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Managing emerging diseases in an emerging grape-growing region - Jose Ramon Urbez-Torres, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

Grape-producing countries benefit tremendously from the major economic boost that grape and wine industries provide independent from their size. A clear example is British Columbia, where with just over 5,000 ha of cultivated grapevines (0.07% of the world total), the grape and wine industry contributes $2.2 billion dollars to Canada’s economy through sales, tourism, and job creation. Though grapes have been cultivated in BC since 1860, it was not until mid-1990s when the industry started booming. Currently, BC is home to 275 wineries producing internationally acclaimed award-winning wines thanks to its distinctive geology, topography and microclimates. However, with success also comes challenges. Grapevine hosts the largest number of pests and diseases than any other crop resulting in significant economic losses and increasing production costs. In addition, changes in climate patterns may favor in the short term the introduction and establishment of diseases not present to date in BC vineyards. The aim of this talk is to present ongoing research to better understand emerging diseases of grapevines under BC’s particular environmental conditions, and which other issues the BC industry could face in a changing climate. This research is the foundation for the development and implementation of effective management strategies.

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Managing emerging diseases in an emerging grape-growing region - Jose Ramon Urbez-Torres, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

  1. 1. Managing Emerging Diseases in An Emerging Grape Growing Region José Ramón Úrbez-Torres, Ph.D Summerland Research and Development Centre Summerland B.C. BC Agricultural Climate Adaptation Research Network December 2, 2019
  2. 2. Baco Noir Vidal Fosch Riesling Himrod Okanagan Riesling Verdelet Buffalo Cascade MuskatWatkins Sherindan De Chaunac Moore Early Diamond Chelois New Yort Bath Chancellor Niagara Concord Campbell Early Worden 1988 1,500 hectares Merlot Pinot Noir Cabernet Sauvignon Syrah / ShirazCabernet Franc Rest Red V. vinifera Red hybrids Pinot GrisChardonnay Gewürztraminer White hybrids Rest White V. vinifera Riesling Sauvignon Blanc 2018 4,200 hectares • Significant change of the BC industry after 1989 (NAFTA) - Federal pullout program: 1,200 ha of hybrids pulled-out 700 ha of Vitis vinifera planted EMERGING GRAPE-GROWING REGION
  3. 3. EMERGING GRAPE-GROWING REGION
  4. 4. Bacteria Bacterial blight Crown gall Pierce’s disease Fungi 30 fungal diseases > 120 fungal species Viruses > 70 viruses identified Highest number of viruses ever found in a single crop (J.P.P. 2014) • Vitis vinifera hosts the most pathogens of any crop (Martelli 1997) • 32 M pounds in products applied for just one disease in CA in 2011 (Sambucci et al. 2014) BIG SUCCES BRINGS BIG CHALLENGES
  5. 5. Have occurred previously but affected only a small population in isolated places or Have occurred throughout human history but have only recently been recognized as a distinct disease due to different factors US National Institutes of Health; Biological Sciences Curriculum Study. Bethesda (MD) 2007. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK20370/ • GRAPEVINE TRUNK DISEASES EMERGING DISEASES
  6. 6. • Grapevine Trunk Diseases (GTD) - Caused by fungi (Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes) - Infect grapevines primarily through wounds and openings Pruning wounds - Latent pathogens (?) - Symptoms include Slow, rapid or sudden vine decline Eventual death of the plant
  7. 7. GTD are currently considered the main biotic factor limiting both vineyard longevity and productivity worldwide
  8. 8. • Late 2000s BC starts experiencing yield and plant losses - Historically attributed to abiotic factors (winter kill/damage) - Also attributed to diseases favor by climatic conditions (Crown gall) • BC Industry priority: To investigate other possible causes
  9. 9. • Research Approach to Find Solutions for GTD in BC 1) Determine the incidence/importance of GTD in BC 2) Identification/characterization of GTD fungi prevalent in BC 3) Determine the epidemiology of GTD fungi under BC conditions 4) Use above information to develop/implement control strategies
  10. 10. 1) Incidence/importance of GTD in BC - Field surveys > 200 vineyards > 500 samples > 60.000 vines inspected • GTD vines in 95% of vineyards • Overall 10% GTD infected vines in BC • Up to 38.2% incidence in a single young vineyard (< 6 year-old) • Up to 54.5% incidence in a single mature vineyard (> 6 year-old) • High young vine decline incidence
  11. 11. 2) Identification/characterization of GTD fungi in BC - Morphological/Molecular studies (multi-locus phylogenies) • Identified > 40 GTD fungi in BC Botryosphaeria, Cadophora, Cytospora, Diaporthe, Diatrype, Diatrypella, Diplodia, Eutypa, Ilyonectria, Neofusicoccum, Phaeoacremonium, Phaeomoniella,… • Low incidence of foliar symptoms • Pathogenicity/virulence determined Neofusicoccum parvum (most virulent) Diplodia seriata (most prevalent) • Significant impact in nursery planting material Úrbez-Torres et al. 2014. Plant Disease 98:469-482 Úrbez-Torres et al. 2014. Plant Disease 98:456-468
