. • Those with VL only use more Vision devices – makes sense • Those with HL only use more Hearing devices, but ALSO Vision devices • Device use by those with DSL depends on severity Most commonly used device categories
  • 23. Most commonly used HEARING devices • Hearing aids is choice #1 of persons with hearing/dual loss • Computer as communication aid is choice # 2
  • 24. Most commonly used VISION devices • Magnifiers are choice #1 of all persons • Large-print books are choice # 2 for persons with vision/dual loss
  • 25. Extrapolation, using census data • In 2016, among Canadian males aged 45-85 years, approximately 570,000 males had both vision & hearing impairments. • In 2016, among Canadian females aged 45-85 years, approximately 450,000 females had both impairments. • Prevalence increased 8.7-16.9% between 2011 and 2016. • Dual sensory loss prevalence proportion increased exponentially with age. • Men were more likely to have hearing loss and dual sensory loss, whereas women were more likely to have vision loss only.
  • 26. Next Directions • Sensory Impairments as Multimorbidity • Wave 2 of CLSA data: • Predictors of sensory decline • Predictors of cognitive decline • Predictors of social participation/loneliness • …
  • 27. Thank you - Merci • Collaborators • Paul Mick (USask) • Natalie Phillips (Concordia U) • Kathy Pichora-Fuller (UofT) • Dawn Guthrie (Wilfrid Laurier U) • Kathy McGilton (UofT) • Jean-Pierre Gagné (U Montréal) • Post-doc • Sarah Fraser (McGill) • Andrea Urqueta Alfaro (UdeM) • Anni Hämäläinen (UdeM) • Research Assistants – Karine Elalouf (UdeM) – Don Watanabe (MMRC) – Geneviève Groulx (MMRC) – Alexandre Beaulieu (MMRC) – Eve-Julie Rioux (IRD) – Johanne St.-Gelais (IRD) – Martine Gendron (IRD) – Rollande Grondin (INLB) – Les employées du service des Archives de l'INLB • Trainees – Marie-Celine Lorenzini (UdeM) – Natalie Martiniello (UdeM) – Christine Lehane (UCopenhagen) – Vanessa Bachir (UdeM) – Elliott Morrice (Concordia U) – Lorie St.Amour (UdeM)
  • 28. Find out more about us http://www.opto.umontreal.ca/wittichlab/en/index.html Walter.Wittich@umontreal.ca