  12. 12. Gramaje and Armengol 2011. Plant Disease 95:1040-1055 3) Epidemiology of grapevine trunk diseases - Sources of inoculum (nursery planting material)
  13. 13. • Epidemiology of grapevine trunk diseases - Health status of planting material coming to Canada - Lack of domestic production of planting material - Material imported from USA, France and Germany
  14. 14. • Fungal species associated with Grapevine Trunk Diseases - 2000: 15 fungal spp. belonging to 10 genera - 2018: 130 fungal spp. described belonging to 34 genera
  15. 15. • Development and implementation of diagnostic tools - DNA-macroarray: Simultaneous detection of 61 fungal pathogens - Young vine decline complex fungi Úrbez-Torres et al. 2015. Phytopathology 105:1373-1388
  16. 16. * Detection based on PCR using primers BOT472R / BOT100F (Ridgway et al. 2011) • Development and implementation of diagnostic tools - Nursery material evaluation in Canada using the DNA-macroarray Úrbez-Torres et al. 2017. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 56:528 150 plants evaluated (550 samples total) Incidence(%)ofYVDfungi
  17. 17. Phaeomoniella chlamydospora Dactylonectria macrodidyma Neofusicoccum parvum Phaeoacremonium minimum Cadophora luteo-olivacea Phaeomoniella chlamydospora Dactylonectria macrodidyma Neofusicoccum parvum Dactylonectria pauciseptata Cylindrocarpon obtusisporium NA-A1-3B NA-O1-5B • Development and implementation of diagnostic tools - Young vine decline fungi in asymptomatic and symptomatic tissue Úrbez-Torres et al. 2017. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 56:528
  18. 18. Phaeomoniella chlamydospora concentration varies significantly primers PchQF/PchQR adapted from Pouzoulet et al. 2017 H2O Basal end rootstock ready-to-plant nursery material • Development and implementation of diagnostic tools - Nursery material evaluation using ddPCR
  19. 19. • Management of GTD: from nursery to the vineyard - Importance of effective diagnostic/detection tools Improve health status of planting material Determine infection thresholds detrimental for young plants Can biotic/abiotic stress factors trigger disease development? Enviromental factors in cool climate regions (winter/freezing injury)
  20. 20. • Epidemiology of grapevine trunk diseases
  21. 21. Esca Department of Plant Pathology, UC Davis Perithecia and life cycle of Phaeoacremonium minimum Courtesy Dr. A. Eskalen (UC Davis) and S. Rooney-Latham (CDFA)
  22. 22. 16.5 l/min - Burkard volumetric spore traps deployed May 2014 – Sept. 2017 • Epidemiology of GTD under BC conditions
  23. 23. DNA extraction Droplet generation multiplex PCR amplification ddPCR analyses
  24. 24. Totalspores/weekAvg.T(°C)Precipitation(mm) Sp-14 Su-14 F-14 W-14/15 Sp-15 Su-15 F-15 W-15/16 Sp-16 Su-16 F-16 W-16/17 Sp-17 Su-17 * * * Úrbez-Torres et al. 2017. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 56:541-542 Botryosphaeriaceae spore trapping studies in British Columbia
  25. 25. - Industry interested in organic products 20% of the acreage farmed organic Sustainable grape-growing production in BC - Development of local biocontrol agents against GTD Identification of 8 different species of Trichoderma and 2 species of Bacillus MSc Student Jinxz Pollard 4) Development/Implementation of control strategies
  26. 26. 4) Development/Implementation of control strategies - Development of local biocontrol agents against GTD Identification of 8 different species of Trichoderma and 2 species of Bacillus % Inhibition = 𝑅1 −𝑅2 𝑅1 x 100 R1 = Distance growth by the pathogen alone R2 = Distance growth by the pathogen in presence of the biological control (Trichoderma)
  27. 27. - Data generation for registration - Field trials 2019-2023 - Evaluation of best performing chemical / biological products 4) Development/Implementation of control strategies
  28. 28. 4) Development/Implementation of control strategies - Pruning wound protection Vineyard pruned and treated on April 16, 2019 Neofusicoccum parvum (2,000 spores/wound) 24 hours 7 days 21 days 60 days
  29. 29. 4) Development/Implementation of control strategies - Managing pruning to minimize infection by GTD
  30. 30. %pruningwoundinfection 40% less infection Pruning date Pruning date %pruningwoundinfection 80% less infection BRITISH COLUMBIA Chardonnay – Inoculated with Neofusicoccum parvum (105 spores/ml) on April 16, 2017 & 18 4) Development/Implementation of control strategies - Managing pruning to minimize infection by GTD Seasonal susceptibility of grapevine pruning wounds to Botryosphaeriaceae spp. Early pruning can help to reduce infection by Botryosphaeriaceae spp. in BC Similar results obtained in Catalonia region (NE of Spain). Elena and Luque2016. Plant Disease 100:1651-1659
  31. 31. • Management of GTD: from nursery to the vineyard - Importance of understanding epidemiology at a regional level Identifying inoculum availability in the field Low/high periods of infection throughout the year - Determine optimum treatment/pruning times - Determine number of applications for best control New promising chemistry High control with biological products High level of protection for up to 60 days Understand how pruning time can reduce infection (up to 80% in BC) - Sanitation/Remedial surgery/control applied since year 1
  32. 32. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  33. 33. THANK YOU!

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